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i0|r, fernm, Jtalxan, anft Jfmittr 



B.A., LITT.D., F.R.S., F.S.A., F.C.P.S., F.C.P., 

Late Viet- President (formerly President) of the Philological Society, Member of the Mathematical Society, 
Member of the Musical Association, Honorary Member of the Council of the Tonic Sol-fa College, 

Formerly Scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge. 
Author of " Early English Pronunciation" Translator of HELMHOLTZ'S " Sensations of Tone" 


ici ls& Shillings and Sixpence. 




The letters a, 6, following the number of the page indicate first and second columns respectively. 

Preface, p. x. 

SECTION I. Speaking and Singing Contrasted, 

pp. 1-6. 
Singers and Speakers, p. la. 

(1) Singing and Speaking differ in Compass, p. la. 

(2) Singing is at Sustained, Speaking at Gliding 
Pitch, p. H. 

(3) Singing requires a Clear, Speaking an Impeded 
Passage for the Breath, p. 2. 

(4) Singing has to be Rapid or Slurred, where 
Speaking cannot be so, p. 2". 

Vowels must be arranged in Genera or Kinds, p. 2b. 
The Relations of Vowels to Pitch, p. 36. 
Effect of Pitch on the word " Peep," p. 43. 
Effect of Pitch on the word " Through," p. 5a. 
When " Peep " and " Pool " should be " Pip " and 

" Pull" prolonged, p. bb. 
Effect of Pitch on the word " Glass," p. 5b. 
Effect of Pitch on "Peep through glass," p. 5b. 
Effect of Pitch on "All on, Those, Door, Rushed, 

Panes, Fence," p. Qa. 
Results of the preceding Examination, p. 6b. 

SECTION II. Vowel Quality of Tone, pp. 7-11. 
Musical Qualities of Tone first explained by Prof. 

Helmholtz, p. 110. 
Simple Vibration, p. lla. 
Compound Vibration, p. lib. 
Simple and Compound Sounds, p. Sa. 
Experiments on Resonance. Resonance Chambers. 

Vibrational Number and Pitch, p. 8a. 
Nature of Musical Quality of Tone, p. 9a. 

Quality of Tone of the Singing Voice, p. 9*. 
Vowel Quality of Tone due to Resonance, p. 10a. 
Experiments on the Nature of Vowel Qualities of 
Tone, p. 10*. 

SECTION III. Short Key to Glossic, Diagrams. 

Systematic Arrangement of Speech -sounds, 

pp. 12-17. 

Description of the following Tables, p. 120. 
English Glossic. p. 120, b. 
Foreign Glossic, p. 130, b. 
Diagrams of Positions for Vowels and Consonants, 

p. 14. 

Descriptions of the Diagrams, p. 15, 
Systematic Arrangement of English, German, 

Italian, and French Speech-sounds, p. 16. 

SECTION IV. Mode of Producing Speech-sounds, 
pp. 18-23. 

Flatus or Audible Breath, p. ISa. 

Vocal Chords, p. 180. 

Whisper as distinguished from Flatus, p. ISb. 

Voice and Original Quality of Tone, p. ISb. 

The Resonance Cavities, p. 190. 

Brief Definitions of Breath, Flatus, Whisper, and 
Voice as Originators, and Throat, Nose, and 
Mouth as Modifiers of Sound, p. 19*. 

How to Study the Effect of the Modifiers, p. 200; 
Throat Modifications, p. 200; Nose Modifications, 
p. 20*; Mouth Modifications Action of Teeth 
and Lips, p. 220 ; Mouth Modifications Action 
of Tongue, p. 22. 

Object of these Experiments and Observations, 
p. 23*. 


SECTION V. Vowels, pp. 24-41. 

Definition of a Vowel, p. 240. 

''Genera" and "Species" of Vowels, p. 240. 

How the Forms of the Resonance Cavities for 
Vowels are to be Described, p. 250 Throat, 
p. 250 ; Nose, p. 250 ; Mouth, p. 255 ; Arches, 
p. 255; Cheeks, p. 255; Teeth, p. 255; Lips 
(open, high -round, mid -round, low-round), 
p. 260; Tongue (back, front, point or tip), 
p. 265. 

Description of Systematic Arrangement of the 
Vowels on p. 16, p. 270. 

Mode of Observing, Mirror and Probe, p. 275. 

1. High-front and High-mixed Oral Vowels, pp. 
28-29 EE, p. 280; I, p. 280; EE and I, p. 285; 
I',p. 290; TIE, p. 290; EE, I, TIE, p. 295. 

2. Mai-front Oral Vowels, pp. 30-31 AI, p. 300; 
E, p. 305; EO, OE, p. 310; I, TIE; E, OE, 
p. 315. 

3. Low-Front Oral Vowels, pp. 31-32 A, p. 315 ; 
A and AE, p. 320, and fheir Rounded Forms, 
p. 325. 

5. Mid-mixed, 6. Low-mixed, 8. Mid-back, 9. Low- 
back, Oral Vowels, pp. 32-36 AA, AH, A', 
p. 335; U, UU, p. 310; U, U', E', p. 345; 
AO, p. 350; ATI, O, p. 350; OA, AO, p. 355; 
U UU, A' AA AH, OA AO AU 0, p. 360. 

7. High-back Oral Vowels, p. 36500, p. 365; 
UE, UU', 00, O'O, p. 370; UO, U', p. 375; 
U', p. 380 ; UO', p. 380. 

The Musical Vowel Scale, p. 380 and p. 390. 

French Orinasal Vowels or Nasals, p. 395 N', 
p. 395; AEN', p. 400; AHN', p. 400; OAN', 
p. 405; OEN', p. 410. 

Character of French Nasality, p. 410. 

SECTION VI. Vowel Glides, Diphthongs, Triph- 
thongs, and Vocal K, pp. 42-55. 
The Nature of Glides. Pitch Glides, p. 420. 
Vowel Glides, p. 420. 
Temporary Symbolisation of Vowel Glides, and 

Effects of Crescendo and Diminuendo, p. 425. 
Nature of Diphthongs, p. 430. 
Permanent Symbolisation of Vowel Glides, p. 435. 

Unanalysed Glossic Diphthongs, p. 435. 

1. First Class of Diphthongs with weak EE final, 
p. 440; El English, spoken=m, 0't, permissibly 
00t, WM, never ahi, am, oat, never t aai, p. 440 ; 
El English, sung=a<n or 00-0'?, p. 445; El 
German=00 or ahee, sometimes aaiie, p. 445 ; 
El Italian, Vowel Slurs- 00-00, da-ee, p. 45; 
El French=00-ee, p. 455 ; 01 English=awt, am, 
oe, never 001, p. 455; 01 German=o, p. 455; 
OI Italian=0o-e7, p. 460 ; OI French, altered 
to ooee, p. 470. 

Abbreviated Analytic Forms for El Diphthongs, 
as aay, uy, &c., p. 460 ATY English " vanish," 
p. 460 AIY German, p. 465 ; AIY, AEY 
Italian=0i-2, ae-ee, p. 465 ; AEY French= 
ae-ee, p. 465; OAY German, p. 465; OAY, 
AOY French, p. 465 ; OOY, German, p. 465 ; 
OOY Italian, p. 465; OOY French, p. 465; 
OEY French, p. 470; UEY French, p. 470. 

2. Second Class of Diphthongs with weak OO 
final, p. 470 ; OU English, spoken, p. 470 ; OU 
English, sung, p. 475 ; OU German, p. 475 ; 
OU Italian, p. 475; OU, French, p. 475. 

Abbreviated Analytic Forms of OQ Diphthongs, 
p. 475 ; OA-W English vanish," p. 475. 

3. Third Class of Diphthongs with weak EE 
initial, p. 480; EU English, p. 480; EU German 
(none), p. 485; EU Italian, p. 485; EU French 
(none), p. 485. 

Abbreviated Analytic Forms of EU Diphthongs, 
with initial Y, p. 485. 

4. Fourth class of diphthongs with weak OO 
initial, p. 490 : In English, p. 490 ; in German 
(none), p. 490; in Italian, p. 490; in French, 
p. 490 ; iieEE French, p. 495. 

Abbreviated Glossic Forms for the 00 and UE 
weak initial Diphthongs, with W and WY', 
p. 500. 

Triphthongs, p. 50. 

5. Fifth Class of Diphthongs ending in an obscure 
U, and hence called Murmur Diphthongs, p. 
500 ; Vanish Murmur Diphthongs AAii, AUu, 
p. 505; True Murmur Diphthongs EER, AIR, 
OAR, OOR, p. 505; Inserted R', p. 515. 


Rules for the Use and Avoidance of English Mur- 
mur Diphthongs, p. 515. 

Murmur Triphthongs, p. 52a ; EIR, OIR, p. 52 ; 
E1RR', EIERR', EIUR', p. 525 ; OUR, OURR', 
OUERR', OU-UR', p. 525; EUR, EURR', p. 525. 

Vocal R or ER, equal to U', UU' long, p. 530; 
Vocal R or ER in Weak Syllables, p. 525; 
Distinction between Weak Final A and Weak 
Final ER, p. 525 ; Dissyllables in ER dis- 
tinguished from Murmur Diphthongs and 
Triphthongs in R, p. 545 ; No Vocal R in 
German, Italian, and French, p. 55a. 

6. Sixth Class of Diphthongs, arising from Tongue 
Glides, Lip Glides, Throat Glides, and Nose 
Glides, as ai"y, 00, 6a, oa'w, ue=iue, eo=aieo, ee, 
p. 550. 

SECTION VII. Glottids, Attack and Kelease of 

Vowels, Aspirates, pp. 56-60. 
Glottids Defined, p. 560. 
H, Flatus, glottis open, p. 560. 
H', Whisper, glottis contracted, p. 565. 
H', Voice, glottis closed, the edges of the vocal 

chords being in contact, p. 565. 
I, Gradual Glottid, p. 570. 
;, Clear Glottid, p. 575. 
;, Check Glottid, p. 580. 
H, or Jerk, HH, HI, H;, Aspirate, p. 585. 
Croak, Bleat, Wheeze, p. 605. 
Why H is the only Glottid written in ordinary 

Glossic, p. 605. 

SECTION VIII. Consonants, pp. 61-86. 
Voiced Consonants, p. 610. 
Flated Consonants, p. 6 la. 
Whispered and Gradual Consonants, p. 6 la. 
Mute Consonants, p. 615. 

Systematic Arrangement of the Consonants, p. 615. 
Oral and Nasal Consonants, p. 620. 
Oral Consonants, p. 620. 
Shut Oral Consonants, Mute, Imploded, Sonant, 

p. 620. 

Central Oral Consonants, Hisses and Buzzes, p. 625. 
Lateral Oral Consonants, or L Class, p. 63a. 

Trilled Oral Consonants, or R' Class, p. 630 

Contacts and Approximations, p. 630. 

1 and 2. Oral Consonants with Lips (1) Roind, 

and (2) Flat, pp. 635-665. 
P. Shut Mute, p. 63b. 
B. Shut Sonant, p. 635. 
B. Shut Implodent, p. 64. 
W, V, Central Buzzes, and WH, F, Central 

Hisses, p. 645. 
<BR, <WR, Lip-triUed Buzzes, and 'PR Lip- 

trilled Hiss, p. 660. 
1. Nasal Consonants with Oral Resonance limited 

by Round Lips, pp. 665-675. 
M Shut Hum, and MH Shut Snort, p. 665. 

3. Oral Consonants with Lips and Teeth, pp. 

F Central Hiss, and V Central Buzz, p. 675. 

4. Oral Consonants with Teeth and Point of 

Tongue, p. 685. 
TH Central Hiss, and DH Central Buzz, p. 685. 

5. 6, 7, and 8. Oral Consonants, with (5) Gums 

and Point of Tongue, (6) Palate and Point 
of Tongue, (7) the Front of the Tongue 
Arched, or Convex towards the Hard Palate, 
and (8) the Front of the Tongue Hollowed, or 
Concave towards the Hard Palate, pp. 690-765. 

T, T\ ,T Shut Mutes; D, D', ,D Shut Sonants, 
Q D, D', ( D Shut Lnplodents, p. 690. 

S, SH, S', T'H Central Hisses, and Z, ZH, Z\ 
D'H Central Buzzes, p. 705. 

L, L', 'L, 4 L Lateral Murmurs, and LH, L'H, 
'LH, 4 LH Lateral Hisses, p. 730. 

R', R", ,R Point-trilled Buzzes, ,,R Point Rise, 

and R'H, R"H Point-trilled Hisses, p. 745. 
5, 6, and 8. Nasal Consonants, with Oral Re- 
sonance limited by (5) Gums and Point of 
Tongue, (6) Palate and Point of Tongue, 
(8) Palate and Reverted Tongue, pp. 770-785. 

N, N", 4 N Shut Hums, and NH, N"H Shut 

Snorts, p. 11 a, 

9, 10, 11. Oral Consonants with (9) Front and 
Point of Tongue and Palate, (10) Front of 
Tongue and Palate, (11) Front and Back of 
Tongue and Palate, pp. 785 820. 


Y Central Buzz, and YH Central Hiss, p. 784. 

CJT Shut Mute, and J' Shut Sonant, with the 
Consonantal Diphthongs CH Hissed and J 
Buzzed, and their true first elements, TY' 
Shut Mute, and DY' Shut Sonant, and second 
elements, SH' Central Hiss and ZH' Central 
Buzz, p. 790. 

KY' Shut Mute, and GY' Shut Sonant, with 
their derivatives KY'H Central Hiss and 
GY'H Central Buzz, p. 804. 

LY' Lateral Buzz, p. 814. 

9. Nasal Consonant with Front and Point of 
Tongue, p. 820. 

NY' Shut Hum, p. 820. 

12 and 13. Oral Consonants with (12) Back of 
Tongue, and (13) Back of Tongue and Lips* 
pp. 824-840; K, KW Shut Mutes, G, GW 
Shut Sonants, and G Shut Implodent, p. 824. 

KH, KW'H Central Hisses, and" GH, GWH 
Central Buzzes, p. 830. 

'R, 'GH Back Trilled Buzzes, "R Uvula Rise, 

<RH, 'KH Back Trilled Hisses, p. 834. 
12. Nasal Consonant with Back of the Tongue, 
p. 840. 

NG Shut Hum, and NGH Shut Snort, p. 84. 
Musical Qualities of Consonants, p. 850. 
Gradual Transition from Vowels to Consonants; 

Vowels, Vocals, Glides, Buzzes, Sonants, Slurs, 

Hisses, Implodeiits, Mutes, p. 86. 

SECTION IX. Mixed and Consonant Glides, 
Syllables, pp. 87-102. 

Vowel, Mixed, and Consonant Glides defined and 

distinguished, p. 870. 

Murmur Triphthongs reconsidered, p. 874. 
Action of a Vowel between two other Vowels 

Syllables, 874 ; Substitution of Silence and Slur 

for Glide, p. 874. 
Action of a Vocal between two Vowels Syllables, 

p. 88*. 

Action of a Buzz or Sonant between two Vowels, 

p. 89a. 

Action of a Hiss between two Vowels, p. 890. 
Action of a Mute between two Vowels Recoil, 

p. 894. 
Vowels running on to Consonants, and conversely, 

Open and Closed Vowels, Final and Initial 

Glides, Medial, Double, and Split Consonants, 

p. 904. . 

Tight and Loose Mixed Glides, p. 9 la. 
Initial Mixed Glides from Voiced Consonants and 

Hisses, p. 914. 

Initial Mixed Glides from Mutes, p. 924. 
Final Mixed Glides on to Voiced Consonants and 

Hisses, p. 930. 
Final Mixed Glides on to Mutes, Recoil with 

Flatus, Click, or , Voice, p. 940. 
Consonant Glide from Vocal to Vocal, p. 944. 
Consonant Glide from Vocal to Buzz, p. 950, 
Consonant Glide from Buzz to Buzz, p. 954. 
Consonant Glides from Sonants to Vocals at the 

end of words, p. 954. 
Consonant Glides from Sonants to Vocals, and to the 

Buzzes W, Y at the beginning of words, p. 960. 
Consonant Glide of Vocal to Sonant at the end of 

words, p. 97. 
Consonant Glides between Buzzes and Sonants, 

and between Sonants and Sonants, p. 970. 
Rule for Consonant Glides when one Consonant 

is Voiced and the other Voiceless, p. 980. 
Initial Consonant Glides from Mute to Vocal, or 

to the Buzzes W, Y, p. 980. 
Final Consonant Glides of Vocal on to Mute and 

Hiss, -Ip, -It, -Ik, -mp, -ngk, p. 980. 
Initial Consonant Glides of a Hiss on to a Vocal, 

or the Buzzes W, Y, p. 994. 
Consonant Glides between S and Mutes, p. 1000. 
Treatment of Combinations of Two Mutes, and of 

Initial Mute before M, N, S, p. 1000. 
Principle of the Division of Syllables, p. 1004. 
Special Rules for Dividing Consonants between 

two Syllables, p. 1014. 



SECTION X. Length (or Quantity), Pitch (or 
Musical Accent), Force (or Ordinary Accent and 
Emphasis), Quality of Tone, Weight (or Im- 
portance) and Silence (or Pause), as Elements 
of Speech, pp. 103-108. 

Introduction, p. 103. 

Length of Spoken Sounds and its Notation, 
p. 1030. 

Pitch of Spoken Sounds and its Notation, p. 1040. 

Force of Spoken Sounds and its Notation, p. 104*. 

Quality of Tone in Spoken Sounds, and why it is 
not furnished with a Notation, p. 1070. 

Weight of Spoken Sounds, p. 107*. 

Silence as an Element of Speech, and its Notation, 
p. 107*. 

SECTION XI. Exercises, pp. 109-150. 
Introductory Eemarks, p. 1090. 

A. ENGLISH EXERCISES, pp. 110-143. 

I. Artificial Strong Syllables, pp. 1 100-1286. 
General Tables of English Sounds, p. 1100. 

Chart of English Sounds, p. 110*. 

English Initial Combinations of Consonants, 
p. 1100, *. 

English Final Combinations of Consonants, 

p. 1110, b. 

Mode of Marking Time in the Exercises, p. 1120. 
Ex. 1. To Discover any Defects in Pronunciation 

in order to' direct future practice, p. 1120. 
Ex. 2. The Vowel ee, and Mixed Glides for Mutes, 

p. 113tf. 
Ex. 3. The Vowel ai, and Mixed Glides for Mutes, 

p. 113*. 
Ex. 4. The Vowel 00, and Mixed Glides for Mutes, 

p. 114. 
Ex. 5. The Vowel au, and Mixed Glides for Mutes, 

p. 1140. 
Ex. 6. The Vowel oa, and Mixed Glides for Mutes, 

p. 114*. 
Ex-. 7. The Vowel oo, and Mixed Glides for Mutes, 

p. 1150. 
Ex. 8. Miscellaneous Vowels, ee, ai, aa, au, oa, oo, 

and Mixed Glides for Mutes, at different pitches, 

p. 1150. 

Ex. 9. The Vowels ee, ai, an, au, oa. oo, and Mixed 
Glides for Sonants, p. 115*. 

Ex. 10. Mixed Glides for Mutes and Sonants com- 
pared, p. 1170. 

Ex. 11. On the Effect of both Pitch and Glide on 
each Long Vowel, p. 117*. 

Ex. 12. On the Short Vowels, lengthened in sing- 
ing, p. 1180. 

Ex. 13. Un the Hisses, p. 121*. 

Ex. 14. On the Buzzes as contrasted with the 
Hisses, Mutes, and Sonants, p. 1220. 

Ex. 15. On the Diphthongs ei t oi, ou, eu, p. 123. 

Ex. 16. On the Aspirate, p. 1240. 

Ex. 17. On the Vanishes avy, oa-w, p. 1240. 

Ex. 18. On the Compound Hisses and Buzzes ch,j, 
p. 1250. 

Ex. 19. On the Vocals /, in, n. ng, p. 1250. 

Ex. 20. On the Trill r' and Vocal r, p. 126*. 

Ex. 21. On Initial Combinations of Consonants, 
p. 1270. 

Ex. 22. On Final Combinations of Consonants, 
p. 127*. 

Ex. 23. On both Initial and Final Combinations 
of Consonants at once, p. 1 280. 

II. Actual Words, pp. 128*- 138*. 

Ex. 24. Contrast of ee and *, p. 128* ; ,0 On open 
ee and i, p. 128* ; (* On closed ee and i, p. 128*; 
(c] On open ee followed by i, p. 1290 ; (d] On 
long i before vocal r, p. 1290 ; (e) On short weak 
i to be distinguished from u or ee, p. 129*. 

Ex. 25. Contrast of ai, e, 0, p. 129*. 

Ex. 26. Contrast of au, o, p. 130*. 

Ex. 27. Contrast of au, oa, o, u, p. 130*. 

Ex. 28. Contrast of oa-er, oar, au, p. 1310. 

Ex. 29. Contrast of weak oa and er, p. 1310. 

Ex. 30. Contrast of 00 and oo, p. 131*. 

Ex. 31. On oo, p. 131*. 

Ex. 32. Contrast of oo, uo, u, p. 1320. 

Ex. 33. On long u or vocal er, p. 132*. 

Ex. 34. On the Diphthong ei, p. 1330. 

Ex. 35. Contrast of ai and ei, p. 133*. 

Ex. 36. On the Diphthong oi, p. 1340. 

Ex. 37. On the Diphthong ou, p. 134*. 


hx. 38. Contrast of oa and ou, p. 1350. 

Ex. 39. On the Diphthong eu, p. 1355. 

Ex. 40. On the Murmur Diphthongs and Triph- 
thongs, or Vocal R and Trilled R', p. 1355. 

Ex. 41. On Words of Two Syllables apt to be 
pronounced as Words of One Syllable, p. 1380. 

Ex. 42 On the Mixed and Consonant Glides, 
p. 1385. 

III. Weak Syllables, pp. 1385-1435. 

Ex. 43. On Terminations involving R, L, M, N, 
p. 1385. 

Ex. 44. On other Weak Endings, p. 1400. 

Ex. 45. On Weak Beginnings, p. 1410. 

Ex. 46. On Weak Words, p. 1415. 

Ex. 47. On Alternations of Strong and Weak 
Syllables, p. 1425. 

B. GERMAN EXERCISES, pp. 144-146. 

Sx. 48. On the Elementary Gernian Speech- 
sounds, p. 144a. 

C. ITALIAN EXERCISES, pp. 147-148. 

Ex. 49. On the Elementary Italian Speech-sounds, 
p. 1470. 

D. FRENCH EXERCISES, pp. 149-150. 

Ex. 50. On the Elementary French Speech-sounds, 
p. 149". 

SECTION XII. Glossic Index, pp. 151-181. 
Explanation of the Arrangement, p. 15 la. 
Letters and Combinations in Alphabetical Order, 

p. 1520. 
Signs, p. 179. 

SECTION XIII. English Pronouncing Dictionaries, 

pp. 182-189. 
English Pronouncing Dictionaries necessary, p. 


Walker, p. 1835 ; Walker's Key Words, p. 1845. 
Smart, p. 1850 ; Smart's Key Words, p. 1855. 
Worcester, p. 1875 ; Worcester's Key Words, 

p. 1880. 
Ogilvie and Cull, p. 189; Ogilvie and Cull's Key 

Words p. 1895 

SECTION XIV. Alphabetical Keys to Germau 

Italian, and French, pp. 190-211. 
Introduction, p. 1900. 

I. German, pp. 1900-1920. A. The Orthographi- 
cal or Low Saxon System of Pronunciation, 
p. 1900. B. The Historical System of Pronun- 
ciation, p. 1910. C. The Practical System of 
Pronunciation, p. 1910. 

II. Italian, pp. 1920. 

III. French, pp. 1920. 

Explanations of Foreign Sounds, pp. 193-195. 
Six Vowels, heard in Provincial English, ae, ah, 

00, w<?, eo y oe r p. 1930. 
Four Nasal Vowels peculiar to the French, aen\ 

ahn\ oari ', oen\ p. 1935. 
Six German Consonants, kh, gh, Jcy'h, gy'h, /', v* , 

p. 1940. 
Two Liquid Consonants peculiar to Italian and 

French, p. 1945. 

Two Consonantal Diphthongs, p. 1945. 
Cautions for English Speakers, p. 1 945. 

I. Alphabetical Key to German Pronunciation, 
pp. 196-198. 

II. Alphabetical Key to Italian Pronunciation, 
pp. 199-201. 

Ecclesiastical Latin, pp. 202-204. 

III. Alphabetical Key to French Pronunciation, 
pp. 205-211. 

Note on " Liaisons," p. 211. 

SECTION XV. Examples of Songs in German, 

Italian, and French, pp. 212-241. 
Arrangement, p. 2120. 

I. Left hand column, Original Orthography, 
p. 2120. 

II. Right hand column, Pronunciation in Glossic, 
p. 2120. 

(1) German, p. 2125. 

(2) Italian, p. 2130. 

(3) French, p. 2135. 

III. Bottom of page, Translation, p. 215 



I. GERMAN SONGS, pp. 217-224. 

1 " Maiglockchen und die Bliimelein," p. 217. 

2 " Ich wollt' meine Lieb',"p. 218. 

3. ' Wie kann ich froh," p. 218. 

4. " Isis und Osiris," p. 219. 

5. " In diesen heiligen Hallen," p. 219. 

6. " Der Erlkonig," p. 220. 

7. " Der Wanderer," p. 222. 

8. " Adelaide," p. 223. 

9. " Lebewohl," p. 224. 

II. ITALIAN SONGS, pp. 225-230. 

1. " Diserto sulla Terra," p. 225. 

2. " II balen del suo sorriso," p. 225. 

3. " Stride la Vampa," p. 226. 

4. " Soave imagine," p. 227. 

5. " Lascia ch'io pianga," p. 227. 

6. " Non piu andrai," p. 228. 

7. "None ver?" p 229. 

8. " Pur dicesti," p. 229. 

9. " Possenti Numi," p. 230. See German, No. 4. 

10. " Qui sdegno non s' accende," p. 230. See 

German, No. 5. 

11. " Stabat Mater" ^Ecclesiastical Lalrin), p. 231. 

III. FRENCH SONGS, pp. 234-241. 

1. " Ou voulez-vous aller ? " p. 234. 

2. Serenade (Berceuse), p. 235. 

3. "Robert! toi que j'aime! " p. 236. 

4. La Manola, p. 237. 

5. " Partant pour la Syrie," p. 238. 

6. La Marseillaise, p. 240. 

SECTION XVI. Pronunciation of the Names of 
German, Italian, and French Composers, with a 
few others, pp. 242-246. 

Introduction, p. 242. 

Alphabetical List, p. 242*. 


On 27th, 28th, and 29th of December, 1871, I 
gave three lectures on ''Pronunciation in Singing" 
at the request of Mr. John Curwen, the president, 
before the Tonic Sol-fa College at its Christmas 
gathering. Part of the matter of these lectures 
was subsequently worked up by Mr. Curwen, and 
corrected by myself, for the last edition of his 
"Standard Course," and is again explained and 
illustrated with diagrams in his " Teacher's 
Manual." To this last work he asked me to con- 
tribute Tables of the Pronunciation of the German. 
Italian, and French languages, to enable any 
Tonic Sol-faist on taking up a song in those 
languages to have some clue to the sounds he had 
to utter, even if he were ignorant of the language 
After these were completed, however, Mr. Curwen 
felt that it would be advisable to add a few songs 
in each language with the pronunciation fully 
explained and the translation annexed. But when 
this was done, he found that the result would' be 
too much for a mere insertion into another work, 
and ought to appear as a separate treatise I then 
suggested that such a treatise should contain a 
very full account of English pronunciation, and 
the mode in which both the acknowledged and 
the unacknowledged sounds of speech are pro- 
duced, to enable the teacher not only to shew 
what was right, but to correct what was wrong, 
by instantly pointing out the vicious action of the 
speaker, and thus leading him to set it right. The 
only condition Mr. Curwen made in agreeing to 

this suggestion was that there should be an 
abundance of examples Hence arose the present 

For more than thirty years I have been paying 
attention to the subject of speech-sounds, as a 
science and as an art, for the purpose of teaching 
to read English, and for the purposes of compara- 
tive philology. I have resided three years in 
Germany, a year and a half in Italy, and more 
than six months in France 1 have been quite 
recently studying provincial pronunciation through- 
out England, for the purposes of my treatise " On 
Early English Pronunciation, with especial refer- 
ence to Shakspere and Chaucer," of which these 
studies will form the fifth volume, and in pursuing 
them I have had to pay most particular attention 
to the varieties of English speech, and discriminate 
between the comparatively modern, literary, or 
"received" form, which prevails among educated 
speakers especially in the South of England, and 
the comparatively ancient, illiterate and " provin- 
cial " forms which prevail among the uneducated 
or untravelled in other parts of the country. I am 
not a singer, although I have had sufficient voice 
to try all the necessary experiments, and in the 
winter of 1856-7, I went through a course of Tonic 
Sol-fa instruction to make myself familiar with 
this scheme of teaching vocal music. But my 
principal assistance in understanding the relations 
of singing to speech, has been derived from 
Professor Helmholtz's great work " On the Sensa- 


tions of Tone," of which a translation by myself 
was published by Messrs. Longman, in July, 1875. 
I have also, of course, studied all the principal works 
relating to speech-sounds in various languages, 
have had especial instruction from natives of 
various countries, and have made practical obser- 
vations in great detail and with great care on 
English provincial speakers, and have been familiar 
for more years than I care to remember with the 
process of representing spoken sounds by symbols 
which should express not merely the separate ele- 
ments but the different modes in which they are 
put together by different speakers. These are my 
qualifications for attempting to carry out Mr. 
Curwen's wishes. 

The object of this book is to shew the course of 
training which a singer should undergo in order to 
enunciate his words clearly and accurately, so as to 
be intelligible to an audience that had no " book of 
the words " Throughout the work, the singer, as 
distinct from the speaker, has been kept in view, 
and for this purpose attention has been drawn in 
the opening Section to the principal points which 
distinguish singing from speaking. All the exer- 
cises are supposed to be sung. At the same time, 
the work will be of great use, I hope, to all who 
have to train children to speak English correctly, 
or to acquire a correct pronunciation of German, 
Italian, and French But as the book was not 
written for speakers especially, much has been 
omitted which would be more or less useful to 
them, and much has been inserted, which a speaker, 
who is not a singer, may find unnecessary. Atten- 
tion is also paid exclusively to the received 
pronunciation of the English, German, Italian, 
and French languages. Such varieties as it 
would interest a singer to know are mentioned 
incidentally, but the whole subject of comparative 
phonology as bearing on comparative philology, 
has been most carefully avoided. Students of 
this important linguistic inquiry will, however, 
necessarily find much assistance in tiie following 

The following pages are, of course, not meant 

for young beginners. They are written for those 
advanced students who have sufficient determina- 
tion to instruct themselves, and who wish to 
understand the subject in order to instruct others. 
There is not a passage in this book which ought 
not to "be familiar to a teacher of singing, although 
very little of what follows has hitherto found its 
way into manuals for the singer, and that little is 
seldom accurate. But, of course, there is much 
concerning the voice and its management, which 
does not enter into the purpose of a treatise 
strictly limited to pronunciation. Hence the 
following pages are really supplementary to all 
treatises on singing, while they are introductory 
to all treatises on English elocution and on the 
pronunciation of the foreign languages named, 
and also to all treatises on comparative philology. 
The principal new point which is here treated at 
length is the action of vowel on vowel, and con- 
sonant on vowel, to which I gave the name of 
" glide " in a tract on " English Phonetics," 
published in 1854, long before Mr. Melville Bell 
used the term in his "Visible Speech" (1867), 
with a slightly different sense. On these glides 
depends all intelligibility in singing, because they 
determine the principal audible effect of consonants, 
more especially final consonants. Hence I have 
prepared an elaborate series of exercises upon them 
in the "Glossic Index" (pp. 151-181). 

A systematic method of representing speech- 
sounds is indispensable for any work like the 
present. My "Glossic" effects this object by 
means of the ordinary letters of the alphabet in 
their most usual English significations, so far as 
these would serve, eked out by German usages 
occasionally, and sometimes by other contrivances. 
This mode of spelling is so simple for ordinary 
English readers that I have never found one who 
experienced the least difficulty in reading off 
sentences thus written, even without special in- 
struction. Glossic has also been used by Mr. 
Curwen in the "Standard Course" and "Teacher's 
Manual," and hence will be familiar to the majority 
of advanced students who take up this book. As 



Glossic was specially invented by me for the 
purpose of writing all English dialects by one 
alphabet, every sound which was required for this 
treatise had already been properly symbolised, and 
hence there was no object in introducing any 
other set of signs. 

The arrangement of the work is as follows : 
After drawing attention (in Section I., pp. 1-6) to 
the contrast between speaking and singing, and 
sketching a number of exercises to impress these 
differences strongly in the reader's mind, provided 
he carry them out (which, once for all, I may state, 
I suppose that all readers who wish to derive profit 
from the work will do with all exercises), I proceed 
(in Section II., pp. 7-11) to consider the cause of 
those difficulties as respects the vowels, and shew 
that this is to be sought in their peculiar nature as 
modifications of original qualities of tone. Then, 
previous to a detailed exposition, I give (in Section 
III., pp. 12-17) a short key to the method of 
notation employed, and a systematic arrangement 
of all the Signs used, together with diagrams of 
the positions of the mouth subsequently referred 
to. The Glossic Index (in Section XII., pp. 151- 
181) gives the exact page and column where the 
mode of producing the sound represented by each 
individual sign can be found, in proper connection 
with its related sounds. After this (in Section IV., 
pp. 18-23) a brief account is furnished of the 
nature and action of the organs by which speech- 
sounds are produced, limited to what is necessary 
for properly understanding and observing the 
following explanations. Section V. (pp. 24-41) is 
devoted to the Vowels, and Section VI. (pp. 42-55) 
to the mode in which vowels are combined into 
diphthongs, by the generation of the vowel glides, 
which are so important to singers. Section VII. 
(pp. 56-60 takes into account a series of actions 
of the glottis in commencing or attacking and 
ending or releasing vowel sounds, which were first 
named " glottids " in my " Early English Pro- 
nunciation," (p. 1129) under which heading it is 
here convenient to include aspirates and the 
bellows-actions of the lungs or " physems " 

ffei'semzj, though the latter would be separated in 
a more exact classification. These lead on to the 
Consonants proper, which occupy the whole of 
Section VIII. (pp. 61-86 , and should be studied 
completely even by those who do not immediately 
desire to learn German, Italian, or French, be- 
cause the introduction of the consonants peculiar 
to these languages gives a far more complete A-iew 
of the relations of speech-sounds than would be 
possible if attention were confined to one language 
only, and when studied thus in proper connection, 
the sounds, which singers are sure to require some 
day, are by no means so difficult as when they 
are taken afterwards as strange and isolated 
phenomena. The glides between vowels and con- 
sonants, which form the subject of Section IX. 
(pp. 87-102) are of extreme importance to singers, 
and hence great pains have been bestowed on 
furnishing examples, especially in the Glossic 
Index (pp. 151-181 1 to enable the reader to become 
thoroughly familiar with the phenomena, and thus 
learn to sing the effects of consonants which are 
themselves unsingable. In Section X. (pp. 103-108j 
for the sake of readers rather than singers, but 
also especially for the use of those who set words 
to music (which should include all singers) a ver y 
brief account is given, of the principal means 
adopted for making one syllable in a word, or one 
word in a sentence, more prominent than all the 
rest. For speakers this would develop into a 
treatise on elocution, for singers (except in recit- 
ative) the composer has practically determined the 
length, pitch, and force, and often the quality of 
tone and expression to be given to each syllable, 
and what remains belongs rather to a treatise on 
voice-training than one on speech- sounds. But it 
is useful even to a singer to know in what the 
actions consist, how they are performed, and how 
they may be written. It is, in fact, indispensable 
for anyone who wishes to sing as a human being, 
and not as a machine. 

In all the preceding Sections, the exercises and 
examples given as each matter arises, are sufficient 
to illustrate the subject, but not sufficient to render 



it familiar to a student who has to be trained. 
This is left to Sections XI. (pp. 109-150) and XII. 
(pp. 151-181) where a sufficient series of exercises 
is suggested, or written, to enable a teacher to 
instruct a solitary pupil or a class, without 
puzzling the learner by a systematic treatise. 
These exercises are divided into four principal 
parts, according to the four languages considered, 
but for the three foreign languages they are of 
comparatively limited extent, sufficient, however, 
for anyone who had gone well through the English, 
to acquire a decent command over the foreign 
sounds. It is strongly recommended that the 
learner should, if possible, get a native with a 
good pronunciation to read to him the foreign 
words placed against each foreign Glossic letter 
(which is for that purpose given in the ordinary 
as well as the Glossic spelling), and to repeat each 
set, illustrating a single sound, many times over 
Practically I find six times in succession advisable. 
The learner should listen without imitating till he 
has formed a complete notion of the sound, which . 
he should then attempt to reproduce, and not mind 
failure with respect to the other sounds with which 
the one under trial is unavoidably mixed up. The 
words thus serve as "Key Words," which with the 
Glossic spelling annexed, perfectly explain the 
system of writing used in giving the pronunciation 
of the songs in Section XV. (pp. 212-241). 

The great, bulk of the exercises is devoted to 
English, with the intention of creating good habits 
and facility, and of correcting errors of pronun- 
ciation. The use of the Glossic system of writing 
has enabled me to divide these exercises into two 
very distinct parts. The first twenty Exercises 
(pp. 109-127) consist of combinations of vowels 
and consonants independently of meaning, so that 
the whole attention of the singer is directed to 
the accurate production of sound. They are 
arranged so as to include all the combinations in 
our language, to be sung at definite but very 
various degrees of rapidity, and particular atten 
tion is paid to bringing out the glides, ana thus 
distinguishing final consonants. A simpl.:- .vtvn't. 

with lists of all the initial and final consonants 
and combinations of consonants in our language, 
here given, will enable the teacher i^as explained in 
the 21st to the 23rd Exercise, pp. 127-8) to ex- 
temporise an infinite variety of ways of practice, 
without using a book at all. It is suggested that 
five minutes daily should be devoted in schools to 
these "Vocal Gymnastics" to make the delicate 
muscles of the organs of speech familiar with the 
production of the sounds, and thus enable the 
pupils to pronounce with brightness, ease, and 

Exercises 24 to 42 (pp. 128-138) are devoted to 
actual words, contrasting nearly similar sounds, 
especially vowel sounds, which are apt to be con- 
fused, together with the various diphthongs and 
the extremely complicated use of the letter R, each 
word being given in both spellings. Some of these 
Exercises having been prepared some years ago, 
were given, but with a different arrangement, by 
Mr. Curwen in his " Standard Course." The 42nd 
Exercise (p. 1384) properly consists of the English 
part of the Glossic Index ipp. 151-181) in which 
words are given fully illustrating every vowel and 
diphthong as acted on by every final combination 
of consonants known in the language, and by a 
great number of the initial combinations, while 
every consonant is illustrated by words in which 
it occurs initially before every vowel and other 
consonant with which it is found in the language. 
These lists give the learner an opportunity of 
feeling and practising the initial and final effect of 
every possible consonantal combination upon every 
possible vowel sound, and thus learning to sing 
initial and final consonants intelligibly. 

All the preceding Exercises are upon " strong " 
syllables, or those which bear the stress. But the 
three next Exercises (43-46, pp. 1384-1424) deal 
with " weak" or " unaccented " syllables, whether 
final or initial, and Exercise 47 (p 1424), which is 
intended rather for the speaker than the singer, 
deals with those alternations of "strong" and 
" weak " syllables which occur in our longer 



By these Exercises, which are far more extensive 
and systematic than any yet attempted (although 
I wish particulary to draw attention to those given 
by Mr. Melville Bell in his " Principles of Speech 
and Elocution," to which I am much indebted), 
it is to be hoped that the learner will be able to 
gain a mastery over the production of the sounds 
of his own language, and a decent command' over 
those of German (p. 144). Italian (p. 147), and 
French (p. 149). But they will not teach him 
when to use them. The spelling of a word is 
supposed to do this, and in German and Italian it 
is tolerably successful in so doing, although in 
English and French it fails wofully. Hence in 
Section XIII. (pp. 182-189 I give an account of 
the systems of indicating sounds in the best or 
most convenient English pronouncing dictionaries, 
writing their key words both in their own spelling 
and in Glossic. This will enable all those who 
have studied this little book to consult those 
authorities in case of need. And in Section XIV. 
(pp. 190-211 I have given Alphabetical Keys to 
German, Italian (including Ecclesiastical Latin v , 
and French, which will enable the reader who sees 
a written word in any of those languages, to 
discover its sound within very small limits of 
error. But even for these languages, reference to 
a dictionary is often indispensable as no rules can 
be laid down which are sufficiently c.omprehensive, 
the exceptions are so numerous and irregular. 

After this, in Section XV. (pp. 212-241) follow 
German, Italian ^including Ecclesiastical Latin), 
and French songs, selected by Mr. Curwen, and 
given in both the ordinary and Glossic orthography, 
with a verbal English translation, spelled in Glossic 

only, by way of an exercise, arranged in a con- 
venient form for reference and practice. Those 
who have an opportunity should not fail to hear 
these songs read over to them by natives, and to 
practice reading them themselves till the natives 
are satisfied with their pronunciation, and then to 
commit them to memory, and continually repeat 
them, with or without the music, to acquire 
facility and certainty in the utterance of connected 
words. All pronunciation is muscular, and the 
organs of speech require the same constant train- 
ing as the muscles of the hand for playing on any 
musical instrument. 

The book concludes with a list of German, 
Italian, and French composers (pp. 242-246), 
selected by Mr. Curwen, with the native pro- 
nunciation added, and likewise a conventional 
pronunciation, harmonising with that now given to 
Handel, Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven, which is 
thoroughly adapted to English analogies, habits, 
and organs. 

In the summer of the same year, 1875, in which 
the Tonic Sol-fa College, after a successful period 
of probation, was finally incorporated, this little 
book was put together as the author's contribution 
towards the good cause of diffusing sound musical 
knowledge among the masses of the people, in- 
cluding the youngest, for which that College was 
originally founded by its first president, Mr. John 


MS finished 29 November 1875 / 
Printing finished 11 August 1877. 



Singers and Speakers. Speaking and singing 
are different and in some respect antagonistic 
actions of the same organs. Quintilian relates 
that Julius Caesar, when a young man, criticised a 
reader in the words : "If you intend to be singing, 
you are singing hadly; if you suppose yourself 
to be reading, you are really singing ' (Si cantds, 
male cantds ; si legis, cantds. Quint. Inst 1, 8, 2). 
The criticism is perfectly valid to this day. But 
the singer uses words to which he intends his 
listeners to attach a meaning, and it is supposed 
that the music will enhance the mental effect of 
the words, which, in many cases at least, have 
suggested the melody and whole composition. 
While, therefore, it is perfectly well agreed that 
no speaker or reader should sing, it becomes a 
necessity for all singers, if not to speak, at least 
to excite in their hearers the ideas attached to 
speaking, in addition to the emotions due to music. 
How is this end to be attained ? The reader must 
first recognise the reality of this antagonism 
between speaking and singing. 

(1). Singing and Speaking Differ in Compass. 
In singing, a good and fine musical quality of 
tone is sought to be attained at pitches varying by 
at least a Twelfth (d to s 1 ), and sometimes two 
Octaves, or even more. In speaking, an audible 
quality of tone is desired, but one which is not 
strictly musical, at pitches generally within a Fifth 

(d to s), and only occasionally extending to an 
Octave. This great difference of compass is very 
important, because the singer is called upon to 
execute spoken sounds at pitches which, as a 
speaker, he has never been accustomed to use, and 
with a quality of voice which he has had carefully 
to avoid. 

(2). Singing is at Sustained, Speaking at Glid- 
ing Pitch. In singing, a tone has to be sustained 
for a considerable time at an invariable pitch. In 
speaking, not only is the length of time for which 
any sound is sustained much less, sometimes 
necessarily very short indeed, but the pitch at 
which it is delivered is uncertain and variable, and 
constantly rising or falling, sometimes first rising 
and then falling, or first falling and then rising, 
for the same spoken sound. This is such a remark- 
able difference between singing and speaking, that 
many writers consider it to be the characteristic 
difference, which may be expressed thus: "Singing 
has sustained pitch altering by definite intervals, 
speaking has variable pitch, altering constantly by 
insensible intervals or glides." But although an 
important difference, it is by no means the only 
one to be considered. Nor is it quite decisive, for 
in singing the gliding alteration of pitch is 
acknowledged under the term 'portamento' fpoar'- 
taamai'ntoa. See Sec. Ill, for notation of sound.) 




Sec. I. 

(3). Singing requires a Clear, Speaking an Im- 
pi led Passage for the Breath. In singing, a good 
quality of musical tone can only be attained by 
peculiar adjustments of the cavities between the 
larynx and the lips, which generally imply that 
they are unchoked or unimpeded, and by a peculiar 
arrangement of the larynx itself which implies, on 
the contrary, that it is so choked and impeded that 
the wind has to force its way through it from the 
lungs. In speaking, the upper cavities have to be 
choked and impeded in many ways more or less 
injurious to musical qualities of tone, and some- 
times entirely destructive of any musical tone 
whatever, allowing mere noise to pass, or actually 
preventing any sound at all from passing. And 
the larynx has occasionally to be so open that 
no musical sound whatever can be produced, except 
by a further adjustment of the lips and tongue to 
produce whistling, an effect not admitted in 
speech. The windrushes, hisses, buzzes, whispers, 
and silences thus produced (forming our con- 
sonants) , although some of the most important and 
distinctive elements of speech, are entirely un- 
musical and cannot be sung at all. The difficulty 
of indicating them is one of the greatest trials to 
the singer, because their omission occasions total 
unintelligibility, and their introduction interrupts 
the flow of music. But even those spoken sounds 
which are most musical in their character ' v the 
vowels ^ are not equally capable of yielding good 
qualities of tone on account of the necessity they 
imply of more or less choking the passage of the 
sound through the mouth or lips, and the singer 
has to exercise himself in producing sounds 
recognisable as intended for certain vowels, which 
are nevertheless modifications of them found to be 
more suitable for musical utterance. All languages 
present these difficulties, but perhaps none more 
than English. 

(4). Singing has to be Rapid and Slurred, 
where Speaking cannot be so. In singing, the 
melody often requires the notes to be sung with 
great rapidity, and at other times to be slurred 

into each other. In any languages, as the 
English, where the vowels are separated by 
numerous consonants, this rapidity is impossible, 
and the slurring becomes equally impossible from 
the necessity of separating the musical by unmusi- 
cal sounds. Who could sing : " The strongest 
priest stands still," with either great rapidity or 
great smoothness, except by making many of the 
consonants inaudible ? It is, of course, the 
business of writers of words to music to avoid 
such difficulties of combination in spoken sounds, 
and it is the business of composers of music to 
adjust their notes to the capabilities of the words. 
But neither writers nor composers observe their 
duties, and when the words of a song are translated 
from one language to another, or the same melody 
is sung to different words (as in successive verses 
of a ballad, or hymn) this consideration is entirely 

Vowels must be Arranged in Genera or Kinds. 
It is necessary that the reader should render 
himself practically familiar with these differences. 
Take the two sentences : 

Peep through all those glass door panes. 

His bull rush'd on that fence. 
The first contains all the seven long vowels, and 
the second all the six short vowels in our language, 
without any repetitions. Speak them with various 
expressions, first as a simple conversational com- 
mand and affirmation ; then in tones of stern 
command, exclamation, interrogation, disgust, fear, 
horror, indignation, expostulation, ridicule, banter, 
laughter, weeping, pain, joy, satisfaction, oratory, 
solemnity ; with the utmost slowness, with the 
greatest possible rapidity, and so on. Observe in 
each case that there is not even an approach to a 
musical tone or to singing, and that any sing-song 
in the utterance would be provincial, such as the 
whines and drants and rising inflections of many 
of our provinces. Observe, too, that the natural 
character of speech and the sound ot the vowels is 
much altered by some of these expressions ; that 
the oratorical and solemn tones really alter all the 

Sec. I. 


sounds in comparison with the conversational or 
ridiculous and comic tone, although the vowels re- 
main recognisable, so that though appreciably 
different to those who compare and examine them, 
they are appreciably the same to those who, 
accustomed to hear them under all these circum- 
stances, have fused the particular perceptions into 
a general conception which partakes of all the 
characters without being confined to any one. 
This means that even with the same speaker each 
vo\vel represents only a group of specifically 
different sounds, which are grasped by the hearer 
as a genus; just as we think of a dog, without 
distinguishing a French poodle from a mastiff, or 
a pug from a greyhound ; we are, so to speak 
satisfied to know that a dog is not a cat ; though 
both dogs and cats are quadrupeds. Extend the 
obser vation from the same speaker to different 
speakers ; let a deep and thin voiced man and 
woman and child repeat the same sentences in 
different manners, imitating the expression each of 
each, and observe the new differences which arise. 
We seem to get beyond dogs and cats, into mere 
quadrupeds. This observation on the specific 
differences, and generic or family sameness, of 
vowel sounds recognised in the same language to 
be identical, is of the utmost importance, both to 
the singer and the learner of languages. The 
singer learns from it that he may alter his vowel 
sounds (which are those on which he sings, and 
which most materially influence the quality of his 
tones) within certain limits, to suit the requisitions 

of his voice or of the unusual pitches at which he 
has to deliver them, without becoming unintellig- 
ible, and without ceasing to utter them as an 
Englishman. The learner of foreign languages 
becomes aware of the necessity of hearing the new 
sounds from numerous speakers, and not from one 
teacher only, and of hearing them un ler the most 
varied circumstances of expression, before he can 
at all grasp the unity of genus amid variety of 
species. Indeed, on extending his observations to 
foreign languages, the student will find that all 
the variety of expressions alluded to vary from 
language to language ; that not only the genera or 
kinds of vowel vary, but that the mode of forming 
the species varies, and that on these two circum- 
stances depends in great measure (by no means 
alone, the characteristic national habits of speech. 
Hence the necessity of continual intercourse foi 
some considerable length of time with various 
speakers of a language which we wish to acquire. 

The Relations of Vowels to Pitch. To return 
to the Exercise. Having first spoken the two 
sentences of English vowels, sing them to a 
very easy chant, as the Tuning Exwcise 85 in 
" Standard Course," p. 27, given below. Each 
part should be taken separately, and should be 
sung at various pitches of one voice only, as high 
and as low as the singer can reach, as well as in 
the middle and easy pitches with which he should 
begin. Divide the words thus 



F?5 ~j~p H 

1 1 


CJ H d 

r r 

r r ~ 


Peep through all those ) _,__ doo _ 
glass door panes, . ) glass aoor 
His bull rush'd on that fence, on that 

II : E H ' > 

Peep through all those ) n th , H 
panes. glasg door paneg; j all 

fence. His hull rush'd on that fence, bull rush'd on that 


Two important observations have to be made on 
this Exercise. First, that the effect of speaking 
and chanting is entirely different. This should be 

further brought out by first chanting and then 
speaking the passage at about the same pitch. It 
may also be enhanced in a class by directing 


Sec. I. 

them to speak altogether at the same rate as they 
chanted, but these Exercises are much better done, 
at least at first, by single members of a class, 
while the others listen, because the combination of 
different voices of different qualities confuses the 
observer, and when he is himself a performer he 
does not hear the rest sufficiently well. The 
second observation (which will be dwelled on more 
at length presently), is that the different vowel 
sounds cannot be equally well produced at different 
pitches, and that the short vowels when prolonged, 
although in that case nearly the same as the 
corresponding long vowels (compare peep his, panes 
fence, glass that, all on, panes fence ; the long vowels 
in those, door, and the short vowel in rush'd, have 
no correspondence), are yet so different that (with 
the exception of that) they are much more easily 
sung at different, especially at the extreme pitches, 
than the naturally long vowels. This may' be 
verified by singing the long vowel sentence with 
the short vowels lengthened, and the short vowel 
sentence with the long vowels substituted for the 
short vowels lengthened, as indicated by writing 

peep through all those glass door panes 
his bull rush'd on thai fence 

meaning, sing peep with the i in his, that is, as 
pip lengthened ; and sing his lengthened, with the 
ee in peep, that is, as hees, rhyming to fleece ; and 
so on. 

Other observations may be readily made, especially 
as to the effect of the separation of peep and through 
by the complete cutting off of the note at the 
c^id of peep, and at the commencement of through, 
first by a completely unmusical hiss, and next by a 
beating r. By hurrying and slackening the time 
these effects of interruptions can be more clearly 
Brought out. Again the effect of the monotone on 
the reciting tone, to which all the words have been 
purposely assigned in each case, should be noted, 

and its extreme difference from the constantly 
though slightly changing pitch of ordinary speech. 

Effect of Pitch on the word ' Peep.' The effect 
of singing-pitch on vowel-quality must now be 
studied. First sing the word peep on the scale 
from the highest note in the voice, taken as d', 
down to the lowest, whatever it may be. Form a 
crescendo and diminuendo on each note, and sustain 
the voice on each as long as can be conveniently 
done, taking a fresh breath for each. Observe that 
on the very highest note the vowel is quite clear, 
though it generally improves slightly when the 
voice is not near its extremity. (On tfee change of 
register there will be a difficulty felt immediately 
in producing the vowel with the same distinctness 
as before. The vowel will assume a somewhat 
different character whenever this change takes 
place, and whatever the vowel may be ; at present, 
however, the observation of the effect of change of 
register may be merged into the effect of change 
of pitch.) About the middle part of the compass, 
the vowel, if kept quite clear and not allowed to 
degenerate into i of pip lengthened, becomes 
slightly but manifestly clouded, and there is a 
tendency almost to a beating roughness in the note. 
But as the voice sinks still lower, and even more 
when it reaches its lowest tones, this beating 
character becomes more prominent, producing 
some gruffness. If another singer of a similar 
quality of voice (it will not be right to contrast 
even bass and tenor) takes the Octave above the 
note then reached, a manifest difference between 
the vowel qualities will appear. When another 
singer cannot be had, the same singer should take 
his note an Octave higher with a sudden jump and 
observe the difference. As a second trial, when 
the singer has reached a rough and gruff sound in 
attempting to keep peep with its proper vowel 
sound, let him change it suddenly to the i in pip 
lengthened, by imagining that he is singing pip on 
a very long note. He will find the whole quality 
of tone most materially improved ; the beating 
gruffness will have been nearly removed : the 

Sec. I. 


whole musical instrument will have been changed 
for the better. Having reached this lowest tone 
on peep altered to pip prolonged, let the singer 
ascend the scale with this sound instead of peep. 
He will find that up to about the middle tones in 
his compass, the effect of pip prolonged is rather 
better and rounder than that of peep, but that as 
the voice proceeds higher it is decidedly duller, 
and in the high tones is considerably wanting in 
brightness. This effect will be made more evident 
by changing on each note and in the same breath 
from, peep to pap prolonged and conversely. These 
exercises and observations should be conducted 
with great care because they are fundamental. 

Effect of Pitch on the word Through.' Next 
sing the word through, beginning at the lowest note 
in the voice, calling it d,, and ascending the scale 
regularly to the highest. Observe first that 
though the tone may not be very good on the 
lowest tone of the voice, it is very much better 
than for peep or even pip prolonged. Contrast the 
three by singing peep through, pip through, each 
pair in one breath, at the lowest note. After quite 
the lowest note, the tone becomes better, but it 
rapidly thickens, so that through approaches in 
sound to throw, and much effort is required to keep 
the words tolerably distinct. But when we get 
towards the top of the voice it becomes extremely 
difficult to get out any real sound of through at all. 
Also observe how much the quality of tone 
deteriorates as you ascend the scale. It goes off 
into a flutiness altogether unlike the best qualities 
of the human song-tones, and approaches to a 
pan dean pipe. Here again by taking peep through 
in one breath we perceive the great difference in 
the quality of the tone. Now take the two words 
pool pull, which contain the same sounds as 
through bull, but are more convenient for the next 
experiment because they nave the same consonants. 
First sing pool from the lowest note to at least an 
Octave or a Twelfth higher (from d, to d or s), and 
having reached this higher pitch, change the word 
from pool to pull prolonged, by an effort of atten- 

tion which after a little while the muscles of the 
throat will obey (the nature ' of the change is 
purposely left unconsidered for the present). It 
will be immediately found that the quality of the 
upper note is materially improved, that the fluti- 
ness disappears, and much more fulness results. 
Having then reached putt prolonged, descend the 
scale upon it. It will be found that all the upper 
notes are improved in quality, and that the lower 
and even lowest notes are not much injured, 
although a slight gruffness begins towards the 
end. Complete the experiment by singing pool 
pull in one breath to every note in the voice, up 
and down. 

When 'Peep' and 'Pool' should be 'Pip' and 
' Pull ' Prolonged. The experiments just made 
lead to a very important practical result, namely, 
that peep should be taken as pip prolonged in the 
lower parts of the scale, and pool as putt prolonged 
in the upper parts of the scale. Words containing 
these vowels are the greatest plagues to a singer, 
and he will find himself relieved of much difficulty 
by this simple observation. 

Effect of Pitch on the word ' Glass.' These 
experiments must be continued further. Sing 
glass (taking care to make it rhyme with farce with 
an unpronounced r, and not with gas, two sounds 
which may be distinguished as glaas and glas 
respectively) to a middle note in the compass, and 
run up and down as before. Observe that a good 
tone can be brought out for glaas at nearly every 
point of the scale, although the quality of the 
vowel slightly alters. Change the sound to glas 
(having a in that prolonged), and observe that at 
every pitch the musical quality of sound is 
decidedly deteriorated. But it is so disagreeably 
provincial to interchange these sounds, that the 
faulty musical quality will cause less annoyance 
than the faulty vowel quality. A way out of the 
difficulty will be afterwards indicated. 

Effect of Pitch on Peep through glass.' Take 
the three words peep through glass, and sing the 
scale up and down, giving all three words in one 


Sec. I. 

breath to each note and observe the great difference 
of effect, as already pointed out, and now still 
more clearly shewn by contrast. And then take 
the following or any other simple air, and sing it 
in succession to each of the three words, at all 
pitches which the voice can reach. 

, OS >> - i ^ 

through, through, through, through, through, 
glass, glass, glass, glass, glass, 





peep, peep, peep, peep, K**' , 

through, through, through, through, through, 
glass, glass, glass, glass, glass, 

^ * - m \ i 

through, through, through, through, through, 
glass, glass, glass, glass, glass, 

peep, peep, peep, peep, 
through, through, through, through, 
glass, glass. glass, glass. 

Observe that the effect of altering the vowel is 
similar to that of altering the instrument, that 
peep gives a very, reedy sound in the lower tones 
and a whistling sound in the upper tones, that 
through gives a fluty sound, especially in the upper 
tones, and that glass gives by far the best and 
fullest and pleasantest musical quality of tone. 

Effect of Pitch on ' All on, Those, Door, Rush'd, 
Panes, Fence.' In order to complete these Exer- 
cises, begin by taking all on, or rather awn on, 
in order to preserve the same consonants, and, 
treating these words in the same way as the 
others, observe that they both yield a good tone at 
nearly all pitches, but not so fine as door, which is 

the best of these vowels, for those approaches, 
rather too closely to through. Rush'd prolonged, 
though never a- bright clear ringing sound, is yet 
tolerably uniform in quality at all pitches. 
Finally, compare -panes and fence with that, or 
rather, to keep the same consonants, compare pane, 
pen, and pan at all parts of the scale in the way 
pointed out for other vowels. It will be found 
that pane has a harsh effect at all parts of tb 
compass of the voice, and that great improvement 
is due to changing it into pen prolonged, but that 
the change to pan is rather for the worse. Tho 
near resemblance of the two sounds pane and pen 
prolonged, will therefore enable the singer to avoid 
much harshness by using the latter for the former. 

Results of the Preceding Examination. By 

these Exercises the singer will have gradually 
learned for himself the antagonism of speech and 
song even for the most singable of speech sounds, 
the vowels, and he will also not have failed to 
observe the extremely unvocal and sometimes 
unpleasant action of the consonants, which in such 
a word as glaas mars the effect considerably, as 
shewn by leaving off one or the other or both of 
the extreme consonants as glaas, laas, glaa, laa, of 
which the last is by far the best sound known for 
trying the effect of music independently of words. 
But it is not enough for the singer, to know these 
results as facts. He requires to know on what 
natural relations they depend. And he also 
requires to know what are the precise speech 
sounds with which he has to deal, why he may 
take liberties with some and not with others, and 
how he can render those awkward interruptions of 
voice, the consonants, sufficiently audible without 
being disagreeably conspicuous, and this not only 
for his own language, but for those foreign tongues 
in which he may be called upon to sing, of which 
German, Italian, and French are the principal, 
and will therefore be carefully considered in the 
following pages. 


Musical Qualities of Tone first Explained by 
Professor Helmholtz. We are indebted to the 
researches of Professor Helmholtz* for our whole 
knowledge of the real nature of musical qualities 
of tone. The following is a very brief statement 
of some of the principal results of his researches 
so far as they bear upon speaking and singing. 

Simple Vibration. "Watch a pendulum, which is 
easily made by a piece of thread and a weight, as 
a key. Observe that the motion gradually dim- 
inishes till the weight reaches its highest point, at 
which moment the upward motion ceases, and the 
downward motion begins, but so instantaneously 
that no pause is perceptible, and no jerk takes 
place in the recommencement of motion. On 
careful examination, this quiet, uniform, steady, 
unjerked motion proceeds, till the motion ceases 
altogether. It has been usual in a pendulum to 
count the swings in each direction separately, and 
they are so counted by a clock. But the swing 
and its return or swang, forming a swing-swang, 
will, for present purposes, be considered as a single 
vibration. Thus a seconds pendulum makes 30 
vibrations in a minute, each vibration consisting of 

* See his work " On the Sensations of Tone, as a 
Physiological Basis for the Theory of Music." Translated 
by the present writer. Pp. 800, exclusive of Index, Preface. 
&c. Published by Longman & Co., in 1875. Price 36s. 

a swing lasting a second, and a swang lasting 
another second. A vibration of this particular 
kind, following the precise mathematical law of a 
pendulum, is called a simple vibration. 

Compound Vibration. All kinds of vibration 
consist of backwards and forwards motion taking 
place at regular intervals of time, called periods, 
so that the moving body is always at the same place 
at the end of a period. But all vibrations are not 
simple. For instance, a weaver's shuttle is thrown 
regularly across the loom, but its motion is 
suddenly arrested at the end, where it remains an 
appreciable time and then returns. In this case, 
however, the swings and swangs are of the same 
kind, though in different directions. But when 
an enormous hammer is slowly raised by a machine, 
and then the head allowed to fall suddenly by its 
own weight, the swing, or slow motion of the head 
of the hammer up, is very different from the swang, 
or rapid motion of the hammer down. Similarly 
if in driving in a pile, a weight is pulled up by 
several men tugging at a rope passing over a pulley 
and then let fall, the swing and swang of the 
vibration are very different. Such vibrations are 
called compound, because although actually as 
single as simple vibrations, mathematicians have 
discovered that the laws of compound vibrations 
may be deduced from the laws of several simple 


Sec. II. 

vibrations. This is a matter which must here be 
taken for granted without further explanation. 

Simple and Compound Sounds. Now sound is a 
sensation due to the motion of air communicated 
through the drum-skin of the ear, and a compli- 
cated internal apparatus, to the extremities of the 
nerves of hearing, which, in part, may be com- 
pared to a microscopic pianoforte with about 16400 
strings tuned to different pitches.* The sensation 
of a musical tone is experienced only when the 
particles of air make very small periodic vibrations. 
When those vibrations are simple, the sounds heard 
are called simple ; when they are compound, the 
sounds heard are also termed compound, and the 
internal apparatus of the ear, especially its micro- 
scopic pianoforte, enables the mind to separate the 
compound sound into a number of simple sounds, 
exactly corresponding to the exceedingly difficult 
and complex mathematical separation of the com- 
pound vibration of the air into simple vibrations. 
This analysis by the ear amounts to saying that 
when any musical sound is made by an instrument 
or the human voice, the ear experiences the same 
effect as if a certain series of simple tones having 
definite musical pitches, and very different degrees 
of loudness were sounded together. Of course, 
no such tones are really sounded, but as the 
mental effect is the same as if they were, it 
becomes convenient to speak of the compound 
musical tone as consisting of a series of simple 
partial tones, and to reason upon these partial 
tones as if they alone existed, instead of the com- 
pound tone itself. 

Experiments on .Resonance. Resonance Cham- 
bers. Vibrational Number and Pitch. Before 
proceeding further, try the following experiments, 
which are very important for singers. Strike a 
common tuning-fork, and hold it in the air ; its 

* According to the latest researches of Hensen. See 
Professor Preyer's pamphlet Ueber die Grenzen der 
Tonwahrnehmung (On the Limits of the Perception of 
Musical Tone), Jena, 1876, p. 41. 

sound will scarcely be heard. But hold it with the 
flat of one prong or the edges of both prongs over 
the mouths of different tumblers, or wide-necked 
bottles (pickle or prune or preserve bottles or jars) 
and a certain amount of reinforcement of the tone 
will be heard. A wide -mouthed bottle about six 
inches high will reinforce the C 1 of ordinary 
tuning-forks very fairly. Now try the effect of. 
pouring a little water into the bottom of the bottle 
and observe if the reinforcement is greater or less. 
If the reinforcement is greater, continue to pour 
more water till the reinforcement reaches its 
greatest effect and then lessens, and keep in only 
so much of the water as gives the greatest effect. 
If pouring water into the empty bottle makes the 
reinforcement of the tone of the tuning-fork less 
than before, empty the bottle, and with a piece of 
tin, wood, glass, or pasteboard (the cover of a book 
answers very well) forming a hard, flat cover, 
gradually diminish the opening of the mouth of 
the glass. The reinforcement will certainly in- 
crease up to a certain degree of covering, and then 
again diminish. Retain the amount of covering 
giving the greatest reinforcement. At least an 
octave of difference can be produced in this way, 
so that forks of very different pitches can be 
reinforced by the same bottle differently loaded 
with water at the bottom of covered at the top. 
The effect of water at the bottom and an open 
mouth is generally far superior to that of a covered 
mouth. After the best reinforcement is thus 
obtained, try the effect of partially obstructing the 
interior of the bottle by pieces of paper, wood, &c., 
which do not alter the height of the water ; these 
may be suspended from a thin stick laid over the 
mouth of the bottle, so as not to reach as far as the 
water. In every case the effect will be found to 
impair the beauty of the tone produced. 

The reinforcement of such bottles is due to 
setting the air within them into vibration by means 
of the tuning-fork, and is termed resonance, and 
the bottles are resonance chambers or cavities. The 
tone to which such a cavity resounds best is said to 

Sec. II. 


be its own tone (or one of its own tones, for most 
cavities of various shapes will resound to very 
different tones). The tone heard in these experi- 
ments is a simple tone, due to a simple vibration of 
the air. The number of vibrations which such a 
tone performs in a second of time is called its 
vibrational number, or sometimes simply its pitch, 
because the sensation of pitch depends solely on 
the vibrational number, and our perception of what 
particular nervous fibre in the microscopic piano of 
the internal ear already mentioned corresponds to 
that number of vibrations. 

The Nature of Musical Quality of Tone. 
flelmholts arranged tuning-forks, kept in constant 
motion by electricity, and corresponding to the 

d, d s d' m 1 s 1 ta 1 d 2 

123456 7 8 
(where ta v is a little flatter than the true musical ta) 
before proper resonance cavities, with covers, which 
he could partly close by finger keys to any amount 
he pleased, so as to increase or diminish the degree 
of the opening of the mouth of any one or more. 
The vibrational numbers of these notes are in the 
proportion of the figures written under them, 
so that if the vibrational number of d ( were 64, 
that of d would be twice 64 or 128, that of s would 
be 3 times 64 or 192, that of d" 4 times 64 or 256, 
that of ml 5 times 64 or 320, that of si 6 times 64 
or 384, that of ta v l 7 times 64 or 448, and that of 
d 2 8 times 64 or 512, the vibrational number of the 
simple tone obtained from a common C 1 tuning- 
fork. Helmholtz then found that by making all 
the forks sound at once, but by varying their degrees 
of loudness, he was able to reproduce a satisfactory 
imitation of the qualities of tone of most musical 
instruments and of several German vowel sounds. 
And (by conducting similar experiments with 
great care) he established that the quality of a com- 
pound tone consists solely in the various degrees of 
strength of the system of simple partial tones into 
which it is resolved by the ear. The various partial 

tones have always the relative pitches thus found, 
and are hence called the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, &c., partials 
respectively. The 1st is also called the prime, and 
the others the upper partials. The prime is 
generally (not always) much stronger than the 
other notes, and hence being most distinctly 
heard, determines the feeling of pitch. Hence the 
vibrational number of a compound musical tone is 
taken to be that of its prime. When the prime is 
not the loudest parti'al, the ear is frequently 
deceived as to the real pitch, and, as in that case 
the 2nd partial or Octave ot the prime is generally 
the loudest, the usual error is that of an Octave. 

Quality of Tone of the Singing Voice. All 

musical tones and all sung vowels have qualities of 
tone depending upon the relative loudness of the 
simple partial tones of the notes to which they are 
sung. And this relative loudness is determined 
partly by the mode in which the air is excited by a 
vibrating body directly, and partly by the reson- 
ance of the air in a cavity through which the 
vibration of the air excited by the vibrating body 
is conducted before it reaches the outer air, and 
partly by other causes which need not be here con 
sidered. In singing, the vibrating body consists 
of the two elastic chords which form the edges of 
the glottis or breathing hole in the larynx, and the 
mode of action is to allow puffs of air of various 
descriptions to pass periodically from the lungs 
into the resonance cavities above. All sounds pro- 
duced by emitting a series of successive puffs have 
a very great number of partial tones. Good bass 
voices have at least 20. The deep tones of the 
harmonium have at least 16 very sensible partials. 
The resonance chambers in speech are very 
numerous and very variable in form, and there are 
various constrictions and valves on the way. The 
consequence is that there are numerous resonances 
which reinforce very different partials, producing 
most of the qualities of the human voice, includ- 
ing the various vowel qualities and their varieties 
due to pitch and expression. 



Sec. II. 

Vowel Quality of Tone due to Kesonanee. The 
action of the resonance chambers in producing 
vowel qualities is rather complicated, but we may 
state generally that every specific vowel quality 
has its own special resonance cavity adapted to 
reinforce to the greatest extent various simple 
tones of exactly defined pitch. Now the pitch of 
the note sung by the voice at any time, (that is, of 
its prime partial,) is seldom or never the same as 
any one of the pitches which could be reinforced 
by the resonance cavities. Some of the higher 
partial tones will, however, be tolerably near to 
that pitch. In making the experiments with a 
tuning-fork and a resonance jar the reader will 
have felt the difference of effect as the resonance 
of the jars approached to or receded from the pitch 
of the fork, and have found that in some cases the 
tone of the fork was almost quenched by the 
inability of the air in the jar to resound to it. 
The same thing happens when the mouth is put 
into the position corresponding to any vowel. All 
the partial tones of which the pitch is tolerably 
near to those which the resonance cavity is adapted 
to reinforce best, will be more or less reinforced, 
and the others will be either left untouched or 
more or less damped. Hence every tone sung will 
have its quality of tone altered by the nature of 
the vowel position of the mouth, and this altera- 
tion of the original quality of tone is that which 
we recognise as a vowel. The different vowels in 
speech differ, as if, for example, we played for peep, 
a picolo flute ; for through, a deep organ flue pipe ; 
for glass, any conical organ reed pipe, and so on. 
Or as if for the vowels we substituted entirely 
different instruments. Just as we know a 
violin A from a flute A, or from a pianoforte A, 
or from an oboe A, and so on (all of which 
are compound musical tones having the same 
pitch), by their different qualities of tone only } 
so we know the vowels of speech when sung 
to the same pitch, solely by their difference of 
quality which we have been taught to recognise 
from childhood. We thus, too, are able to under- 
stand why some vowels alvays and necessarily give 

a bad quality of tone, and why by a slight altera- 
tion of the resonance cavities of the mouth, &c., 
we can improve the quality of tone without 
rendering it so different as to be no longer recog- 
nisable. We can also understand why it is that 
by other changes in the position of the mouth, &c., 
we can entirely change the quality, and make it 
unfitted for any musical purposes. Sing on any 
pitch to the vowel in glaas, and while keeping the 
voice steadily at that pitch, and purposing con- 
stantly to pronounce the same vowel, more or less 
close the teeth, raise or twist the tongue, close or 
twist the mouth, making the aperture of very 
various shapes and dimensions, or open the entrance 
to the nose, leaving the mouth either shut or open. 
Observe the great variety of qualities of tone, some 
good, others bad, and all more or less strange, 
which will thus result. This exercise is very 
important for making the singer feel the meaning 
of quality of tone, and the extent to which it is 
under his command. He will thus gradually learn 
to understand that for every musical note which 
can be produced in the larynx, there is an original 
quality of tone, which, however, it is impossible 
for us ever to hear, because we cannot remove all 
that portion of the head which lies above the 
larynx, without destroying the power of the larynx 
to produce any tone at all. We are, therefore, 
constrained to hear only its modification by the 
resonance chambers through which the vibrating 
air must inevitably pass. But we can perfectly well 
understand that these act just as variously shaped 
organ pipes fitted to the same reed (which, unlike 
the larynx, can be made to sound independently of 
the pipes) . We are thus able to define that a vowel 
is a modification (due to resonance in the cavities 
above the larynx), of an original quality of tone 
(produced by the vibrations of the vocal cords in the 

Experiments on the Nature of Vowel Qualities 
of Tone. It may be observed in passing, that all 
concords, when the notes sung are in just intona- 
tion, are really qualities of tone, and that the 

Sec. II. 



roughness arising from discords and from tempered 
music is due to the introduction of sounds not 
belonging to the series of partials 1, 2, 3, &c., or 
else to the beats of the partials of the tones which 
are sounded together. Procure seven voices which 
can sing d, d s d' m' s' d^ in perfect tune at the 
same time, and then let them vary the strength 
greatly, singing, for example, in succession as 
marked by the letters pp, p, mf, f, ff, and for 
silence, in the following scheme. 

d 2 

/ >PP 


ff :0 

P 'ff 


f :pp 


// :0 

P :// 

n 1 

f -PP 

: P 

Jf :/ 

P :0 

d 1 

f :pp 


P :/ 

P :0 


f 'PP 

PP >P 

P :p 

/ :0 


f 'PP 

PP 'P 

P :pp 

pp '.mf 


f IPP 

f wf 


p imf 

If voices cannot be procured, produce the tones in 
these different degrees of loudness on a quartet of 
viols, which, however, is not quite so good for the 
purpose. The two first trials give the full effect 
of the chord, but not of any usual qualities of tone 
The six last give effects not at all like chords or 
qualities of tone, but differing much in the same 
way as vowels. As the notes used are all compound 
tones, and not simple tones, the effect is not pre- 
cisely the same as in vowels, but it is of the same kind. 
Raise the dampers on a piano by the forte-pedal, 
and sing loudly and suddenly any vowel to the pitch 
of some note (a bass note is the best), directing 
the voice against the sound-board or strings, which 
should be exposed, at least in part, by opening the 
piano.* After a little pause the vowel will be 
echoed back from the piano. Damp the strings 
entirely, and sing a different vowel in the same 
way to the same note; after a pause, this new 

The usual cottage pianos in which the " action " covers 
the strings cannot be used in front. If the back silk screen 
be removed, and the sounding board exposed, they act better. 
But the best Instruments are flat pianos, and especially well- 
tuned grand pianos, with the lids raised, so that the singer 
can sing right down on to the strings. 

vowel is re-echoed. The re-echoed vowels are loud 
enough for a whole roomful of people to hear, and 
like enough for them to recognise, but they are 
not perfect, partly on account of the imperfect 
tuning of the pianoforte, and partly on account fo 
the sluggish action of the strings. The effect 
arises from the fact that strings vibrate sympa- 
thetically with the human voice, but only those 
partial tones of the strings will sound sympatheti- 
cally which are of the same pitch, or very nearly 
so, as some of the partial tones in the voice, and 
the pause is due to the circumstance that strings 
require time to get into audible vibration. This 
is a highly interesting experiment for singers, 
because it shews that vowels are really only 
qualities of tone which can be mechanically re- 
produced. And it is still more interesting 
generally as showing the precise way in which 
qualities of tone are communicated to the ear by 
the microscopical piano already mentioned, which 
forms the extremities of the nerves of hearing. 
These are set in motion by the vibrations of an 
elastic fluid in which they are immersed, and 
which has had its own vibrations communicated to 
it by the elastic external air. In the actual piano 
the strings are set in motion by the vibrations of 
the sounding board, which again has had its own 
vibrations communicated to it by the external air. 

Mr. A. Graham Bell, son of Mr. A. MelviUe Bell 
(to whose labours on speech I shall often have to 
allude), in the Centennial Exhibition at Phila- 
delphia, in 1876, exhibited a means of conveying 
the complex vibrations which produce the effect of 
vowels, and musical notes, that is, of vowels spoken 
and sung, through an electrical telegraph, to an 
ear placed at the other end of the telegraph wire, 
simply by making an elastic spring vibrate in 
sympathy with the vowels. This extraordinary 
fact, which is of great importance in clearing up 
our notions of the nature of vowel qualities of 
tone, was vouched for at the Glasgow Meeting of 
the British Association in 1876, by the great 
electrician, Sir William Thompson, who had him- 
self heard the vowels produced. 





Description of the following Tables. In the 

preceding Sections it was sufficient to indicate our 
13 strong or accented vowels by 13 words contain- 
ing them. But before proceeding to explain the 
nature of particular speech sounds here considered, 
it is necessary to give some notion of the system- 
atic method of writing them here adopted, and 
called " Glossic." In the Tables of " English and 
Foreign Glossic" there is given a column of words 
in small and large capitals, each followed by a 
word in small letters. The large or small capitals 
indicate Glossic, the small letters customary or 
Nomic spelling, and each word is written in both 
spellings. The Glossic large capitals shew the 
combinations of letters which represent the sounds 
expressed by the Nomic Italic letters. The turned 
period () or accent mark shews that the preceding 
vowel is strong, and, when the accent mark follows 
the vowel immediately, the vowel is long, but when 
a consonant intervenes, the vowel is short. By 
this means a general idea of the sounds will be 
obtained, sufficient for understanding the pro- 
nunciations occasionally inserted. For numerous 
examples and exact descriptions see the " Glossic 
Index" (Section XII) and the pages there referred 
to. Words in Glossic Spelling are usually dis- 

tinguished by being in Italics or else between 
square brackets []. 

The diagrams are sufficiently described on the 
page which faces them, and will be frequently 
referred to hereafter. They may be disregarded 
at first. 

The "Systematic Arrangement" includes all 
the sounds treated in this book For an explana- 
tion of such symbols as are not found in the 
following short key, see the passages referred to in 
the Glossic Index. They are collected together in 
this place for future reference, and may be entirely 
passed over at first, as they will be unintelligible 
without the following explanation. 

Note, that th, dh, kh, gh, sh, zh, ng must be 
separated ,by a hyphen when they have not the 
following meanings, as pot-hous,mad-hous,bai'k-hous, 
bag-hoal, mis-hap-, in--goa~ing, as poth-ous, madh- 
ous, baikh-ous, bagh-oal, mish-ap, ing-oa'ing would 
represent quite different sounds. 

Note also that the accent mark () is generally 
sufficient for this purpose,, as pot'hous. The accent 
mark is placed immediately after a long vowel or 
diphthong, and immediately after the consonants 
following a short vowel in the same syllable, as shewn 
in the examples. It is not used in French words. 

Strong Long Vowels. 
BEE-T loeet xAU'L caul 

DAI-T bait KOA-L coal 

BAA- loaa icOO'L cool 


Weak, Short, and Open Vowels. 
TROA'KEE troche AUeus'T ^gust 

WiT'I witty wiN'DOA window 

RAi-LwAI railway IN-FLOOENS inflwence 

Strong, Short, and Stopped Vowels. 
N!T ING knitting NOTING knotting 

MAT- ING matting rUOx-iNG footing 

(Note. AE, UU are used by some speakers only.) 

AAY aye 


HAI* Aay 


FOIL foil 

FOUL fowl 
FEUD &wd 


Sec. III. 




Vocal R. Weak. 

YAI' yea 

WAI' way 

DOL'ER dollor ON'ER honowr 

YHEU hue 

WHAi- wAey 

PROP-ER proper MER'MER nmr-mwr 

PEE' pea, 

FBI fie I 

EELiK-sER elixir PLEZH'ER pleasure 
TAi'LER tailor 

BEE- o"ee 

VEI vie 

TOA- toe 

THiN- thin 

Vocal R. Diphthongal. 

DOA- doe 

DHEN- Men 

pEE-R p^^r NAU-RTH north 

CHES-T chesi 

SEE-L seal 

pAI-R pair pOA-R pour 

JES - T yest 

ZEE-L zeal 

pAA'R par POOR poor 

KEE-P &eep 

MESH- mes^ 

GAIT gape 

MEZH-EK measure 

Vocal R. Triphthongal. 

EIR ire OUR owr EUR your 

Consonantal Z, Jf, JV, -ZV0. 
LAI* /ay KAI- wav 

Vocal R ( 'Strong $ Diphthongal} followed 

MAI* waay 

siNG-iNG singing 

by Trilled R\ 
OKER-R'iNG occurring nAA-RR'iNG marring 

Focal L, M, N. 

pEE-RR'iNG peering pOA'RR'iNG powring 

LIT-L littfo 

RITH-M rhythm OA-pN open 

pAI-RR'iNG pairing pOORR'ER poorer 

Trilled J?' 

Vocal R (TriphthongalJ followed by Trilled R\ 

R'AI* ray 

HuR'-i hurry 

rEI-RR'i ) .. FLOU-RR'i ) 
FEI-UR'i 1 iier ? FLOU-UR'i }* er J 

MER''i merry 

OKuR''ENs occurrence. 

KEU'RR'iNG cwring 

MAR' 'i marry 

Weak indistinct A, EL, EM, EN. 

Vocal R. Strong. 

EiDEE'A idea suoz-EM bosom 

HER-B h*rb 

KER- our 

EiD-EL idol TEN-ENr tenant 

MER' myrrh 

OKER- occwr 

REE'EL real 

(F. French, G. German, I. Italian.) 

Foreign and Provincial English Vowels. 
DUE M. F. 
UEx hwtte. F. 
pEO feu. F. 
oEO-Tu. Geothe. G. 
vOEp veuL F. 

bo'cke. G. 

bete. F. 

coquette. F. 
LAHsH Itiche. F. 
KAHsAi casser. F. 
NAO no. I. 

French Nasal Vowels 
vAEN' vin. F. OAN' on. f . 

AHN' an. F. OEN' un. F. 

German Consonants. 

DAAKH- dacA. G. KEo-NEEGY'Hukoni^e. G. 
TAA-GHu ta^e. G. PF'AA-L p/ahl. G. 

EEKY'H ich. G. VAA-L wahl. G. 

LY'EE gl\. I. 

Italian and French Liquids. 


I. BEEZAO-KY'AA bisog^ia. L 
beso^we. F. 


Sec. III. 



..-*-.. 2 3 




tX -V\ 5 





Urns.* Voiced Consonants. ( Rounded Vowel. ] Wide Vowel. ( ] Wide Bound Vowel. 

Sec. HI. 




These are merely diagrams, not complete draw- 
ings of the vocal organs. They are intended to 
shew roughly the positions of the tongue with 
regard to the palate, teeth, and uvula, and the 
position of the lips with respect to each other, and 
to the teeth) during the utterance of the vowels and 
consonants described in the following Sections. 

Diagrams 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 (occupying the whole 
first column) are longitudinal sections of the 
mouth, supposed to be cut from top to bottom, 
from the back (on the left), to the teeth in the 
front i on the right). The shaded parts are the 
Uvula [eu-veula] and the Tongue. The top line 
denotes the Palate [pal'et] or roof of the mouth, 
and the sharp angles on the right are the upper 
and lower Teeth. The wavy line at the root of 
tongue is the Epiglottis [ep-igloHs] or lid of the 
larynx. The line against which the uvula rests to 
prevent the air escaping through the nose is the 
back of the Pharynx [far'-ingks] or fleshy bag 
behind the mouth. 

Diagrams 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 (occupying 
the whole of the third column, and also 25, 26, in 
the fourth column) are similar sections, extending 
as far as the lips (also shaded \, but 15 and 18 omit 
the tongue as its position for P, B*, F, V* is 
determined by that due to the following sound. 

Diagrams 22, 23, 24, in the fourth column, are 
similar sections, including the lips and one Nostril, 
and also the Upper Bag of the Pharynx, through 
which the air escapes into the nose (in the direction 
shewn by the' dotted line and arrow heads) , because 
the uvula is not pressed against the back of the 
pharynx, as in 1, 2, 3, &c. 

Diagrams 8, 9, 10, in the second, and 27, 28, in 
the fourth column, are cross sections of the mouth, 
in front of a line joining the ears. The upper 
curve is the Palate or roof of the mouth ; the side 
pendants are the Side Teeth, and the shaded part is 
the upper portion of the tongue. 

Diagram 11, in the second column, shews the 
open or non-rounded lips, and 12, 13, 14, also in 
the second column, shew the lips rounded in dif- 
ferent degrees, the teeth behind them being always 
wide apart. Observe the difference of the corners 
of the mouth in 11 and 14. In 12, the lips are 
high-round; in 13, mid-round; and in 14, low- 

The letters to the left of each diagram, are the 
Glossic characters used for the corresponding 
sounds in the preceding " Short Key." Sometimes 
two or three diagrams are required to shew the 
position for one vowel or consonant. 

The CAPITAL LETTERS indicate the vowels 
heard in received English pronunciation. The 
small letters shew the vowel sounds heard in 
German, Italian, and French. 

AVhen ] is placed after a letter, as for AA], the 
larynx must be depressed, and the pharynx 
widened. When ( is placed before a letter, as for 
(OAj the lips must be rounded, as marked in dia- 
grams 12, 13, 14, in the second column, according 
as the tongue is high, mid, or low for producing 
the vowel, thus (00, (TJO], (ue, have the high- 
round lips in 12, (OA, UO], (eo, (oe] have the mid- 
round lips in 13, and (ATT, (0,have the low-round 
lips in 14. When no ( is prefixed, the lips are as 
in 11. When ( is placed before and ] after a letter, 
as for (0], the lips must be rounded and the larynx 
depressed and the pharynx widened at the same 

When * is placed after a consonant the voice has 
to be set on. 

YH, Y* differ too slightly in position from EE, 
and \VH, W* from (00, to be distinguished from 
them in these rough diagrams. 

H, accompanied, or not by unvoiced breath, being 
produced by a jerk of the diaphragm (derufram), 
or muscular layer separating the lungs from the 
bowels, has no diagram. 

In S, Z* the tip of the tongue is tense or stiff. 
In R'* it is soft or loose, and vibrates as the breath 
passes over it, producing interruptions or beats. 
Observe that for L*, diagram 27, the centre of the 
tongue, and for R'*, diagram 28, the sides of the 
tongue touch the palate. For T, D*, diagram 16, 
both the centre and the sides touch the palate, 
forming a complete stop. 

B* is treated as a vowel, diagram 4, being the 
sound of U, always followed by R'* before a vowel, 
and permissively, not obligatorily, followed by a 
very gentle R'* in other cases. 

Diphthongs and changing positions could not be 
noted, but are analysed in the following Sections. 



Sec. III. 


Capitals, English. Roman small, additional German, Italian, and French. Italic small, Incidental. 

t, not treated in these pages. 

Call the letters by their usual names, except r, which call air to prevent confusion with aa, and m, which 
is best called am, as em and en are difficult to distinguish. Call (') before and (') after a letter " hook," 
n before a letter "curve," () before a letter "circle," (?) "gradual," (?) "clear," (-J-) "glide," 
(--) " slur." Thus : uu " eu eu" w " double eu" Q h' " circle aich hook," hj. " aieh clear," t r " curve 
air" V "hook air," r" "air double-hook." 

I. n. in. 











High Front. 







Mid Front. 







Low Front. 







High Mixed. 







Mid Mixed. 







Low Mixed. 







High Back. 







Mid Back. 







Low Back. 


ah AU 



1. h, open glottis, flatus 

V. h', contracted glottis, whisper. 

3. h\ closed glottis, voice. 

4. 2, gradual attack or release, glottis moving 

from open to close, or from close to open, 

5. ?, clear attack or release, glottis closed for 

voice from first to last. 

6. ; , check, closed glottis, barring expiration by 

effectually resisting the pressure of the air. 

7. jBT, jerk ; including hi jerked gradual attack, 

and hi jerked clear attack, the two forms of 

Sec. Ill 



mtacts or Straits 
form ed by 

1. Lips round. 




Teeth and Point 1 
of Tongue. 

Gums and Point 1 
of Tongue. 

Palate and Point 1 
of Tongue. 

Arched Front of 1 
mgue and Palate. 1 

Sollowed Front of I 
mgue and Palate. 1 

Front and Point 1 
of Tongue. 

Front of Tongue 1 
and Palate. 

o3 fl 


Back of Tongue 1 
and Palate. 

Back of Tongue. 1 
alate, and Lips. 1 





^ ^ 

OD ^ 





m PH 







t t 




kw 1 







d 1 


t d 













































Flated. ' 




'rh <kh 






t r (t r 













t n 




1. Vowel A.+I-HJ. 

2. Mixed, B+I+Z+IL+I. 

Consonant P-J- 




Flatus, or Audible Breath. Breath driven from 
the lungs passes, through the "larynx " (lar''ingks) 
and throat, into the mouth or nose, or both, and so 
reaches the air. When the larynx is unobstructed, 
and the force with which breath is ejected is 
moderate, no sound is noticed. When the breath 
is driven more sharply through the unobstructed 
larynx, and the other passages are more or less 
compressed or obstructed, it is called " flatus " 
(flai-tus), and produces various kinds of "hiss." 
Both breath and flatus are unsuitable for singing, 
although flatus is very important in speech, and, 
when the cavity of the mouth is properly adapted, 
can become musical in " whistling*" 

Vocal Chords. The opening of the larynx is 
traversed by two highly elastic bands, called the 
" vocal chords." A good notion of their shape and 
action is obtained by extending the fore and 
middle fingers of the left hand (the other fingers 
and thumb being doubled in), and resting their 
tips on the lowest joint (that nearest the palm of 
hand) of the fore and middle fingers of the right 
hand, the rest of these fingers and all the other 
fingers being bent down, and the palms of both 
hands facing the ground. The figure thus formed 
is lozenge-shaped, with two long sides (the left 
fingers representing the vocal chords) and two 
short sides representing the " arytenoid cartilages" 
(ar''itee'noid kaa'rtilejezj , or ladle-shaped pieces 
of gristle, by which the chords can be opened or 
brought together (imitated by the motion of the 
right fingers). The point or vertex of the angle 
formed by the chords, which are horizontal, lies in 
the front of the larynx, just where "Adam's 
apple " can be felt in the throat. The variable 
tongue-shaped opening between the vocal chords is 
-Ailed the " glottis " (glot'is). 

Whisper as Distinguished from Flatus.. -When 
the chords and cartilages are both open, there is a 
perfect passage for the breath, and only inaudible 
breath or audible flatus is possible. When the 
edges of the chords are brought near, but not in 
contact, there is a " fluttering" of the edges of the 
chords, which, though insufficient to produce voice 
proper, causes " whisper," which is felt as a 
mixture of voice and flatus. This is also quite 
unsuited for singing. 

Voice and Original Quality of Tone. When 
the edges of the chords absolutely touch, forming 
a complete barrier to the breath, but are not held 
tight and rigid, so that the breath is able to open 
them slightly, after which they close again by 
their own elasticity, the air passes out in regularly 
recurrent " puffs." The rapidity of these puffs de- 
pends on the "tightness" with which the chords are 
stretched; and the " cleanness" of the puffs (that 
is, their sharp separationJrom each other) depends 
upon the exactness and duration of the closure of 
the chords, the length of time during which they 
remain closed, and many other circumstances. 
The " rapidity " of the puffs (that is, the number 
of them which occur in a second) determines the 
pitch of the compound musical tone, as defined in 
Sec. II., p. 8. The " cleanness" of the puffs de- 
termines the initial quality of tone, that is, the 
number of partial tones in any musical tone of the 
voice (always very large) and their relative 
degrees of loudness. The natural formation of 
the chords and the perfect exactness and nature of 
their elasticity are the main ingredients in a good 
voice. This quality is, however, greatly influenced 
by a little, but extremely variable, cavity, just 
above the chords (" the ventricle of Morgagni," 

Sec. IV. 


ven'trikl ov Maor'gaa-ny'ee) by the box of the larynx 
itself, and especially by its lid, the " epiglottis " 
(ep'iglot-isj. But though all this apparatus greatly 
changes the quality of tone, by which we express 
the various kinds of emotion mentioned in Sec. I., 
p. 2, and hence becomes of the greatest importance 
both to the singer and the orator, they do not 
make the modifications recognised in speech proper, 
and they cannot be described with sufficient brevity 
or clearness for practical purposes. All these 
modifications of quality have, therefore, to be 
learned by special training exercises, patterned by 
a skilful teacher, which it is not our business at 
present to consider. It is, however, important to 
know, that the singing and speaking voice issues 
from the larynx and enters the throat or " pharynx" 
(far" -ingles; with a determinate quality of tone and 
a determinate pitch, and that the quality, but not 
the pitch, has to be subsequently modified by the 
resonant cavities through which it passes, and 
that this modification transforms the merely vocal 
sound into intelligible speech. 

The Kesonance Cavities The reader should 
now refer to the rough diagrams on p. 14, with the 
explanations there given, which will be rendered 
more intelligible by what follows. The wavy line 
at the bottom of diagrams 1 to 7 indicates rudely the 
top of the epiglottis. The " voice " (or recurrent 
puffs forming the air within the cavities into 
waves) passes between it and the line to its left, 
which forms the back wall of the pharynx. These 
diagrams shew a little shaded tongue, the " uvula" 
(eicveula) , lying against this wall, so that the puffs 
of air have to pass into the mouth, through a 
narrowing passage (not shewn in the diagrams) 
called the " arches of the palate." These and the 
uvula are easily seen in a small looking-glass when 
the mouth is opened. If, however, the uvula lie 
free from the back wall of the pharynx, as in 
diagrams 22, 23, 24, the voice or puffs of air can 
also pass behind it, as shewn by the dotted line and 
arrow heads, through the pear-shaped "upper" 
pharynx and the " back " nostrils (which lie where 

the dotted line cuts the front wall of the uppei 
pharynx), into the complicated "nasal cavities" 
above the " hard " palate, and finally escapes by 
the " front " nostrils. 

Brief Definitions of Breath, Flatus, Whisper, 
and Voice as Originators, and Throat, Nose, and 
Mouth as Modifiers of Sound. The points to be 
borne in mind by the singer or speaker who wishes 
to understand the nature of pronunciation are 
these : 

Breath. Quiet, noiseless emission of air from the 
lungs through the open glottis, and unobstructed 
mouth or nose, or both, unvocal, unmusical. 

Flatus. Audible emission of air, through the open 
glottis, and more or less constricted or obstructed 
throat, mouth, or nose, unvocal, unmusical, 
more or less hissing. 

Whisper. Audible emission of air, through a glottis 
nearly but not quite closed, thrown into imper- 
fect puffs by the fluttering of the edges of the 
vocal chords, but allowing much flatus to pass 
without sensible alteration by the puifs, un- 
musical, but occasionally used in speaking, more 
or less vocal. 

Voice. Audible emission of air through a com- 
pletely closed glottis, forcing the chords asunder, 
and wholly reduced to regular puffs, that is, 
without allowing any sensible flatus to pass, with 
a variable, but in each case definite, original 
quality of tone and pitch, producing sonorous 
undulations (soanoa'rr'us undeulai'shenz) in the 
resonance cavities, which modify the quality of 
tone (but not the pitch") by altering the relative 
degree of loudness of the upper partials (p. 8), and 
send out the undulations to the atmosphere, 
producing the sensation of a more or less musical 
sound with a definite quality of tone, vocal, 



Sec. IV. 

Resonance Cavities. Besides the small cavities of 
the larynx which determine the original quality 
of tone, there are three principal cavities, under 
the voluntary control of the speaker or singer, 
which modify it. These may be called, 

Throat. The lower pharynx from the epiglottis to 
the part where the uvula cuts off the entrance to 
the nose, and the arches of the palate form the 
entrance to the mouth all breath, flatus, or 
voice must enter this cavity. 

Nose. The upper pharynx and the cavities above 
the hard palate, from which all breath, flatus, or 
voice can be cut off at pleasure. 

Mouth. The cavity between the arches of the 
palate and the lips, the most modifiable of all 
the resonance cavities. 

How to Study the Effect of the Modifiers. The 
first business of the pupil in learning to pronounce 
accurately, whether in speaking or in singing, is to 
study the method of altering the form or action of 
these three modifying cavities, throat, nose and 
mouth, and the effect of their various changes in 
modifying the quality of tone. Numerous exer- 
cises will be suggested for bringing these actions 
home to the consciousness of the learner, as 
particular cases occur, but it is first advisible to 
obtain a general notion of the action. As this 
book is intended especially for singers, the singing 
voice will be alone considered, and it is fortunately 
altogether simpler than the speaking voice. 

Throat Modifications. During quiet respiration 
place a finger gently on the hard lump of the 
Adam's apple, or gristly box forming the larynx. 
Close the mouth tightly and swallow. The larynx 
will be felt to jump upwards, quite above the point 
of the finger. After practising this once or twice, 
till the action of the muscles becomes understood, 
raise the larynx without swallowing. It is evident 
that when the larynx is raised the whole of the 
pharynx is shortened, and hence its shape is 
materially altered. 

Next place the thumb and two fingers lightly on 
the throat above the larynx, close under the jaw, 
and swallow as before. It will be found that the 
throat, which was before soft and loose, becomes 
suddenly hard and tight, and projects considerably. 
Hence when the larynx is raised there is a great 
contraction of the muscles in this region, which 
makes them swell externally, and also internally, 
constricting the pharynx as well as shortening it. 

Sing to the vowel aa, a middle note in youi com- 
pass and call it d, and then take s above and s, 
below, both as nearly as possible to the same vowel- 
sound aa , while holding the throat in the two 
ways just mentioned, and observe generally that 
the higher note raises and constricts the pharynx, 
and the lower note lowers and relaxes the pharynx. 

In actual singing and speech very great varieties 
in the length and degree of constriction of the 
pharynx take place, but it is found sufficient for 
the classification of speech-sounds to distinguish 
two classes of modification: Throat primary, that 
is, with the larynx and pharynx in about the ordinary 
position of quiet respiration ; Throat wide, that is, 
with the larynx lower and the pharynx opener than 
before. This refers evidently to the ordinary 
range of pitch in speech. In singing, as has just 
been seen, these distinctions cannot be satisfactorily 
carried out, as the pitcH naturally alters the posi- 
tion of the larynx. But distinctions more or less 
equivalent to these can be made, as was intimated 
in Section I., and will be more particularly alluded 
to afterwards, and hence we may retain the rough 
distinction of the terms primary and wide, which 
were introduced by Mr. Melville Bell in his 
" Visible Speech," when he for the first time drew 
attention to the effect of pharyngal action on 

Nose Modifications. Open the mouth as widely 
as possible, facing the full light of a window, with 
the head well thrown back to admit the light, and 
with a very small piece of looking-glass, which will 
not cast asha.dowin thethroat, observe the interior of 
the mouth. Note especially the arch of the palate, 
and the uvula hanging from the middle of it like a 

Sec IV. 



little tongue the real tongue may be kept down 
by thinking of the vowel ait, without making any 
attempt to utter it. Now breathe quietly through 
the nose only. It will be seen that the tongue 
immediately rises, and clings close to the top of 
the arch of the palate, completely concealing the 
uvula. This action closes the mouth against the 
passage of the air from the throat, and forces it 
through the nose. Then draw breath through the 
mouth, and the tongue immediately sinks, and 
observe its alternate rise and fall for a few respira- 
tions. Change the mode of respiration, inspiring 
and expiring by the nose only. The tongue will 
be seen to remain fixed above. Again change the 
mode of respiration, and expire by both the nose 
and the mouth. When the motion is gentle, you 
will see the uvula gently advance every time you 
expire, and if you breathe with a jerk, the uvula 
will be absolutely jerked forward, together with 
all the loose folds of the " soft palate " forming 
the top of the arch of the palate, and the point of 
the uvula will be thrown upwards. This is pro- 
duced by the rapid passage of the air both behind 
the uvula and below it. 

Stand as before, with open mouth and glass, and 
breathing quietly for one or two respirations, 
suddenly say or sing the vowel aa to a short 
staccato note at an easy pitch, and then proceed 
with the easy respiration. Do this several times 
in succession.' Observe (and don't cease experi- 
menting till you have clearly observed) that every 
time aa is sung there is formed a sudden dimple or 
saucer-shaped depression in the uvula just below 
the arch of the palate and some little way from its 
tip, evidently arising from bringing the back of 
the uvula against the back wall of the pharynx, as 
shewn in the diagrams 1 to 7, having the effect of 
stopping off the passage of air into the nose, just 
as the tongue in a former experiment stopped off 
the passage of air into the mouth. 

Next, standing as before, sing aa steadily at an 
easy pitch, and observe that the uvula is drawn 
back as already mentioned. Then in the same 
breath and with the same degree of force (trying 

to keep the tongue quite steady, which will be 
found difficult), endeavour to give aa a "nasal 
twang," which 1 will write as t aa, and observe that 
immediately the quality of tone changes, the uvula 
again descends freely, as in the quiet respiration 
through mouth and nose. The eifect is not so 
strong or striking as before, because the voice does 
not admit of being emitted with so much force as 
the unobstructed breath, but if carefully observed 
for several successive alterations of aa ( aa aa t aa aa, 
it will be quite unmistakable. The greatest diffi- 
culty will be felt in keeping the tongue down to 
its proper position for aa, as it involuntarily rises 
to check the air from entering the mouth, and, if 
the tongue is not kept down, the uvula cannot be 
properly seen This exercise will also shew that 
nasality cannot be prevented by throwing the head 
well back, but that a muscular action is still 
necessary to press the uvula against the back wall 
of the pharynx and keep it there. 

After this has been practised before the glass till 
you are familiar with the action, practise it without 
the glass, and get to feel the action of the muscles 
required to draw the uvula away from the wall of 
the pharynx. Practice also to feel the difference 
between a small and a great degree of nasal twang. 
Practice also the effect of closing the front nostrils 
with the fingers, while singing aa and while sing- 
ing t aa, and observe that this closure leaves aa 
absolutely unaltered, but changes t aa, not into aa 
or any untwanged vowel, but into a different nasal 
twang, arising from the circumstance that the 
resonance in the nasal cavities, which still takes 
place, does not freely communicate with the outer 
air. The power we have of altering the degree of 
nasality depends, at least partially, on the degree 
of opening between the back of the uvula and the 
wall of the pharynx, and the slightest degree of 
such opening during the sound of a vowel is unen- 
durable in English, German, or Italian singing, 
though occasionally necessary in French. As 
many English, and especially Americans, and even 
Germans are apt to nasalise their vowels, and most 
especially this vowel aa, the most careful practice 



Sec. IV. 

is required to avoid it, and the valvular action of 
the uvula should be thoroughly understood by 
much repetition of the experiments here suggested, 
which may be easily considerably varied. 

Mouth Modifications Action of Teeth and Lips. 
The size of the mouth may be greatly changed, 
without much alteration of its form, by the open- 
ing and closing of the jaw. Many speakers are in 
the habit of keeping their teeth closo. In the 
experiments of Section II, we saw how much the 
closing of the opening of a resonance cavity alters 
its pitch, and hence its modifying power. No good 
clear tone can be produced when the teeth are 
closed. Sing aa with lips and teeth wide open; 
endeavour to retain the tone, pitch, and force abso- 
lutely unchanged, while the jaw is suddenly closed 
and the teeth locked, the lips remaining as far open 
as possible, and observe the difference of effect. 
As a general rule the singer should always keep his 
teeth far enough apart for him to insert the first 
joint of his thumb between them. For high notes 
a wider opening is required. But the opening 
should never be less while a vowel is sung. All 
closure should be made by the soft lips only. Sing 
the vowel aa with wide teeth and lips, and then, 
while endeavouring to keep the tone, pitch, and 
force constant, alter the shape of the lips as sug- 
gested by the diagrams 11 to 14, passing slowly 
and gradually from 11 to 14, 13, and 12 in this 
order. Also try the effect of protruding the lips 
in a funnel shape, and of bringing the inner parts 
close and projecting the outer margins. Also try 
the effect of large and small side openings, so that 
there is leffc only a small opening at one corner, 
and make this opening at one time as round, and 
at another as flat as possible. Also try the effect 
of drawing the lips tightly in, while closing them, 
bringing the outer margin as near the inside of the 
mouth as possible. Try also to pass by insensible 
degrees from one position to the other. Observe 
very carefully the great modifications produced in 
this one clear vowel aa by this alteration of the 
lips only, while the teeth and tongue are kept 

absolutely fixed, and the mind intends to utter the 
vowel aa all the time. 

The open lips, as in diagram 11, are considered 
by Mr. Melville Bell as ordinary, and not to 
require noting. Closure of the lips in any way is 
termed rounding, and three degrees of rounding 
are recognised, as in diagrams 12, 13, and 14, as 
usually accompanying various heights of the 
tongue. This may still be retained as convenient, 
though the experiments just made will shew the 
learner that it is only a rough classification. 

Mouth Modifications Action of Tongue. The 
chief source of change in the shape and resonance 
power of the large cavity of the mouth arises from 
that extremly movable, flexible, extensible, con- 
tractible plug, the tongue. Throughout all the 
explanations of the next Section it will be advis- 
able to watch it with two small pieces of looking- 
gkss, one held in front of the mouth, and reflecting 
the opening and tongue directly to the eye, and the 
other held at the side, and so turned as to reflect 
the tongue to the first glass, which reflects it to 
the eye. There will be found some difficulty at 
first in managing these glasses, and in keeping the 
lips and teeth sufficiently open to see the action, 
but it is a difficulty worth overcoming to those 
who wish to understand the unruly instrument 
with which they will have so much to do in speak- 
ing and singing. 

The upper surface of tongue is roughly divided 
by Mr. Melville Bell into three parts, back, front, 
and tip ; the back being that part which is nearest 
to the throat, the tip that which is nearest to the 
teeth, and the front the intermediate portion. Mr. 
Bell also recognises three degrees of height of the 
tongue, low, mid, and high, and this height may 
affect either the back only or front only, or both 
together, producing a mixed position. All these 
distinctions are very rough, of course, but also 
very convenient, and sufficient for most purposes. 
But it must be borne in mind that they do not pre- 
tend to be accurate or exhaustive, and a few simple 
experiments will shew that numerous additions 
would be required to make them at all complete. 

Sec. IV. 


Sing the vowel aa, with open teeth and lips, and 
with the tongue in the freest and easiest position 
capable of producing a good tone, and keep up the 
intention of pronouncing this same vowel while the 
teeth and lips are kept fixed, and only the tongue 
is moved, the nose being constantly shut off by the 
uvula. First gradually protrude the tongue out 
between the teeth as far as possible, keeping it 
clear of the upper teeth ; the quality of tone will 
be found to alter sensibly for the worse. Next, 
bringing the tongue back to its usual position, 
sound aa clearly, and make the tongue as small and 
as low as possible ; observe the new alteration of 
tone, which decidedly thickens in quality. Pass 
rapidly from this to the former position with 
extended tongue, and the aa sound will seem to 
become entirely obliterated. Re-assuming the aa 
position, bring the tip of the tongue well up, so 
that the under surface of the tongue is easily seen, 
but the tip does not touch the palate. Observe 
that this again roughens and thickens the sound, 
but in a different way from that resulting from 
lowering the tongue, and that the vowel would be 
clearly recognised. Now carry this further, bend 
the tcngue so round that the under surface of the 
tip rests firmly on the hard palate, and observe 
that the last change of quality is also carried 
further, and the musical character of the tone greatly 
altered for the worse. This difference of quality 
is best appreciated always by rapid changes to the 
extreme positions. Re-assume the aa position, 
press the tip of the tongue firmly against the 
lower gums, and endeavour to pronounce aa while 
you raise the back of the tongue only. Observe 
that the intention to pronounce aa in such a posi- 
tion results in complete failure, a mere abortive 
noise resulting and dying rapidly off. Re-assume 
the aa position, and move the tongue about 

fantastically, observing the changes, till occasion- 
ally either with the back or broad front and tip of 
the tongue the whole passage of air is stopped, and 
observe the sudden cessation of sound. 

Object of these Experiments and Observations. 

Some of the above sounds are more or less used 
in some languages, but the experiments suggested 
have been purposely selected so as to avoid known 
sounds, in order that the learner may feel for 
himself the meaning of sudden and gradual 
alteration of the resonance cavity of the mouth by 
the action of the tongue and lips. Absurd as 
many of the results may appear, they will all prove 
useful in familiarising the mind with the notion of 
the modifications produced in one original quality 
of tone by voluntary modifications of the forms of 
the cavities through which voice or flatus has to 
pass, and will render the following explanations 
perfectly easy and simple to comprehend. The 
actions of the tongue, lips, and throat become 
almost involuntary, and certainly unconscioiis, 
through habit, and are performed with so much 
rapidity, that they are extremely difficult to 
analyse. But such an analysis must be attempted 
when any new sounds have to be produced, or 
familiar sounds corrected. Hence the necessity of 
first performing such extreme experiments as are 
here suggested, which, lying altogether out of 
usual habits, require a conscious action to repro- 
duce. The examination of the throat by touch, 
and of the uvula, lips and tongue by sight, will 
aid materially to a right conception of what is 
required. The desired result, however, will not be 
gained unless the learner finally attains the same 
unconscious power of producing the desired results 
as he already does for ordinary speech. 



Definition of a Vowel. The experiments in 
Sections II. and IV. lead to the following primary 
principles : An original quality of tone is pro- 
duced by the vocal chords and the cavities of the 
larynx. This quality of tone is modified by the 
passage of the undulating air from the larynx 
through the throat, nose, and mouth, jointly or 
severally. This modification varies with the 
shapes given to the cavities of the throat, nose, 
and mouth, and is, in general, different for every 
difference of shape, although, exceptionally, differ- 
ent shapes may produce the same, or at least, 
indistinguishable modifications. The modification 
may leave the original quality of tone more or 
less musical, or render it more or less unmusical. 

A Vowel is a fully musical modification of an 
original quality of tone, produced by a definite shape 
of the cavities of the throat, nose and mouth. 

That this modification should be appreciable it 
must last for a sensible time, which may be very 
variable. Hence we have short, medial (that is, 
middle length), and long vowels. But if con- 
tinued for a very long time the modification ceases 
to impress the ear, which perceives only the 
persistent quality of ton?. It is by a tolerably 
rapid change of quality unly that the difference of 
modification is felt, and the separation of the 
symbols as. telegraphic marks of thought, is 
thoroughly appreciated. 

" Genera" and "Species" of Vowels. Slight 
variations of the definite shapes of the throat, 
nose, and mouth, produce slight changes in the 
modifications of quality which produce vowel effects. 

Each such is really a separate vowel. But when 
the difference is small, the ear fails to appreciate 
it, even when the sounds are uttered very closely 
after one another, without severe training and 
practice, such as is never undertaken except 
by investigators. The listener merely wants to 
know those broad distinctions which indicate 
differences of thought. National habits, accur- 
ately cultivated, and local habits of small com- 
munities, where the speakers cannot even read and 
write, lead to very fine distinctions, which serve to 
separate the native from the stranger, who seldom 
or never attains the precise native sound. It is 
sufficient for the stranger to be readily understood 
by the native, and for the native to apprehend 
without difficulty, what is the vowel modification 
intended by the stranger; because in that case 
thought is reciprocally communicated. This is a 
most important consideration in the pronunciation 
of foreign languages. 

Each vowel, as usually understood, is therefore 
not one single definite modification of the original 
quality of tone, that is, one single " species " 
(spee-shieezj, but a whole set or kind or " genus" 
(jee-nusj of modifications strictly separated by the 
consciousness of the speaker and the listener from 
other kinds or " genera " (jen'er'a). The speaker 
and singer has therefore to study the "generic" 
fjener'-ikj character, and learn the permissible 
amount of " specific " (spisif-ikj variation from 
the " type." This is especially important to the 
singer, as appears by Section I., because he has 
to produce recognisable vowel modifications under 
circumstances for which the original type wis not 

Sec. V. 


framed, and for which, it is sometimes not well 
adapted, as when singing ee at a very low pitch 
or oo at a very high pitch. 

It becomes necessary, therefore, to give the 
"typical" (tip'ikel) forms of the cavities of the 
throat, nose, and mouth, for producing a vowel 
genus, and to learn, so far as is necessary for 
practical purposes, its admissible and inadmissible 
variations, of which the first form the vowel species 
of that vowel genus, and the second form vowel 
species of some other, often unknown, vowel 
genus. And these typical forms must be such as 
will produce the typical vowels recognised in the 
"received," "refined," "literary," "educated," 
"cultivated," or rather "central" pronunciation 
of any language, as distinct from the " vulgar," 
" rude," " illiterate," " uneducated," " unculti- 
vated,", or rather "local" pronunciations still 
heard in different parts of different countries, 
formerly much more prevalent than at present, and 
apparently destined to expire. In the present 
work the "central" pronunciations of English, 
German, Italian, and French, alone, will bo 
considered. Other languages, and local varieties 
will be noticed only in passing, for illustration or 

How the Forms of the Resonance Cavities for 
Vowels are to be Described. In describing the 
forms of the cavities I shall adopt almost exactly 
the terms used by Mr. Melville Bell, who has 
pointed them out more accurately and definitely 
than preceding writers. See his "Visible Speech." 

Throat. As we have seen in Section IV., all 
sounds are "guttural" (gut'ur'el) or employ the 
throat, hence the throat need not be expressly 
named, but merely its states, distinguished as 
primary fprevmur 1 i) or usual for any particular 
sound, and " wide " or enlarged somewhere. These 
distinctions are sufficient for our present purposes. 

Nese. When the nasal cavity is not cut off by 
the method shewn in Section IV., the mouth either 
may or may not be shut off, that is, the voice may 
pass out through the nose only (in which case it 

also generally resounds in part at least of the 
closed mouth), or through nose and mouth at the 
same time ; these cases will be distinguished as 
" nasal " (nai-sel, nai'zelj, and " orinasal " 
(oa-rr'mavsel, ocrrr'ina'izelj . 

Mouth. When the cavity of the nose is entirely 
cut oif , the sounds are "oral" (oa'rr'elj. But as 
this is the usual case, and the cases where the 
cavity of the nose is not entirely cut off have been 
already distinguished, the term " oral " will not be 
employed except on special occasions, and all 
sounds must be considered to be " oral " unless 
they are specially termed "nasal," or "orinasal." 
The cavity of the mouth is bounded by the arches 
of the palate, the cheeks, the teeth, and the lips, 
and is more or less obstructed by the tongue. 

Arches. These may be in the usual or "lax" 
condition for the sound, which it is therefore not 
necessary to mention, or may be " constricted," 
so that the passage from the throat to the mouth 
is narrowed. Mr. Bell does not find it necessary 
to mention this at all as a specific variety, but we 
shall find it convenient. 

Cheeks. These are assumed to be in their usual 
condition, neither "hollowed" by being drawn in 
between the separated jaws, nor " puffed " as in 
blowing the trumpet. In general the state of the 
cheek need not be noticed. But it produces 
specific varieties, and in singing the cheeks require 
to be "tense" or hardened muscularly, to produce 
good resonance, by sufficiently resisting the vibra- 
tions of the air within the mouth. The singer 
must never forget that he is for the time a musical 
instrument (and, of course, a good deal more), and 
is subject, therefore, to all the acoustic (akou stik, 
ukoo'stik] laws which regulate musical instruments. 

Teeth. As already stated, the upper and lower 
teeth have to be held well apart. These hard 
boundaries of the mouth at its sides and front are 
very important to the singer. Any gaps are apt 
to impair the quality of tone, and produce un- 
pleasant hisses and lisps, and should, therefore, be 


filled up immediately. It will not be necessary to 
mention the teeth in describing the cavity of the 

Lips, Open, High-round, Mid-round, Low-round. 
The closure of the mouth more or less by the lips 
has a most important effect on the resonance of the 
mouth, and must be accurately described. In the 
usual case the lips are "open," as in diagram 11, 
where it will be observed that the corners of the 
mouth do not form a sharp angle, but are 
terminated with a kind of string. Observe this 
form in the glass. For very high notes the singer 
will often find it necessary to open his mouth so 
wide that the vertical exceeds the horizontal 
opening. Various other forms of the open lips 
also occur and produce small specific varieties, 
which need not be noticed Diagram 11 shews 
the typical form. Three degrees only of closed or 
" round" lips need be noticed, though, of course, a 
vast variety really exists. 

" Low- round " shews that the corners are 
slightly brought together, the opening remaining 
considerable, as in saying au. See diagram 14. 

" Mid- round " shews that the edges of the lips 
touch for a considerable distance from the corners, 
and the opening is much contracted, as in saying 
oa. See diagram 13. 

" High-round" shews that the lips are still more 
in contact than in the last case, and that the 
opening is very small indeed, as in saying oo ; the 
contraction is often much greater than in diagram 
12, and the lips are often protruded slightly, while 
the whole width of the mouth between the corners 
of the lips is much diminished. 

It is not usual, nor generally necessary, to 
mention these degrees by the additions " high," 
" mid," and " low," when these are used with the 
corresponding heights of the tongue, as is usually 
the case, and Mr. Melville Bell, considering no 
other case, does not employ these qualifications. 
But varieties occur in some parts of England even, 
in which the different degrees of rounding are not 
used with the corresnopding height of the tongue, 

Sec. V 

and in this case, as well as for teaching purposes, 
it is necessary to distinguish these three principal 
degrees. It should also be borne in mind by the 
teacher, in order to enable him to recognise and 
correct errors of pronunciation, that the typical 
forms of arranging the lips, as shewn in diagrams 
11 to 14 are constantly departed from. As the 
lips can be always readily seen, the teacher should 
watch them closely. The "pouting" of either 
lip separately or of both lips together ; the 
" pursing " in of the lips, giving them the effect' 
of being gathered in by an inner purse string, 
forming a round and much crumpled orifice ; the 
"flattening" of the opening by bringing the lips 
closer together in the middle, although no contact 
or no greater contact is made towards the corners ; 
and above all, " closing " of the aperture during 
the time of utterance, so as to begin with com- 
paratively open and end with comparatively closed 
lips, either for vowels which should have through- 
out their utterance, open, or else definitely rounded 
lips ; all these are varieties actually observed in 
different speakers, and all tend to alter and obscure 
the sound to be produced. They are also all of 
them habits very difficult to correct, as the speaker- 
is usually quite unconscious of them, and has been 
accustomed to them all his life. 

Tongue, Back, Front, Point, or Tijj. The upper 
surface of the tongue is divided into three parts, 
" back," " front," or middle, and " point " or tip, 
and when the under surface is exposed, by turning 
the point upwards, it is said to be " reverted." 
Other forms of the tongue must be specially 
described in particular cases. The tongue may be 
raised at three principal altitudes " low," as in 
diagrams 3 and 7 ; " mid," as in diagrams 2 and 6 ; 
and " high," as in diagrams 1 and 5. And in each 
of these cases, either the ''back" alone may be 
particularly affected, in which case we have 
' high-back," diagram 5 ; "mid-back," diagram 6; 
' low-back," diagram 7 ; or else the " front " 
alone, producing il high-front," diagram 1 ; "mid- 
front," diagram 2 ; or " low-front," diagram 3 ; 

Sec. V. 



or finally, both front and back may be raised so 
that the tongue is tolerably flat with a little 
depression in the middle, and in this case Mr. Bell 
calls the position "mixed," as the "mid-mixed," 
diagram 4. 

The positions of the tongue having the principal 
effect on the resonance of the oral cavity, and 
hence in producing vowel modifications of quality, 
the vowels are naturally arranged by Mr. Bell 
according to the positions of the tongue, which 
produce 9 different forms. Each of the resonances 
thus produced may be modified by the " primary " 
or " wide " condition of the throat, giving, there- 
fore, twice nine, or 18 resonances. But each of 
these resonances again, may be modified by the 
" open" or " round " condition of the lips, so that 
if we suppose the three degrees of rounding to 
correspond to the three degrees of height of the 
tongue, we shall get twice eighteen, or 36 
resonances. These give the 36 vowels of " Visible 
Speech." They are in reality only typical forms } 
which are each capable of numerous modifications, 
but these need not be here considered. And as all 
the 36 forms do not occur in the 4 languages here 
treated, they need not be all studied. In order not 
to confuse the learner, 12 of them will be entirely 

Description of the Systematic Arrangement of 
the Vowels on p. 16. The 36 forms of the 
resonance cavities thus indicated, for oral vowels 
only, are systematically arranged in the columns 
I. to IV. of division A of the Table on p. 16. The 
9 heights of the tongue, numbered from the 
highest to the lowest, each with its systematic 
name, occupy the two columns headed " Height " 
and " Tongue." Then columns I. and II. shew 
modifications of the throat only, the lips being 
" open ;" column I. gives the " primary," and 
column II. the "wide" forms. The next two 
columns contain the modifications produced by 
'high, mid, or low rounding' according to the 
position ot the tongue. The symbols contained at 

the crossing of the lines and columns are the 
Glossic symbols of the corresponding oral vowels, 
the f marking those which will not be considered 
in this treatise. The systematic name of any 
vowel is the name to the left of the line containing 
its Glossic symbol, and at the top of the column in 
which it lies. Thus A is low-front-wide, OA is 
mid-back-round ; is low-back-wide-round. The 
column V. gives four orinasal vowels to be subse- 
quently considered In this table the nature of 
the type, as Capital, Small Roman, Small Italic, 
points out certain classes of vowels which will 
require different degrees of attention. 

Capital Letters denote the 13 accented English 
vowels EE, AI, AA, AU, AO, OA, 00 ; I, E, A, 
0, U, UO. These must be well studied in the 
method to be presently pointed out. 

Small Roman Letters denote, first, the two vowels 
" ae, uu," which are often heard in received 
English in place of E, U, in accented syllables, the 
first "ae" being also common in Italian and 
French, and also four vowels, "ah, eo, oe, ue," 
which are common in German and French, and are 
more or less closely imitated in local English, but 
are unknown in received English and Italian. 
These must be also well studied. 

Small Italic Letters denote four vowels, i\ a\ ?', ', 
which are at least supposed to be heard in un- 
accented English syllables, and which it will be 
necessary to consider, but they will not require 
much study, except in case of a' ; and one uu\ 
which occurs provincially in glides, p. 37a. 

Mode of Observing, Mirror and Probe. To 

examine these positions use a " mirror," or small 
looking-glass not exceeding 2 or 3 inches square, 
and a " probe," for which a small bone paper knife 
(generally sold for a penny at stationers), or a 
large bone knitting needle with a nob at one end, 
or a long tapering wooden penholder, even a 
tightly rolled piece of paper, may be conveniently 


Sec. V. 

1. High- Front Oral Vowels. 

I. II. III. IV. 

Primary. Wide. Round. Wide-round. 
Symbol EE I f ue 

Diagram 1,8&11. 1,8&11. 1,8&12. 1,8&12. 

4. High-Mixed Oral Vowel. 
Symbol f *' f f 


EE. The front of the tongue is high, diagram 1, 
p. 14, very near to the hard palate. The point of 
the tongue is low, just behind the lower gums, but 
not touching. A little way from the point on each 
side, the tongue touches the lower teeth, and pro- 
ceeding towards the back, it will be found to press 
firmly against both upper and lower teeth, and 
each side of the hard palate, leaving a narrow 
channel in the middle, diagram 8. These partic- 
ulars should be determined by sight in the 
looking-glass, and by feel with the probe. The 
probe being placed below the front teeth and 
pressed tightly against them, should be pushed 
gently above the tongue as far as it will go, and 
then pressing the thumb nail against the probe and 
the upper teeth to mark the place where they 
touch it, withdraw the probe and measure how far 
it had entered the mouth. In my own case the 
distance is an inch and three quarters. The 
insertion of the probe will not injure the vowel 
sound of EE, which will have to be continued in a 
singing voice throughout the operation to preserve 
the position. The lips are wide open. The throat 
is compressed and shortened, the larynx being 
raised. There is, therefore, an extremely small 
resonance cavity in the throat and then a very 
narrow passage over the back of the tongue, ending 
in a wedge-shaped cavity towards the teeth and 
lips. The result is EE. See Section XI., Ex. 2, 
and also the examples in Glossic Index, Section 
XII. under EE. 

I. Grasp the throat gently above the larynx, 
and feel that it is fully hard and swollen. Then 

sing the vowel to a note of a tolerably high pitch, 
till it comes out clearly and ringingly. Descend 
gradually in pitch, but endeavour to keep the 
tightening of the throat the same. This will be 
found almost impossible, and any attempt to do so 
will soon render the quality of tone unmusical and 
unpleasant, and at the same time alter it materially 
from the original vowel quality. Then allow the 
larynx to sink, and the tightness to disappear 
gradually, as the voice descends in pitch. The 
quality of tone alters decidedly, but not disagree- 
ably, and, although the vowel sound is not EE, it 
can still be recognised as intended for EE. In 
performing this experiment, which is very im- 
portant for singers, the throat should still be 
grasped, and the probe inserted to feel that the 
tongue retains its position. It will be found that 
there is a tendency to depress the tongue very 
slightly as the pitch descends, and although this 
does not materially alter the effect, it is necessary 
to endeavour to keep the tongue in its high 
position. The altered vowel sound is no longer 
EE but I, the "high-front-wide" vowel, the 
tongue remaining fixed and the throat enlarging. 
Observe that in speaking, EE is generally long, and 
I short, but that in singing no regard is paid to 
the length of vowels usually observed in speaking, 
because the duration of the note, which is fixed by 
the composer, determines it, and hence EE, I, are 
for singers precisely the same sound, that is, they 
may be confused, according to the pitch. This is 
not the case for speakers. See Ex. 12 A, Section XI., 
to which all references to exercises relate. 

EE and I. Now take I at a middle pitch, and 
ascend, keeping the larynx down as much as 
possible. It will be found that as the pitch rises 
the larynx also rises, and the quality of tone 
passes naturally into EE, unless certain other 
changes are made, as by slightly lowering the 
tongue (so that the probe can enter about one- 
eighth of an inch further) , and by endeavouring 
to make the lower part of the shortened pharynx 
less constricted. Try by this means to sing to a 
high pitch EE, I, EE, I, keeping the pitch steady 

Sec. V. 



(for which purpose it will be found best to check 
the sound by an instrument with sustained tones) , 
and making the vowels long, but the change from 
one to another rapid, without any silence. Feel 
by grasping the throat that the chief change takes 
place there. It is worth while practising this 
exercise frequently, and learning to sing I up to 
any pitch, so that in singing an ascending passage 
written for EE, but taken as I, the quality of tone 
may remain recognisably the same. The quality 
of tone for I is almost always better than for EE, 
and even Italians and Frenchmen, who do not 
know I in speaking, will be found to fall naturally 
into I in singing. Although in singing it becomes 
necessary to confuse EE, I, in order to obtain good 
qualities of tone, this must never be done in 
speaking, Exs. 24 and b, must be practised with 
care for correct speaking. The important modifi- 
cations by consonants are exemplified under EE. I, 
in the Glossic Index. 

I'. In unaccented syllables the I is sometimes 
still more obscured, by altering the position of the 
part of the tongue between the high back and the 
low point, so as to make it more straight. This is 
effected by bringing the point of the tongue up 
nearly into the position of diagram 2, with the 
back as high as in diagram 1. This produces the 
high-mixed-wide vowel I', an important vowel in 
Welsh, where it occurs in accented syllables, and 
is written u or y, but for the languages here con- 
sidered no pains need be taken to separate I' from 
I. See Ex. 44 under -y, -ly, -ty, and Ex. 45 under 
e-, bi-, di-, and also Glossic Index under I and I'. 

HE. Having learned to sing EE, I, or rather I, 
well at all pitches, then attempt to sing them with 
the lips brought into the high-round position, 
diagram 12. Observe that it becomes quite im- 
possible to maintain the same quality of tone, and 
that an exertion is required in the larynx to 
maintain the same pitch. Take I at any pitch 
and bring the lips gradually into the high-round 

form ; observe the corresponding change of sound, 
which will somewhat resemble an eu diphthongal 
sound, as it begins with i and goes off into a sound 
not far off oo, but quite distinct from oo if the 
I-position of the tongue is well maintained. Then 
make the change rapidly, keeping the tongue and 
throat fixed, and maintaining pitch by an effort, 
while rapidly changing from perfectly open mouth 
to the high-round form. The new vowel sound 
thus produced is UE, or the French ti, which is 
often considered a great difficulty to Englishmen, 
but thus produced it is very easy. The speaker 
and singer should practice this exercise till he can 
reach the UE-position without the slightest diffi- 
culty. For singing French songs intelligibly, this 
vowel is of great importance, but so large a number 
of Germans have the bad habit of not distinguish- 
ing UE from either EE or I, that the singer 
would be intelligible, although he might appear 
vulgar to an educated German, if he used I for 
UE on all occasions in German songs only. There 
is a slight difference in the best central German 
and French pronunciations of this vowel, which 
may be disregarded, as unimportant. See Exs. 
48 and 50. Practise first, however, singing the 
scale upon I-UE. Observe that UE is not quite 
so easy to sing on a high pitch as I, and that when 
I falls naturally into EE, UE falls into a related 
sound, the high-front-round vowel, which there is 
no occasion to notice further. At a low pitch UE 
is softer and easier to sing than I, and has a better 
quality of tone 

EE, I, UE. Having clearly ascertained the 
exact positions for EE, I, UE, take any simple air 
with which you are familiar and sing it, first with 
every note to EE, as nearly as possible, then with 
every note to I, and lastly with every note to UE, 
and note the difference in the quality of tone 
produced, the sole means of distinguishing the 
vowels. To make this clearer, sing the measures 
alternately to I and UE, and observe the instant 
change of quality. 



Sec. V. 

2. Mid-Front Oral Vowels 

I. II. III. IV. 

Primary. Wide. Round. Wide-round. 
Symbols AI E eo oe 

Diagrams 2, 9 & 11. 2, 9 & 11. 2, 9 & 13. 2, 9 & 13. 

The front of the tongue is "mid," diagram 2, 
not nearly so much raised as for the high-front 
vowels, diagram 1. The point of the tongue is 
more raised, so as to be seen over the top of the 
lower teeth, and hence there is by no means such a 
sudden fall from the front to point. Past the 
point, on each side, the lower surface of the tongue 
rests on the lower teeth, and proceeding backwards, 
presses again the side teeth, but the pressure does 
not extend higher than the upper gums. See 
diagram 9, and compare with diagram 8. The 
consequence is that the probe can be made to enter 
much further than for high-front vowels, in my 
own case about two inches, or two inches and a 
sixteenth. The passage leading from the pharynx 
is not so narrowed, and it becomes much broader 
in passing over the front of the tongue, and does 
not widen vertically although it widens horizon- 
tally as it approaches the mouth. 

AI. The throat being somewhat constrained, 
the lips open, diagram 11, and the pitch a little 
above the middle of the voice, the vowel AI 
results. In producing this vowel Englishmen 
have to fight against the tendency to raise the 
position of the tongue mechanically, not by its 
own muscles, but rather by raising the lower jaw, 
which carries the tongue with it more or less 
towards the Ai^A-front position almost uncon- 
sciously. This must not be allowed. The singer 
must practise maintaining the position of the jaw 
and tongue steadily during the whole continuance 
of the sound, otherwise he will alter the quality of 
his tone, while maintaining his pitch, and produce 
a diphthongal effect, which, however much it may 
be tolerated in English speaking, is simply 
execrable in German, Italian, and French, whether 
for singing or speaking. The singer, therefore, 

should practise this vowel before his mirror, till he 
can maintain the single vowel quality AI for a full 
second of time, or more. Some Englishmen, 
especially Londoners, and inhabitants of the East 
Coast, have such an inveterate habit of passing 
from the Al-position to, or at least towards the 
I-position, that they will hardly dwell an 
appreciable length of time on the first element, and 
thus produce to other ears the effect of a diphthong, 
so that the Eastern "they, bait, pain" sounds to 
other persons like " thy, bite, pine." They do not 
so sound to the Eastern speaker, because he pro- 
nounces the three latter words with a different 
diphthong, and never confounds them. This will 
be considered hereafter. At present, it is perfectly 
unobjectionable in any English word to avoid this 
tendency to end AI with I, and utterly objection- 
able in any foreign word to indulge in such a 
tendency. See Ex. 3. 

E. Now sing the scale on AI. Observe that 
AI cannot be sung quite so easily on a high pitch 
as EE or I, and that when the middle pitch of the 
voice is passed, the quality of the tone becomes 
more and more reedy and harsh. To my own ears, 
although AI can be sung to a lower pitch than I, 
its quality of tone is much more disagreeable. Its 
recurrence is always unpleasantly felt in all 
singing. It is, however, greatly improved by 
lowering the larynx and widening the pharynx, 
precisely as in passing from EE to I. As the 
larynx naturally falls with the pitch, there is also 
a tendency to improve the AI quality in the low 
notes by this means. On indulging this tendency 
we change AI into E. Practise singing AI, E, 
AI, E, grasping the throat lightly, and observe 
the tightening for AI and the relaxation for E 
evident, though not so strongly marked as for 
EE, I and the improvement in the quality of 
tone when you pass from AI to E. Then sing the 
scale down on AI till it insensibly changes into E, 
and having reached E sing up on E, taking care to 
resist the tendency of falling into AI. Observe 
that E can be sung to a high tone more easily tha' 

Sec. V 


AI to a low tone. In English speaking AI is 
generally long, and E is short, but length of 
vowel depends on length of note only in singing, 
hence both must be sung long and both short, and 
in singing English it is quite intelligible if E is 
always used for AI. This use of E has also the 
advantage of preventing the bad tendency to end in 
I, except among inhabitants of the North East Coast. 
For English singers it is, therefore, permissible. 
Long E does occur in English in there, dare, fair, 
but never except before vocal R. In German the 
change is of no consequence, nor even in Italian 
and French, provided the open e of these languages 
be taken as the low-front vowel ae, to be presently 
considered. See Ex. I2b and 25, and Glossic Index 
under AI, E. 

EO, OE. Having secured AI, E, endeavour to 
sing them, kept strictly separate as primary and 
wide, with the lips in the mid-round position, 
diagram 13. Observe that the quality of tone 
immediately changes, and approaches the sound 
of TIE on the one hand and of U on the other. It 
should, however, be carefully distinguished from 
both. When AI is thus rounded it becomes EO, 
the fine French eu in feu, the German long o in 
schon. When E is thus rounded it becomes OE, 
the broad French eu in veuf, and German short o 
in bocke, konnte. Here again the distinction 
between EO and OE is constantly ignored. Some 
French and German writers do not remark it, and 
there is certainly no very strong distinction in 
ordinary speech. Singers seem to take whichever 
is most easy at the pitch at which they are singing. 
Hence although the speaker should endeavour to 
preserve the distinction which is observed by all 
careful speakers of German and French (the 
sounds are both unknown in Italian), yet the 
singer is at liberty to sing EO at the higher and 
OE at the middle and lower pitches, in singing the 
same word He will remain perfectly intelligible. 
Practically then the mid- front position yields only 
two genera of vowels E, OE each with two 
species carefully observed in speech. Any change 

to U or UU is quite inadmissible. But in nearly 
two-thirds of Germany the middle and lower 
classes have the habit of using ai, ae for eo, oe 
so that Englishmen can treat them so, or as ai, e 
without danger of being misunderstood in 
Germany. In France such a pronunciation would 
lead to interminable mistakes. 

I, UE ; E, OE. Now having got I, UE ; E, OE, 
sing a simple air, or even a bar, or merely a chord 
d, m, s, d 1 , taken at different pitches, first to I and 
then to E ; to I and UE ; to E and OE ; to UE 
and OE, and observe the changes of quality of 
tone. Sing on a single note the whole four vowels 
I, E, UE, OE, in various orders, as i ue e oe ; 
i ue oe e, i e ue oe, i e oe ue, i oe ue e, i oe e ue, 
ue i e oe, ue i oe e, ue e i oe, ue e oe i, and so on ; the 
object being to hit the great differences of quality 
with ease and certainty, at different pitches. 
Singing thus without consonants will lead to 
taking the vowels more clearly and accurately. 
See Ex. 48 and 50 for ue, eo, oe. 

3. Low-Front Oral Vowels. 

I. II. III. IV. 

Primary. Wide. Round. Wide-round. 
Symbols ae. A. f f 

Diags. 3,10&11. 3,10&11. 3,10&H. 3,10&14. 

As the vowel A is better known in English than 
the vowel AE, except by those speakers who use 
ae for e, it is better to begin this series with the 
wide vowel A. 

A. The tongue is altogether very low, but its 
front is perceptibly higher than its point, which 
still remains just above the lower teeth. The 
depression of the tongue is produced by removing 
it altogether from the upper teeth, as shewn in 
diagram 10, where the upper surface of the tongue 
has no connection with the palate or teeth, compare 
diagrams 8 and 9. The consequence is that there 
is a low flat passage above the tongue, with two 



Sec. V 

side passages around it, and a comparatively wide 
passage from the pharynx. The probe in my own 
case will enter nearly two inches and a half into 
the mouth. The round or knoh end of the knitting 
needle used as a probe should now be employed, 
as there is so little obstruction, that the soft palate 
will be reached and irritated by the point. Keep 
the pharynx low and unconstricted, and sing. The 
result is the received English A, or a in bat 
lengthened. In the town of Bath, this long sound 
occurs in speech, for they call it there Ba-th and 
not Baa-th, as in received speech. In the whole of 
the South of England, and even as high as 
Shropshire, and probably right through to Norfolk, 
the short form of this vowel is heard, varying, 
however, with a. In Caithness, Northumberland, 
Cumberland, and Westmorland cC verging towards 
aa, is more common, in Yorkshire, and Lancashire 
the older vowel aa is retained, and in South 
Scotland even ah is used. Tt is, however, not 
permissible for a singer to substitute aa for a 
notwithstanding the extreme pleasantness of aa, 
and the extreme unpleasantness of , because the 
effect is purely provincial. But as will be seen 
hereafter (p. 34), he may use #', which is much 
more agreeable than a. See Exs. I2e and 25. 

A, AE. The quality of A when lengthened has 
a very strong resemblance to the bleat of an old 
ewe, and when the throat is constricted to produce 
AE, as may be felt on grasping it lightly, 
the quality of tone as nearly resembles the 
answering bleat of the lamb. It is true that 
the bleat involves another element (namely, a 
peculiar periodic interruption in the glottis, which 
occurs in Arabic speech, and need not be further 
considered), but the vowels heard resemble A, AE 
nearer than any other that I know, and I have 
listened to sheep and lambs most attentively with 
a view to testing this resemblance. The similarity 
of AE to A is shewn by the frequent pronunciation 
of " thank, bank, cab" as thaengk, baengk, kaeb,a,n(i 
then as thengk, bengk, keb ; by the usual confusion 
that foreigners make of our A with their AE, and 

by the frequent substitution of A for AE (which 
is just the reverse) in Scotch. Many English 
speakers, almost all those from the provinces use 
AE for E in short syllables, and this pronunciation 
is recommended by so high an authority as Mr. 
Melville Bell, so that in the Short Key in Section 
III., p. 12, I have given it as an alternative in 
net ing, naet'ing for " netting." Hence in AE, A 
we have a primary and wide vowel with the same 
position which must not be interchanged in sing- 
ing. The use of a for E is Scotch, and quite 
inadmissible. The most that can be done to 
improve quality of tone in singing, is to avoid AE 
altogether, replacing it uniformly by E, and 
then to employ A' for A. But for foreign 
languages this is not sufficient. AI and AE are 
sharply distinguished both when long and short in 
French and Italian, and even ambiguities of mean- 
ing arise from confusing them. Hence all singers 
should carefully learn to distinguish them. But 
even in German, Italian, and French, the use of E 
for AE in short syllables would be intelligible, 
though E would sound '* thin," and the use of A 
for AE in long syllables would be intelligible, 
though it would sound broad and coarse. See 
Ex. 25, where ae may be used for e, and should be 
so used as an exercise. For AE see Exs. 48, 49, 50. 
The rounded form of these vowels can be easily 
produced, by using the low -round form, diagram 14, 
with slightly protruded lips, but they need not be 
studied, as they do not occur in the languages here 

5. Mid-Mixed. 6. Low-Mixea. 8. Mid-Back. 
9. Low-Back Oral Vowels. 

I. II. III. IV. 

Primary. Wide. Round. Wide-round. 

5. Mid-Mixed Oral Vowels. 
Symbols U. a'. f f 

Diagrams 4 & 11. 4 & 11 

Sec. V. VOWELS. 

6. Low-Mixed Oral Vowel. 
Symbols f e' f f 


9. Mid-Sack Oral Vowels. 
Symbols uu AA OA AO 

Diagrams 6 & 11. 6 & 11. 6 & 13. 6 & 13. 

9. Low- Back Oral Vowels. 
Symbols f ah AU O 

Diagrams 7 & 11. 7 & 11. 7 & 14. 7 & 14. 

The mixed vowel positions are so inadequately 
represented in the languages here considered, that 
it seems best to take the mid-mixed form in con- 
junction with the mid-back series, which is very 
fully developed, and also with the low-back series, 
into which the latter is apt to fall. 

For the back vowels the tongue never rises so 
high as for the front vowels. Even the highest 
back position (diagram 5) is scarcely higher than 
for the lowest front position (diagram 3), and 
hence the slope of the tongue for the mid and low 
back positions (diagrams 6 and 7) is scarcely more 
than for the mid-mixed positions (diagram 4). 
The mid-mixed position (diagram 4) is, however, 
higher than the mid-back position (diagram 6), 
and hence the quality of tone is much finer. The 
great change of position of the tongue in passing 
from the A position (diagram 3) to the AA position 
(diagram 6) is well seen in the mirror, on singing 
I, E, A, AA. The tongue seems entirely to dis- 
appear for A A, and the arches of the palate and 
uvula, which were previously quite invisible, come 
well into sight, though the tongue is still too high 
for me to see the tip end of my own uvula, which 
.is naturally rather long. If on the other hand the 
tongue is raised to the mid-mixed (diagram 4) 
position, only a small portion of the arch on each 
side of the uvula becomes visible, whereas if it 
falls to the low-back (diagram 7) position tho 
whole uvula is quite exposed, and the back wall of 


the pharynx can be easily seen.* In all three 
cases the tongue is so low that the probe can reach 
the uvula, and even be inserted under the arch, but 
as the probe then tends to produce nausea, and the 
distance of the tongue from the palate is perfectly 
visible, this experiment need not be tried. 

AA, AH, A'. Begin experiments with the mid- 
back wide which gives the extremely pleasant and 
musical quality of AA. The widening of the 
throat is not felt as anything but an easy position. 
The vowel can be sung and should be sung at all 
pitches, and the learner should watch his tongue 
and jaw in the mirror, and take care that they do 
not move as the pitch alters. He will observe that 
for deep tones the tongue at least has a tendency 
to fall and become completely hidden, assuming 
the low-back position (diagram 7) and giving the 
broad vowel AH, frequently used in South Scotch 
and French, and often replacing AA altogether with 
some German speakers. In high tones, on the 
contrary, the tongue has a tendency to rise to tho 
mid-mixed position (diagram 4), giving the fine 
thin vowel sound of A', much used by delicate 
English speakers, especially ladies, in such words 
as " ass, pass, staff, laugh, path, bath, plant, com- 
mand," in place of AA, and common now in Paris, 
where the sounds which writers on pronunciation 
generally assume to be AA, are divided among A' 
and AH. Even in Italian there is rather a 
tendency to use A' in place of AA, but all approach 
to AH is held to be odious, as it is in refined 
English speaking. Singing is, however, another 

* This circumstance has often been of use to me when I 
wished to examine either my own throat or another 
person's throat to see if it were inflamed or relaxed. It is 
well known that there is a great difficulty in inducing 1 
patients, especially children, to keep the tongue down, and 
that they involuntarily resist the action of the spoon used to 
depress it. Merely ask them to open their mouths and say 
AU, and the tongue disappears as by magic, revealing the 
whole inside of the mouth. But as the patient will then be 
breathing strongly into the observer's face, and his breath 
may be infectious (as in scarlet fever, diphtheria, putrid sore 
throat, &c. ) the observer should carefully screen his own face 
and nose with his hand while the patient is under examin- 
ation. Safety from infection is not secured by simply 
holding the breath. 


Sec. V. 

affair. It will be fcmnd that the attempt to sing 
pure A A at all pitches results in much worse 
musical effects than are produced by the use of A' 
in the higher, AA in the middle, and AH in the 
lower notes of the voice, and as these sounds may 
be all employed in any word without danger of 
xnintelligibility in any of the four languages here 
considered, the singer is at perfect liberty to adapt 
his pronunciation to his musical wants. But he 
should do it consciously, and know why and how 
he does it, and be scrupulous to avoid it in speech, 
where the same causes (great diversities of pitch) 
do not exist, and where the requirements of pro- 
nunciation are more severe. 

On singing in succession and to the same middle 
pitch ah, act, a , a and a, #', aa, a h, it will be felt 
that they form a progressive series, so closely 
related one to the other, that it is sometimes 
difficult to say where one begins and the other 
ends But if we skip over any one and sing a, aa, 
a J ah, and still more a ah, the change is felt to be 
very great indeed. No singer should be guilty of 
the fault of using the bad vowel quality a for the 
good vowel quantity a', or aa, saying glas ask staf 
la/path ior ala's a'sk sta'f laf bath or glaas aask 
staaf laaf baath (the vowel being long or short 
according to the length of the note), but no singer 
would offend who said ha'nd pa't ba'd for hand pat 
dad, although the sounds haand paat baad would be 
quite intolerable. This allows a way for the singer 
out of a great difficulty. The vowel a, as already 
remarked (p. 32 , is disagreeable for the singer, 
but a' is very agreeable. Hence he should practise 
every word given with A in the Grlossic Index, 
first with A and then with A' and then with AA, 
watch for the difference of effect, watch the 
position of his tongue by his mirror, and try to 
hit upon A' without falling into AA. See also 
Exs. 12c and 25, which contain words that may be 
pronounced with either A' or AA, contrasted with 
words containing AI and E. 

TT, UTJ. Now sing AA to a middle pitch, and 
grasping the throat lightly, tighten it so as to 

narrow the throat as usual, and thus modify its 
resonance. The effect is quite extraordinary. The 
beautiful quality of AA disappears as if by magic, 
and a dull obscure sound results, which is not bad 
to sing upon, but is nothing like so musical as 
AA. This is UU, a sound much used in the 
provinces and in Scotland, and even recommended 
for general use by Mr. Melville Bell, for u in cut. 
But the finer sound which I prefer, and which I 
hear from most educated Southerners is U, which 
is obtained from A' in the same way as UU from 
A A (by narrowing the pharynx), and bears to UU 
the same relation as A' to AA, so far as the 
position is concerned, but to my own feeling the 
difference between U and UU is almost that 
between A' and AH. There is, however, a sound 
of this character formed by narrowing the pharynx 
while saying AH. This (written ua in Glossic) 
occurs at most as a rare provincial sound, and 
hence need not be further considered. 

U, U', E'. Speaker* who use UU in accented 
syllables, generally fine off the sound to U in 
unaccented syllables, as huuzbund, maen shuun 
maenshun, for " husband, men shun mention." 
And those who use U also fine it off by raising the 
back of the tongue to the high-back position, pro 
ducing U', which will be described presently. 
Thus it seems to Mr. Melville Bell, that I myself 
pronounce the words last written as huz'bu'nd, 
men shun men~shu'n, which is altogether finer than 
the other, because the tongue is one stage higher 
for each vowel. This is, however, entirely a 
matter of taste. For the singer, however, I am 
inclined to think that the second set of sounds is 
preferable. In every case the vowels UU, U, U' 
are very important to the singer, and require care- 
ful study. As a general rule U, U' need not be 
distinguished, and the danger of using UU is its 
confusion with OA when short and stopped bv a 
consonant. Sing all the words in Ex. lie, and under 
U in the Glossic Index, both with U and with UU, 
but at the same pitch, throughout the scale, till the 
ear becomes familiar with the difference of quality 

Sec. V. 



In doing this it will be, of course, necessary to 
lengthen the vowels, which are supposed to he 
always short in speech, although in received 
English U or UU are always lengthened when 
before vocal R, which usually totally disappears. 
The mid-mixed vowel also often falls into a low- 
mixed vowel E' before this vocal R' by dropping 
the tongue very nearly to the low-back position, 
but keeping it rather more forward in the mouth. 
See the account of vocal R below. 

AO. Now sing AA to a middle pitch, and 
suddenly bring the lips into the mid-round posi- 
tion, diagram 13. The result is the round vowel 
AO, which has a very splendid quality, and is 
quite as musical as AA, and has in some respects 
even a better quality of tone for singers. Practice 
AA, AO, AA, AO, on the same breath till the 
effect comes clearly. This sound is the common 
short o in " cot, knot " kaot, naot, in many of our 
provinces, the regular short o in Germany, as 
in "holtz" Juiolts, the open o both long and 
short in Italian, as " poco, sciocco " pao'koa 
shyaok-koa, the common short o in French, as in 
" homme, corps" aom, kaor'. See Exs. 48, 49, 50, 
and also Ex. 9e should now be sung with ao for ca, 
In received English it occurs only as long before 
vocal R, as in u more, sore, oar," which in English 
Glossicare written moa'r, soa-r, oa f r, with the vocal 
r, which effects the change. See Exs. 20 and 28. 
The true sound of these syllables is rather com- 
plicated, arid will be explained in Section VI. 

ATI, 0. Very closely related to AO is our own 
peculiar English vowel 0, which is not found in 
the received pronunciation of any continental 
language, although it may be heard in North 
Germany. This is formed from AH by bringing 
the lips into the low-round form (diagram 14 , 
being careful to bring the inner parts of the 
corners of the lips a little more closely together 
than could be shewn in the diagram, and to 
advance the whole lips slightly. This vowel is so 
common in English that English people have no 
difficulty in speaking it short, although they often 

find much difficulty in lengthening it. Grasp the 
throat lightly, and sing on the words "on, cot, 
pod, stock," to long notes of middle pitch, and 
take care that no tightening is felt by the hand, 
that is, that there is no constriction of the 
pharynx. Then sing the same vowels with a con- 
striction of the pharynx, which is easily felt, and 
the result will be " awn, caught, pawed, stalk " 
aun, kaut, paud, stauk, that is, the vowel AU is 
generated. The singer must practice singing these 
words in succession to the same note, with his 
hand on his throat, as on aun, kot kaut, pod paud, 
stok stauk, and feel the difference in the action of 
the throat as well as the difference of the sound, if 
he wishes to make the distinction clear. In 
endeavouring to avoid aun kaut, &c., he must be 
careful to avoid falling into either aon, kaot, &c., 
or oan, koat, &c. There is one word in which the 
distinction is of great importance. No singer of 
hymns should allow God to sound as either gaud 
or goad, which have such different meanings. It 
is much better to use gaod for God than either of 
the two other sounds, because gaod has no other 
possible meaning in English. The great real 
difference between AU, 0, which are both utterly 
strange to German, Italian, and French, is shewn 
by the attempts of foreigners to pronounce them. 
They generally make the AU into AA, or at best 
AH ; and the almost always into AO. See them 
contrasted in Ex. 27. 

OA, AO. Sing UU to a long note of middle 
pitch, and bring the lips into the mid- round posi- 
tion (diagram 14), the result is the common OA in 
road. Now many English speakers, especially 
most of those in the South, educated or un- 
educated, have such a tendency to raise the back 
of the tongue, or else to contract the lips to the 
high round position (diagram 12) during the time 
that they fancy they are saying OA, that they 
practically begin with OA and insensibly end in 
OO. This is similar to the tendency already 
mentioned to end AI in I. Some speakers, 
especially the less educated, fly off at once from 



Sec. V. 

the OA into 00, and say almost ou for oa. This 
will be again referred to in Section VI. Singers 
should be extremely careful to guard against both 
practices. The change of quality from OA to OO 
is generally for the worse, especially at high 
pitches, so that the merely musical effect is injured. 
Practise singing OA up and down the scale, 
watching carefully in the mirror to see that the 
jaw does not ascend or the lips close as the sound 
continues. This is an important exercise. Such 
words as roam, room, are useful to sing. Observe 
whether when you finish the word roam, you utter 
the same sound as when you finish the word room. 
A list of such words is given in Ex. 30. It is 
much better to use AO for OA throughout 
(although this is not permissible in speech) than to 
sing OA with a rapid falling off into 00 In low 
pitches AO will always be found preferable to the 
singer. In some words there is a tendency to con- 
fuse OA with UU, and people often say haul for 
hoal, " whole." In singing there is not so much 
tendency to do so, but Ex. 27, where words like 
" sawed, sowed, sod, sud," satrd, soa'd, sod, sud or 
suud are compared, will be found useful in this 

The distinction between OA, AO is as important 
in Italian and French, as our distinction between 
OA, AU. As an Englishman would never con- 
fuse "coat" koa't with "caught" kau't, so an 
Italian would never confuse koa'ltoa " cultivated " 
with kao-ltoa " gathered," though both are spelled 
" colto." See Ex. 49, and Section XIV., No. II., 
Alphabetical Key to Italian. The Italian OA is 
somewhat nearer 00 than the English sound, but 
this is a distinction which need not be attended to. 

U UU. A' AA AH. OA AO AU 0. The series 
of vowels 

Primary. Wide. Eound. Round-wide. 
Mid-mixed U A' 

Mid-back UU AA OA AO 

Low-back AH AU 

are extremely important and should be well dis- 
tinguished. They can all be sung with tolerable 

ease and good effect at any pitch. Generally, 
however, U will suit high, and UU middle or low 
pitches ; A' suits high, AA middle, and AH low 
pitches ; OA, AO are both better at high and 
middle pitches, and AU, at low pitches. But 
care must be taken never to use AU for OA even 
at low pitches, where at most OA may fall into AO 

7. High-back Oral Vowels. 
I. II. III. IV. 

Primary. Wide. Round. High-round. 
Symbols uu' u' 00 UO. 

Diagrams 5 & 11. 5 & 11. 5 & 12. 5 & 12. 

00. The rounded forms being very familiar 
and the un-rounded forms little known in English, 
it is best to begin with the rounded forms. The 
lips are put into the high-round position, diag. 12, 
which may be much closer than in the diagram. 
By this means the whole interior of the mouth is 
concealed, so that the proper high-back position of 
the tongue (diagram 5) can only be felt by the 
probe. There is as wide a passage between the 
back of the tongue and the uvula, as in diag. 2, 
but the tongue is lower for diag. 5, and its upper 
part reaches just as high as the top of the arches 
of the palate. On inserting the probe and passing 
it over the upper surface of the tongue, you should 
feel that the tongue is quite below the upper teeth, 
even at the side, though in contact with the lower 
teeth. The probe can be inserted fully two inches 
and a half in my own case, but there is generally a 
little difficulty from the resistance of the tongue, 
which does not allow the probe to be properly 
directed. In feeling the distance it is better to 
insert the knob end of the knitting-needle so as 
not to irritate the soft palate too much. But in 
some respects the position of the tongue is not of 
much consequence provided it be not higher than 
the high-back position. Even a mid-back, or 
low-back tongue with the proper high round form 
of the lips, will produce a vowel- quality which all 
hearers will at first take for 00. But the high- 

Sec. V. 


back 00 is the genuine fine sound of English and 
Italian speakers, and should be always used. Some 
Germans use a thicker, deeper, hollower, low-back 
00 ; and in Sweden they have a mid back 00, 
which bears a considerable resemblance to OA, and 
is not unlike the Italian form of OA ; the lips 
remain in the high-round position for all of these 
forms, which, however, need not be further studied 
here. On the contrary, the high-back 00 must be 
carefully studied, and its effect must be dis- 
tinguished from OA on the one hand, and UE on 
the other. 

UE, UU', 00. The vowel UE differs from the 
vowel OO merely by having the high- front instead 
of high-back position of the tongue, and there 
is much provincial tendency in England to 
substitute UE, or some very similar vowels (which 
will not be here particularised) in place of 00. 
This arises from a bad habit of raising the tongue 
to the I position before closing the lips for 00, 
which is not at all uncommon, even when the 
tongue is subsequently dropped to its proper place. 
This error must be carefully avoided by singers, as 
it probably generates the provincial peculiarities 
of Norfolk, Suffolk, and Devonshire. The import- 
ant direction to those who have a tendency to say 
UE is, " Keep the tongue down," and they should 
be made to feel with the probe that their tongue 
has come up to the high-front or I position. It is 
very much better for such singers at first to sink 
the tongue into the mid-back or OA position, or 
even the low-back or AU position, than to raise it 
to the UE position. In many parts of South 
Lancashire, of Derbyshire, and of Cumberland, 
speakers have a habit of beginning their 00 with 
the mouth wide open (producing the very peculiar 
vowel MW'), but they rapidly close the mouth as 
they go on. The result (which may be written 60} 
is here merely mentioned by way of caution, and 
the bad habit which generates it must be most 
sedulously avoided. Singers who are in the habit 
of using 60 must be made to bring their lips into 
the position for oo before uttering the vowel. 

UO. Sing 00 up and down the scale. 00 will 
be found very difficult indeed to take in the upper 
notes of the voice. Leaving this difficulty for the 
moment, grasp the throat lightly as usual, and, 
singing 00 at an easy pitch, widen the pharynx, 
which will be felt by a relaxing or falling in of the 
muscles The result is the vowel UO as heard in 
" pull " puol~, distinct from " pool " poo- 1. Sing in 
succession 00, UO, 00, UO, and feel the musclei 
of the throat tighten as you pass from UO to 00. 
This contrast of OO, UO should be well felt, and 
easily made, for it is especially useful to the singer 
(see Ex. 32). And it is also very necessary to dis- 
tinguish UO from UU. There does not seem 
much resemblance to a Southener between " dull " 
and " pull," dul or duul and puol, but many pro- 
vincials reverse the sounds, and say duo I, puul, and 
others are so accustomed to UO that they cannot 
learn UU. Yet for UO the lips are closely 
rounded, diag. 12, and for UU they ought to be 
quite open, diag. 11. The transitional form, which 
may be written u, occurs in Lancashire, Derby- 
shire, and probably Cheshire and Northumberland. 
It consists in giving the tongue a mid-back position, 
and rounding the lips as for oo. It is very difficult 
for a Southern ear at times to say whether u is uu 
or uo, for it sounds like both, and is neither. But 
as it is really a bad sound of uo, and much less 
musical, the singer should always endeavour to 
obtain a pure uo. There is also a possibility of 
imitating the sound of UO with open lips, which 
may sometimes prove of use to the singer, 
especially when he wishes to sing 00 or UO on a 
high note, and will therefore be explained 
presently. But first observe, by singing up the 
scale, that UO will give a much better quality of 
tone in the high notes than 00, just as the vowel 
I gave better low notes than EE, and that hence as 
UO would not be distinguished in a singing voice 
from 00 indeed it is often confounded with it in 
the speaking voice the singer will find it as great 
an advantage to use UO generally (that is, for both 
oo and uo} as he found it to use the sound of I 
generally (that is, for both ee and i) . See p. 28. 



Sec. V 

U'. Next, while singing the wide UO at an easy 
pitch, suddenly opon the mouth quite wide, as in 
diag. 11. The whole character of the tone is 
changed, and it seems to lose all its previous 
roundness and "become ohscure, not unlike U, but 
something finer. This is U', a very useful vowel 
to the English singer, and which he should there- 
fore cultivate. Where the speaker, for accented 
syllables, would use U or even UU, this vowel U' 
may be sung, especially before /, m, n, in those 
indistinctly spoken unaccented syllables, to which 
singers have to give a clear full note. More 
of this when treating of I, m, n. But at present 
the exercise of singing UO, U', UO, U' must be 
taken carefully, and the difficulty of bringing out 
a good ringing tone on U', when the conditions of 
resonance are so suddenly altered, must be got over 
by patient trial and practice. By this sudden 
revelation of the inside of the mouth the true 
position of the tongue can be made visible, and, if 
the tongue were too low, we should get out more of 
an UU sound, while, if it were too high, we should 
approach an I' sound. When the sound of U' has 
once been safely hit, the singer should diligently 
practise it on all parts of the scale, with sustained, 
forte, crescendo, and diminuendo notes, remember- 
ing that he has to make use of it in overcoming 
future difficulties. 

UO'. While singing U' with the mouth open, 
endeavour to change to UO without closing the lips. 
An imitation of UO can be effected thus. The 
central parts of each lip are kept wide apart, but 
the corners are brought much nearer, and the 
insides of the lips are made visible, till the 
opening of the mouth assumes an oblong shape, 
longest from top to bottom, so that the front teeth 
are well seen. At the same time there is a 
muscular contraction of the arch of the palate, 
which is felt but cannot be seen, as it is so much 
concealed by the tongue. This double rounding, 
external of a peculiar kind (not shewn in any of 
the above diagrams, because irregular), and 
internal of the passage leading from the throat to 

the mouth, seems in some respect to serve the 
former purpose of partly closing the mouth by the 
lips only. The pharynx is narrowed for high 
notes, and widened for low notes. The vowel is 
neither precisely 00 nor UO, but is sufficiently 
like both to pass in singing, and may be written 
UO' or MO, and called " acute UO," for con- 
venience. The advantage of this sound to the 
singer, indicated by the acute accent, is that he 
can sing on it at the highest pitches of his voice, 
and even in falsetto, with a much better quality of 
tone than he could produce with either the proper 
00 or UO positions. This imitation is therefore 
recommended to the attention of the singer, as a 
means of overcoming a very serious difficulty. It 
was suggested to me by observing parrots, who can 
say "Poll," although they have no lips at all. 
They seem to produce the labial effect by means of 
a back membrane, which answers the purpose of 
our soft palate. 

The Musical Vowel Scale. In the Systematic 
Arrangement, p. 16, A, the vowels just considered 
were arranged in a systematic table according to 
the positions of the tongue by which the resonance 
that produced them was generated. In conclusion 
it seems best to arrange them in a kind of musical 
scale, descending from EE to UO and then gradu- 
ally rising again through the indistinct forms. The 
meaning of this is that the first vowels on the list are 
most easily produced at a high pitch, and that this 
pitch gradually lowers from EE to UO, and then 
again gradually rises to UE, which approaches 
nearly to the pitch of EE, and thus completes the 
circle, EE, AA, UO, UE, EE. If only the posi- 
tions be assumed, and flatus be driven through the 
mouth instead of voice, the scalar nature of the 
arrangement will be still better felt. Each form 
is here provided with a key word to its left, and on 
the right is placed the singing substitute, which 
may be used for those on to which it is bracketed, 
according to the intimations given in the above 
discussion, with a reference to the page and column 
(a left hand, b right hand) in which the explanations 
will be found. See also the G-lossic Index. 

Sec. V 



2&Spoken Vowels. 10 Sung Substitutes. 

Page 280. beet. EE \ 

280. bit. I I. Page 280. 

290. witty. i' 

Page 300. b0it. AI 

305. bet. E [ E. Page 305. 

, 320. bete. F. ae 

Page 315. b0t. 

A 0' Page 335. 

Page 335. ask (thin E.F.I.) a' 
335. lah ! AA [ AA. Page 335. 

, 335. Idche. F. ah 

Page 350. gnawed. AU 
350. nod. [ AU. Page 350. 

355. no. I. AO 

Page 355. known. OA OA. Page 355. 

r SS - ** 

Page 340. cwt (broad E) uu \ 
345. herd(occ-E) ,' 
340. wit (thin B) U j U> ^ a & e346 - 

380. ide0 

Page 310. veui. F. oe 

310. feu. F. eo 

oe. Page 310. 

Page 290. \m. F. ue ue. Page 370. 

V. French Orinasal Vowels or Nasals. 

1. 2. 3. 4. 

Symbols AEN' AHN' OAN' OEN' 
Diagrams 3, 11, 22. 7, 11, 22. 6, 13, 22. 2,13,22. 

N'. In the series of vowels just described the 
nasal passage was supposed to be entirely cut off 
by the pressure of the uvula against the back wall 
of the pharynx. Section IV, pp. 205 to 220. In 
the present series the voice has to pass through 
both the nose and the mouth, p. 210. This opening 
of the nasal passage necessarily modifies the posi- 
tion of the tongue, so that it becomes impossible 
to refer the orinasal precisely to corresponding 
oral vowels. But this can be done with sufficient 
accuracy for the purposes of notation and instruc- 
tion. The difficulty consists in obtaining the right 
amount of nasalisation. For French the nasality 
greatly exceeds that used for English by some 
Americans, or that given to German by Bavarian 
peasants. Probably one cause is that the passage 
behind the uvula v diag. 22) is very much larger for 
French nasality. The resonance in the nasal 
cavities, however, varies much, and cannot be 
denned, so that the following directions require to 
be supplemented by hearing many examples of the 
sounds (see Glossic Index) pronounced by different 
natives, male and female, young and old, as well as 
men in their prime. The letter N' after the Glossic 
vowel mark signifies that the nose passage is fully 
open, as in diagrams 22, 23, 24, but that the passage 
through the mouth is not obstructed, as it is in 
those diagrams. Observe the apostrophe. N and 
N' differ in this respect among others, that for N 
the voice passes through the nose only, and for N' 
through both nose and mouth. The oral passage is 
to be made as nearly as possible in the same way 
as for the vowel preceding N" . Hence N' does not 
indicate any sound, but a mode of modifying 
another sound, and the whole of each symbol, such 
as AEN', must be considered to represent a single 
orinasal vowel. What the English speaker haa 
especially to guard against is any confusion of the 
" direction " N' with the consonant NG. The 



5. V. 

simple sound AEN' and the combination of sounds 
AENG, which Germans are apt to use, are, as will 
be seen, totally different in construction. The 
oral vowels ae, ah, oa, oe to which the four nasals 
aeri , ahn', oan', oen' are here referred are those to 
which French writers refer them. To Englishmen 
they seem to be rather nasalisations of a, o, oa, u, 
so that they might be more simply written an', on' , 
oan , un'. But as three of these oral vowels, a, o, u, 
do not exist in French, it is better to follow the 
feeling of French phonetists. 

AEN'. Sing AE and, while singing, open and 
close the nasal passage several times in succession, 
producing alternately the French vowels in " bete, 
vin," baet, vaehri . The whole quality of the voice 
is changed, and an Englishman will find it difficult 
without much practice to produce anything like a 
good musical quality of tone out of it, especially 
to give it a soft effect without a disagreeable 
twang, and to hit it with ease and certainty when 
singing. The practice AE, AEN', AE, AEN', &c., 
will be very good for this purpose. The vowel 
bears a certain resemblance to the syllable any, 
which would be understood, but would be quietly 
thought hideous. That the sound really passes 
through both the mouth and nose, and that the 
opening through the mouth is even more important 
than the passage through the nose, is well shewn 
by closing the mouth with one hand, and pinching 
the front nostrils with the fingers of the other 
hand. When this is done simultaneously the 
whole sound rapidly ceases ; not immediately, for 
the air in the mouth and nose will resound till the 
air becomes too condensed. When the mouth only 
is covered, there is only a dull nasal hum. When 
the nostrils only are pinched, there still remains a 
distinct though slightly altered sound of AEN', 
shewing that resonance in the nose can nearly 
quite as well effect the result as resonance through 
the nose. 

AHN'. Sing AH, and, while singing, open and 
close the nasal passage alternately, producing 

alternately the French vowels in lache, an, lahsh, 
ahn'. Practise AH, AHN', AH, AHN' till the 
sound is reached with certainty. Looking in the 
mirror, observe the motion of the uvula in passing 
from the oral to the orinasal vowel, which can be 
well seen in this case. Then sing AEN', AHN' 
alternately, and observe in the mirror that the 
tongue changes in position precisely as it does 
when AE, AH are sung alternately, the little pro- 
jection of the uvula not being noticeable. Try 
the experiment of closing the nostrils for AHN', 
and observe again that it produces but a slight 
effect. This vowel bears a resemblance to the 
syllable ong, which is an intelligible but hideous 
substitute much used by Englishmen. 

OAN'. Sing OA, and, while singing, open and 
close the nasal passage alternately, producing 
alternately the French vowels OA, OAN' in 
" beau, bon" boa, boan' . Practise alternately OA, 
OAN', OA, OAN', tiU the sound is hit with 
certainty. Englishmen generally find a difficulty 
in distinguishing the two vowels AHN', OAN 1 , 
confusing them both in the deformity ong. At 
least they might become more intelligible by 
calling the present sound oang. But it should be 
observed that in oang there is no nasal vowel at all ; 
there is simply an oral vowel followed by an 
orinasal resonance, the -mouth being entirely 
obstructed, so that if we prolong oa we have no 
approach to oan' at all, and if we prolong ng we 
have much the same effect as would be produced by 
closing the mouth by the hand when saying oan'. 
observe that though closing the nostrils while 
saying aen', ahn' did not very materially affect the 
sound, closing the nostrils while saying oan' almost 
totally destroys it. In fact, there is great difficulty 
in bringing out any nasal sound at all. This very 
singular effect seems to depend on the insufficient 
outlet through the rounded mouth for both the 
oral and nasal resonances. It is useful as a 
characteristic distinction between //' and oan'. 
Practise ahn', oan', ahn', oan', &c., where the 
principal action consists in rounding the lips for 

Sec. V. 



oan\ Then aen' , oan' , and aen' , a Aft', oan' ; ahn' , 
aen', oan' ; ahri ', o<w', aen' , &c. Also introduce the 
oral vowels among them, so as not to come next 
their nasalisations, as aen', ah, oan', ae, ahn , aen', 
ah, all to the same pitch, and in one breath without 
pauses, but varying the pitch at different breaths. 

OEN'. Sing OE, and, while singing, open and 
close the nasal passage alternately, producing 
alternately the French vowels OE, OEN' in " oeuf, 
un" oef, oen'. Practise alternately oe, oen,' oe, oen' 
till the sound is thoroughly familiar. It bears a 
disagreeable likeness to ung, which most unpractised 
Englishmen use ; but those who can produce a true 
orinasal vowel are in the habit of saying un' or 
uun', nasalising u or uu rather than oe. It is a 
curious fact that the nasal un 1 or uun' with an 
open mouth, is scarcely affected by closing the 
nostrils. But if oen 1 is sounded with the mouth 
in the mid-round position (diagram 1 3) as for oe, 
the vowel is greatly affected, though not so much 
as the vowel oan'. 

Character of French Nasality. These four 
French nasals will require much study and care. 
See Ex. 50. The singer especially has to guard 
against making his tone too nasal. He must give 

due prominence, as already directed, to the oral, 
and principal, part of the resonance, and avoid 
twang. The orinasal vowels are quite free from 
disagreeable effect in good French singers, though 
it is possible, even for Frenchmen, to give them not 
merely a clarinet, but a bagpipe character. Those 
who wish to please when singing French, will take 
the trouble to avoid such an effect. A comparison 
of the quality of tone in the two last named instru- 
ments, both of which are confessedly nasal, will 
serve to explain the difference of effect that the 
singer has to aim at. Nasal quality of tone is due 
to the absence of the evenly numbered partials 
(p. Qa), thus if an instrument gives only the 

d, s n 1 ta x| r 2 
1357 9 

the effect is very nasal. See my translation of 
Helmholtz, p. 172, where nasal qualities are 
recognised in narrow stopped organ pipes, piano- 
forte strings struck in their middle points, and 
clarinets. The remedy is to produce numerous 
evenly numbered partials by resonance in the 
mouth, although of course the other, due to 
resonance in the nose, must be more distinct than 
usual, or there will be no orinasality. 





The Nature of Glides. Pitch Glides. Place one 
finger on a violin string, bow it for an instant, and 
then, without ceasing to bow, slide the finger 
along the string for some little distance and stop 
again, still bowing. Then a determinate note will 
be heard first and last, and between them a series 
of notes, following one another so rapidly, and 
differing from each other so slightly that it is 
impossible to distinguish them, although the effect 
of a continually altering pitch, and, necessarily, of 
a continually altering quality of tone, will be 
heard. This intermediate effect is called a " glide." 
It is totally different from proceeding from the first 
determinate tone to the last by a jump of the 
finger without sliding. The same effect can be 
produced in singing, where a voice can "glide" 
from d to s, for example, producing an intermediate 
series of notes varying in pitch and quality of 
tone, and the effect is called " portamento " 

Vowel Glides. But in the voice it is possible to 
make a glide of quality only, retaining the pitch, 
because a change in the form of the resonance 
chamber necessarily produces a change of quality. 
Sing AA, and continuing to sing at the same 
moderate pitch, raise the tongue quite gradually to 
the position for EE or I. It will be found that the 
raising of the tongue is mostly effected by raising 

| the lower jaw at the same time, though with a 
little practice this can be avoided. Then between 
the A A and the EE, and throughout the change oi 
position, a series of changing vowel qualities are 
heard, which constitute a " glide," distinguished in 
this case as a "vowel glide" because both the 
extreme sounds are vowels.* 

Temporary Symbolisation of Vowel Glides, and 
Effects of Crescendo and Diminuendo. Represent- 
ing a glide for the moment by placing -|- between 
the symbols of the first and last 'sound, we may 
write the effect of the above glide, thus 

AA + EE,~or AA -j- I 

Now perform the same operation with a crescendo 
(kraishai-ndoa) in force, and also with a diminuendo 
(deemeenooai-ndoa) in force from AA to EE, preserv- 
ing the pitch. We may for the moment write 
these operations thus 

Crescendo <; AA -f- EE, diminuendo :> A A -f- EE. 
Increase the rapidity of the change in two ways, first 
making the AA very long, and EE very short, and 
lastly making the AA very short and the EE very 
long. Indicating the long and short vowels for 
the moment by adding the words long and short 

* So far as I know, attention was first called to the 
nature and existence of these glides, and the name for them 
proposed, in my little tract called "English Phonetics," 
W 6185, published in 1854. 

Sec. VI. 


after the letters representing the vowels, supposing 
that in the first case they had equal length, both 
long or both short. We have the four additional 

<: AA long -\- EE short, :> AA long -f- EE short. 
<: A A short -f- EE long, > AA short -f- EE long. 
in all of which the vowel I may be used for EE. 
On singing these it will be found that the 
crescendo < has a bad effect, because the force is 
thrown on the least agreeable vowel, and that the 
crescendo with a short vowel at the end is worst of 
all, because there is no time for the ear to rest 
after the glide, and this causes a continual strain 
of attention. For the same reason a short glide is 
preferable to a long one. The diminuendo or ;> 
glides, in which the first or opening vowel is long, pro- 
duce the best effect in singing, because they are more 
musical, and, though the voice glides off to a short 
vowel, the result is not felt to be disagreeable, as it 
was before, because the diminishing force renders 
it unattractive, and even difficult to apprehend. 
But for the glide to be properly heard, it must be 
smart." On the other hand, in speaking the 
diminuendo or > glide with a short first and long 
second element is best ; for the force being put on 
strongly to the first element, which is held a very 
short time, the glide comes in for a large share of 
it, and is made conspicuous, while the second 
element, continued quietly for any length of time, 
gives repose and yet sustains the action. Some- 
what of the same effect is also produced when the 
first element is long, provided the second element 
is also long. 

Nature of Diphthongs. Two terminal vowels 
connected with a glide in this way form a 
diphthong (dif- thong ; this is the recent pronuncia- 
tion, though formerly dip- thong was used, and the 
pronunciation of the word is so given by Walker, 
together with trip-thong, nap'tha, opthal'mik, all of 
which have now / and not p). The essential 
character of a diphthong is the " glide," the 
length and qualities of the two vowels arc in- 

different. The "clearness" and "smartness" of 
the glide are important, as otherwise tho union is 
not perceived. There must always be a crescendo 
or diminuendo in a diphthong, so that one of the 
two extremes has more force than the other. The 
stress is generally on the vowel nearest to AA or 
to UU in the Vowel Scale on p. 39. The glide is- 
longest and most intelligible, and hence generally 
the union is closest and best, when there is a con- 
siderable difference between the heights of the 
tongue at the commencement and close of the 
glide. Different speakers, provinces, and countries 
have, however, very different habits in these 
respects, and we must not be guided by our own 
feelings alone. All, however, regard diphthongs 
as single syllables. 

Permanent Symbolisation of Vowel Glides. 
Although the full way of writing the glide is that 
already indicated, a briefer but equally systematic 
method is to write the two extreme vowels together, 
and place the short sign over the first letter or both 
letters of the element which is weak or has least 
force, when it follows, or over its last letter or both 
letters when it proceeds, quite independently of the 
length of that element. Thus aaee, aaoo, and 
eeaa, ooaa (or aaee, aaoo ; eeaa, ooaa} are diphthongs- 
having the stress on aa, which is the first element 
in the first two, and the last element in the last 
two. It is not necessary to mark the length of any 
but the element which has force, and then we 
write aa'ee, aa'oo, eeaa', ooaa', for a long element 
under force ; and, using a consonant for illustration, 
aaee't, aaoo't, eeaat', ooaat' for a short element 
under force. In speaking, the element without 
force is generally short when it comes first, and 
long when it comes last. 

Unanalysed Glossic Diphthongs. In ordinary 
Glossic the diphthongs are not completely analysed, 
because of the great variety of sounds in common, 
use assigned to each class without any intentional 
variation and without any change in the meaning 
attributed to the diphthongs. But the classes 



Sec. VI. 

themselves are especially distinguished by " un- 
unalysed" forms, as El, 01, OU, EU, or by affixing 
Y, W, or R to certain vowel signs. The difficulty 
felt by those who have not been accustomed to 
observe spoken sounds, or to analyse diphthongs, 
renders this symbolisation of classes very useful 
and important. But as it is important for the singer 
to understand how all these effects are produced, 
and to know how to avoid the numerous unpleasant 
varieties in common use, the precise meaning of 
these forms must now be considered, in all the four 
languages here treated. 


This class embraces all the forms in which the 
last position of the tongue is that for EE, I, or 
UE, diagram 1. The real final is EE in Italian 
and French, generally I in English and perhaps 
German, and in some cases UE in German. 

El. English, Spoken. The best forms for 
speakers are Ui or A'l, the first element loud and 
short, the glide conspicuous and diminishing in 
force to the second element, which may be long or 
short at pleasure, and is as often one as the other. 
The whole diphthong is often pronounced very 
short indeed, as in first personal pronoun, singular 
number, when in connection with verbs, as " I saw 
it " a'i sau it, or m sau it, but may be very much 
lengthened, as in " fie! " fa'r or fu1\ The sounds 
AAi, UUi are just admissible, but not pleasant to 
my ears, although Mr. Melville Bell gives the 
preference to AAi. But AHi, AUT, OAi, must be 
carefully avoided. Many Americans and Germans 
(p. 39), and even Englishmen, have a bad habit of 
not sufficiently closing the nasal passage by the 
uvula for AA, and hence will give a nasal twang to 
AA, written ,AA, which is carried over to the 
following I, especially when an N follows, thus 
English "mine" and German "mein" will be 
called mpain. This is a specially disagreeable 

fault, which all English singers must sedulously 
avoid. Even a trace of nasality greatly injures the 
fine quality of tone in the vowel AA. See Ex. 34. 

El. English, Sung. The best form for singers 
is AA-T or A' 'I with a long first element, and a short 
sharp glide leading up to the I at the end to make 
the union evident. The sound AA is rather broad, 
and hence it is advisable for the singer to get away 
from it into A' as soon as possible, and dwell the 
greater part of the time on A', till he closes up 
suddenly with the glide and I, thus : aa short -j- ' 
long -j- short glide on to i short. He thus gets 
the best tone to sing on, and the glide from aa td 
' indicates the coming final glide sufficiently to 
prevent confusion with simple AA or A', and 
produces the mental effect of prolonging the whole 
diphthong (which is, of course, impossible) instead 
of one of its elements. The sung diphthong is, 
however, very different from the spoken one, 
except for the word aye, which is usually aa-\ in 
speech. The sounds : u long -\- i, uu long -|- i, 
would be very disagreeable in singing. 

El. German. The German spoken diphthong 
written " ei, ey, ai, ay," is AAee or AAi. or AHee, 
AHi. The first element is decidedly longer and 
more prominent than in English, and never rises 
to A' or obscures to H, UU. But as already 
mentioned, in Germany, as in America, the first 
element is apt to be nasalised, and this defect must 
be avoided. The singer, therefore, can take the 
German EI precisely as the English ; but an 
English speaker who uses a German AAi for an 
English Ui or Ai is apt to become ludicrous. The 
peculiar German diphthong AAue is theoretically 
admitted by all German writers on pronunciation, 
for the written forms " eu, au," but I do not 
remember ever to have heard it in actual use, 
from ordinary speakers, or even in the pulpit, or 
on the stage. In middle Germany I generally 
heard ahee, from ordinary speakers of the middle 
class, with a very long ah and a conspicuous glide, 
thus distinguishing the sound of "eu, au " from 

Sec. VI. 



that of " ei '' aaee, which had a shorter glide. But 
in North Germany attee, is used, like English OI, 
and this had "better be used by all English singers. 

EI. Italian. Vowel Slurs. The elements in 
Italian diphthongs are nearly equally conspicuous, 
and the connecting glide is very short, so that the 
union appears extremely lax, and the effect is more 
like two separate syllables than a single syllable, 
whereas the monosyllabic character is always well 
marked in English and German. The Italians 
distinguish four kinds of diphthongs (1) " sdruc- 
cioli " zdroot-choalee or gliding, having the force on 
the first vowel, of which " aere, laido " aaai'rai, 
l,nee-doa (air, ugly) come very near to being EI 
diphthongs; (2) " piani " pyaa'nee, or "even," 
having the force on the second element, and being 
really two syllables, because there is no glide at all 
between the vowels, as "aita" aa-ee'taa (help^ ; 
(3) " equilibrati " ai-kweeleebraa-tee (equally 
balanced), which are merely two unaccented 
vowels spoken in rapid succession without a glide, 
as "Borea" bao-rai-aa (Boreas); (4) "raecolti" 
raakkaol-tee (close), in which the first vowel is a 
very short ee, 00, but there is a real glide, as 
"pianta" peeaan-taa or pyaan'taa (plant). Of 
these the second and third are not properly 
diphthongs ; the first belongs to this series, and the 
third to the EE initial unaccented or third series 
below. The Italian gliding " ai " may be sung as 
English aat, but it is safer with all the Italian 
combinations of vowels to pronounce both vowels 
clearly with scarcely any glide, or rather with such 
a diminution of force during the glide as would 
make it almost inaudible, but would not occasion 
any real silence or total separation. This may be 
called a " slur," and written at full by an inter- 
posed -J- (which represents an imperfect -}-) thus, 
'/-f-<T, or by the usual diphthongal form, with a 
hyphen between, thus aa-ee, indicating a kind of 
broken glide. The close Italian diphthongs may 
be indicated, when thought necessary, by putting 
the short mark on the first element and adding the 
hyphen. Thus the four Italian cases would be 

fully represented by v l) aa-airai, laa-ee'doa. 
(2) aa-ee-faa, (3) bao-rai-aa, (4) peeaan-taa. In 
singing, lay the stress as here marked (in the 
second and fourth cases on the second element), 
and take the whole to one or two syllables, 
according as the composer has assigned one or two 
unslurred notes to them, but always make both 
vowels quite distinct. 

EI. French. The French have no original 
diphthongs of this class ; their " a'i " being more 
like an Italian " ai " aa-ee. But they have several 
recent diphthongs of this class. Thus "ai'eul" is 
aaee-yoel (ancestor), as well as aa-yoel. And from 
those final "il, ille," which used to be called ty', 
and have now become ee or y or yh, several EI 
diphthongs have been formed, as " goavernail " 
goovaer' naaee (rudder), " email" aimaaee (enamel , 
"Versailles" Vaer'saaee; and with other first 
vowels, " accueil " aakoeee (reception), " oeil " oeee 
(eye), ''vieille" vyaeee (old\ All these are true 
EI diphthongs in the sense just explained. 

01. English. In speaking, this diphthong, 
when final, and in some other cases (as before z) , 
becomes aw\ with long first element, as in boy 
bau'i, boys bau'iz, noise nau'tz. This is well 
adapted for singing, and Handel has sometimes 
many bars on the au. The singer must mind to 
close with a smart glide on to the i, or the effect of 
the diphthong will be lost. Before s, however, the 
first vowel becomes short, and although it may 
remain au, a more refined effect is produced by 
changing it to 0, as oyster aurster or orster, 
rejoice rijauvs or rijors. The singer must, how- 
ever, use au'l as before. Speakers and singers 
must alike guard against the vicious pronunciation 
as an ei diphthong, thus rijaars ; and foreigners 
have to guard against using oat or aoi, as rijoai-s 
rijao-is. See Ex. 36. 

01. German. The syllable "en" or "au" is 
called 61 in North Germany, as explained above, 
(p. 44i) may be sung as au'i 



Sec. VI. 

01, Italian, occurs only in the modified form 
ao-ee, which presents no difficulty. 

01, French, does not occur, being altered to 
ooee, see OOY, below. 

Abbreviated Analytic Forms of El Diphthongs. 
In less systematic writing of Glossic, it is usual 
to write the EE-final diphthongs with a final Y, as 
aa'y any, ahy ay uy uuy, au~y auy oy for either 
aa-t, aai, alii a'l ui uut, au'i aui 01, or aa-ee aaee, 
ahee dee me uuee, au'ee auee dee ; and the Italian 
are not distinguished from the other diphthongs. 
This very convenient symbolisation will be 
generally employed in the examples of songs 
given below, and in especial cases the form aay will 
be used for " aye," which should not be otherwise 
pronounced, as in the Short Key, p. 12. The 
systematic form is, however, necessary for full 
intelligence. This will appear in discussing the 
following forms. 

AI-Y. English. When AI has to be lengthened 
there is a tendency in Southern English to say H, 
see p. 30#, although the I is seldom quite reached, 
and the glide is not smart. This is usually called 
the " vanish," and some writers reckon it as a 
defect, but others as the only correct pronunciation 
in all cases, while others allow it at some times and 
not at others. It is no doubt very common, and 
occurs most frequently at the end of a word, or 
before t. Some speakers even shorten the first 
element and say ait, which then rapidly degenerates 
into ei, aei" 1 ai, a'i, and even aai. I have not heard 
#'?, aai for ai, but am familiar with aei, ai, and 
possibly within a hundred years hence an El sound 
will be usually substituted for long AI in Southern 
English. The El sound, where now used, will 
then probably be altered, and be always aai, as it 
is in Essex, where the act sound is most frequently 
used for ai, but all these matters, though very 
important to the speaker, are indifferent to the 
singer, who must say AI, and never use AI-Y at 
ill, if he wishes to sing agreeably. See Ex. 35. 

AIY, German, occurs only provincially in the 
form aii or aei for the usual aai in some particular 
words, and should be generally ignored. 

AIY, AEY, Italian, occur in the forms ai-ee, ae-le, 
which present no difficulty. 

AEY, French, occurs in the form ae-eS, as 
conseil koan'sae-ee or koan'sacy, the first element 
somewhat long, the second short, and the glide 
almost reduced to a slur, for which reason the 
Italian form is here used, but koansaly would be 
quite sufficient to indicate the sound. 

OAY, German, occurs perhaps only in the word 
boje boayyu (buoy) and its related words, but these 
are properly Dutch, and the form buje booyyu is 
also used. 

OAY, AOY, French, occurs (more usually as 
aoy) in the pronunciation only of some speakers, 
where "oy" precedes a vowel, as royaume 
raoyyoam for r'waayyaum (kingdom), but as the 
latter pronunciation is always admissible, singers 
and speakers need not trouble themselves about 
the former. 

OOY, German, occurs only in the exclamation 
pfui pfooy. or more properly pfooi (fie !) 

OOY, Italian, occurs as a very distinct oo--ee, in 
lui looy, that is, loo'-ee (him). 

OOY, French, occurs in the form ooee. with a 
very short first element in the word " oui" (yes), 
which must not be confounded with the English 
" wee, we," and, although in singing it is generally 
taken ooee with the second element lengthened, the 
first element never degrades into the consonant w. 
In conversation and declamation the feeling of the 
moment much alters the sound of this very common 
word, which is almost an interjection. Sometimes 
the second element, and sometimes both elements, 
and hence the glide between them, are spoken 
without any voice at all, merely by driving flatus 
through the required positions. See H in Section 
VII. Distinguish ooy " oui " (yes) from tho 

Sec. VI. 


dissyllable oo-ee ou'i (heard), and the Italian lui 
looy, from the French Louis Loo-ee (Lewis). This 
diphthong also occurs in such words as depouiller 
dai'pooyyai or daipooee-eeai, &c. 

OEY, French, occurs in such words as ceil oey, 
that is, oeee (eye) which Englishmen have a 
tendency to confuse with their m or uui or aai, and 
call eil, that is, uil, uuil, or add, a pronunciation 
absolutely unintelligible to Frenchmen. Such 
words as accueil, cueillir, aakoey, koeyyeer' , properly 
akoe-ee, koeee-eeeer 1 (reception, gather) must be 
well studied, and must be carefully distinguished 
from a/ceil, akeilyeer on the one hand and akerl, 
akerlyeer on the other. 

TJEY, French, occurs mostly as a variety of 
ueee (p 493) in lui luey, that is, lue-ee (him), which 
is more properly lueee, but I have mentioned it here 
to draw attention to the great difference between 
French lui luey and Italian lui looy, which English 
people constantly confound. The form ueee 
belongs to the fourth class of diphthongs, see 
p. 49. There are a few words in which gueee 
occurs. See under gui, in Sec. XIV., French. 

00 FINAL. 

Oil, English, Spoken. The forms preferred are 
uuo, a'tio, and even aauo is admissible, but uuuo has 
a coarse sound. The first element is always short, 
"^nt the second may be prolonged ; and So may be 
used in place of uo, but it is not common. The 
glide is here mainly due to the action of the lips, 
and is therefore very marked, but there is a 
tendency in consequence to " round " the first 
element, that is, to begin closing the lips before 
the second element is reached, and such forms as 
ao'uo, au-uo oa-uo are common in the provinces 
(even oe-ue is said to occur in Devonshire). This 
error must be carefully avoided. Possibly as a 

revulsion against it, the first element is often taken 
too thin, rising from a' to a and even ae, e, ai, 
giving the perfectly hideous forms aiio, aeuo 
(common in Norfolk, Lancashire, and elsewhere), 
with euo or aiuo (some of the commonest London 
and North Kent forms). These should be most 
carefully avoided by all speakers and singers. To 
hear, "round about the house" called raiuond 
ubaiuot- dhu haiuos (even an unaspirated aiuos 
occurs !) is most distressing to the ear, yet nothing 
is more common from speakers born in London, 
even when well educated. 

OU, English, Sung. The form aauo is now 
preferable, and the first element should be pro- 
longed. Also we may employ the device already 
recommended for ei when sung, p. 44, and quit 
aa rapidly for a 1 on which we dwell for the chief 
sound of the note, and then pass over to uo with a 
quick short glide, thus aa short -f- a' long -j- short 
glide to uo short. 

OU, German, is now always aauo or ahuo, with 
the first element more conspicuous and more 
lengthened than in English, and no other form is 
admissible, but it may be sung (never spoken) as 
the English sound. See German EI, p. 44. 

OU, Italian, has a loose slurring glide, like the 
EI, see p. 45#, in fraude//-aoo'<ftu (fraud). 

OU, French, cannot be said to occur ; as the 
word caoutchouc kaaoochoo is quite foreign. 

Abbreviated Analytic Forms of OU Diphthongs. 
In less systematic Glossic we write W for either 
final uo or oo in these diphthongs, thus AAW 
AA-W, AIW, AEW. AW, OAW, AOW, for aauo, 
aa-uo, aiuo, aeuo, auo, oauo, aouo respectively, which 
is a great convenience, and is used in the follow- 
ing songs. Hence we write 

OA-W, English, meaning oa-uo, or long oa, 
gliding off into uo, forming the " vanish " of oa, 
as explained on p. 36. This form passes readily 



Sec. VI. 

into oauo, ution, auoo, so that oa becomes transferred 
to ou. When the transformation is completed, the 
effect is extremely disagreeable in speech. I have 
heard children in Hyde Park talk of lei'diz in u 
bout for lai-diz in u boa-t, or at most lai'ydiz in u 
boa-wt, and the effect was almost ludicrous. Those 
English speakers who use ei ou for ai oa or ai-y 
oa'w, generally use aay or ahy and aew or aiw for 
ei ou, and thus avoid the ambiguity. As was 
observed on p. 46a, it is possible that at some time 
these changes may be sanctioned. At present, 
although writers are still divided in opinion as to 
whether oa- or oa-w is more correct, there is no 
doubt that ou is shocking to educated ears in 
speech, and that no singer should allow himself 
to use this " vanish " at all. 


EU, English, when not following another con- 
sonant, either stands for simple yoo, as in ' you ' or 
else for yeu, as in ' yew,' and is employed merely 
for convenience. After a consonant, the actual 
sound preferred is wo, with often a very short i 
indeed, as in tune two'n, dew dwo. Care has to be 
taken not to omit the, i and say too-n, doo, both of 
which are very common vulgarisms ; or to pass 
through tyoo-n, dyoo into choon,joo, or even chwo-n, 
jwo, all of which forms may (unfortunately) be 
heard. When a consonant has been altered by the 
insertion of t before any vowel, the tendency of 
English speakers is to omit the i, which appears to 
be sufficiently indicated by the change in the con- 
sonant ; but i is sometimes retained. We call 
motion moa'shun, and ocean oa-shun, but fuchsia is 
fwo'sKiu, noifwo-s/iu; again, we call Asia Ai-shu, 
but Asian Ai'thiun, not Ai'shun, and with the 
unaltered s the * becomes a distinct syllable i in 
Asiatic A i'si-at'ik, though some prefer Ai'shi-at'ik. 
After a trilled r' the i is lost, thus true truth tr'oo 
troo'thy not tr'wo tr'wo-th, and rule r'oo'l, not r'wo^l, 

which is provincial. After I, however, the i is 
generally lightly heard, as lute Iwot, but may be 
omitted, as loo-t. Be particular not to confuse 
news moo'z with noose noo'z. Be particular also 
not to change wo into eeoo, especially in cases 
where the I is properly lost, as truth tr'eeooth for . 
tr'oo-th, rule r'eeool for r'ool, Susan Seeoo-zun for 
Soo-zun, all of which are very disagreeable. Also 
be particular not to change too into the French ue 
or some sound like it, as in Norfolk and Devon- 
shire, and occasionally in Lancashire. And finally 
be particular not to change a pure oo sound into too, 
as too two for too, afternoon aaf-termoo-n for 
aaf-ternoo-n, a habit unfortunately gaining ground 
even among otherwise good speakers. Yery few 
speakers distinguish yew yioo from you yoo, or 
hew yhoo or yhwo from hwo or yoo. The word 
human is usually hwo-mun or yhoo'mun, but humour 
often retains the older sound of yoo-mer. The 
action of the \ in wo has been so little studied that 
neither educated speakers nor orthoepists have 
come to an agreement on the subject. This diph- 
thong eu is often very short in English, as in unite 
eunei't, meaning yioonuit', monument mo>reument, 
meaning mon'^ioo-^-ment, that is, with a medial n, as 
explained in Section IX, not mon~^-yoo-^-ment. 

EU, German, does not occur in any form, but 
for foreign words the Germans write " ju," mean- 
ing yoo. 

EU, Italian, as in piu peeoo (more), is very com- 
mon. In these cases the ee, though very short, is 
distinctly different from i, giving a peculiar 
brightness to the combination, which is one of the 
Italian close diphthongs. See p. 45. All the 
other Italian diphthongs with this short ee initial 
are treated in the same way. 

EU, French, does not occur. 

Abbreviated Analytic Forms for EU Diphthongs 
Generally in less systematic Glossic we write a 
simple Y for this initial I or ee, thus pyoo for both 

Sec. VI 



English pew pioo, and Italian piu peeoo, tune 
tyoo-n, dew dyoo\ dyoo, piano pyaa'noa, Italian 
miei myaey, meaning meeaeee. This is a very con- 
venient notation, and will "be used in the following 
songs, but it is not strictly accurate. 


In English this weak oo initial is usually con- 
sidered to be w, and when not following a 
consonant it really becomes w, but only in English. 
When these diphthongs follow a consonant, as in 
twin, dwell, quell, written, twin, dwel, kwel, the 
effect is at times tooin, dooel, kooel, but perhaps 
this is not such genuine English as tw'in, dw'el, 
kiv'el, where the w' indicates that an attempt is 
made to pronounce the w at the same time as the 
consonant, by bringing the lips into the w position 
before the consonant position is changed. For 
singers, however, the forms tooin, dooel, kooel are 
important, because they greatly facilitate singing, 
and do not render the sounds unintelligible. 

In German no such diphthongs occur; the 
German " quelle" being distinctly kv'ael'u. 

In Italian these are very common close diph- 
thongs, p. 450, and they even occur initially without 
any prefixed iv, as in uomo ooao'moa (man), uova 
doao-voa (egg). After k they are frequent, as 
quanto kooaan-toa (how much), questo kooais'toa 
(this) where the vowel effect is clearly heard. But 
in the following songs I have followed the custom 
of writing w, as wao-moa, wao'voa, kwaan'toa, 
kwais-toa, which would be more generally in- 
telligible to English readers. Singers, however, 
must remember that oo is both easier for the voice 
and nearer to the correct sound. 

In French these diphthongs are very frequent, 
since " oi " is almost always called doaa, as oie 
0000, doit dooaa, croix krooaa. The word " oui " 

was given as ooee on p. 46, and this is perhaps the 
commonest sound, but it is also often ooee with the 
ee lengthened, and then it sounds to an Englishman 
like his " we." Other common French forms are : 
odae, as poele (stove pooael, often called pooaal, 
and thus confused with poil (hair) ; fouet (whip) 
fooaet, often called fooaat, and ooaen', as point 
pooaen', coin (corner) kooaen', soin (care) sooaen'. 

iieEE, French, is the common pronunciation of 
"ui," as lui lueee (him), nuit nueee (night). English- 
men have to guard against saying ooy on the one 
hand, and wee on the other. Such pronunciations 
as looy, nooy, or Iwee, nwee are simply unintelligible. 
It will be found easier to practise ue-^-ee at first, 
and then w-ee, in order to hit the ue firmly, and, 
after these are secure, to fall gradually into ueee. 
The final form requires much practice to hit well. 
It will help the student to remember that the 
tongue remains fixed for both elements ue and ee 
and that the glide, or connection of the elements, 
is made with the lips only. Hence in saying neee, 
begin by putting the tongue in the position for ee 
(diagram 1) and lips in the position for oo (diagram 
12), and then, dwelling on the resultant ue (p. 290), 
just long enough to make it sensible, open the lips 
suddenly to the position for ee (diagram 11), 
leaving the tongue steady, so that a smart glide is 
heard in passing from ue to ee, and the full ee 
sound results. There is of course also a change of 
throat, which is wide for ue and primary for ee^ but 
this will occasion no difficulty when the student 
can once move his lips without any motion of the 
tongue. The following words should be practised 
both in speech and singing, till this diphthong 
(easy enough in itself, but generally taken very 
badly because its mechanism has not been under- 
stood), becomes perfectly easy : puis (then), puits 
(a well) pueee, puine (born-after) puiteenai, puisei 
(to draw, as water) pueeezai, puisque (since) 
pueeeskeo, puissant (powerful) pueeesahn', buis (box- 
wood) bueee, buisson bush) biieeesoan', bruit (noise) 
br'ueee (the r occasions great difficulty), bruine- 



Sec. VI. 

(dri/zle) br'ueeen, tuile (tile) tueeel, tuilerie (tile 
manufactory) tueeelree, truite (trout) tr'ueeet, 
induire (to induce) aen' dueeer' , cailler (spoon) 
kueeeyder\ cuirasse kueeer'aas, cuisinier cook) 
kueeezeenyai, cuisse (thigh) kueees, cuivre (copper) 
tcueeevreo, cuir (leather) kueeer' (observe, not kw'eer, 
as Hood makes his Englishman say of the French : 
" They call thin leather queer, And half their shoes 
are wooden" ; fuite ( flight) fueeet, fruit fr'ueee, 
suite sueeet, suivant (following) sueeeevahri juif 
(jew) zhueeef, juillet July) zhueeeyaet, ruisseau 
(stream, gutter) rueeeson, luir (to shine) lueeer, muid 
(hogshead) mueee, nuisant (hurtful) nueeezahri . 

Abbreviated Glossic Forms for the 00, TIE 
Weak Initial Diphthongs The oo is usually 
written w, thus the French ooaa, ooaen' become 
waa, waen' in oie doit croix soin waa dwaa kr'waa 
sivaen'. And on the same principle the ue should 
become wy\ which bears the same relation to w as 
ue to oo, thus lui cuit Iwy'ee kwy'ee, but to prevent 
any confusion with wee, wyee, this notation will 
not be used hereafter. 

Triphthongs arise by the union of an EE or 00 
initial with an EE or 00 final diphthong. In 
English and German they do not occur. In Italian 
they are frequent, as miei meeaiee (my), vuoi 
vooaoee (wilt thou , suoi sooaoee (his), for which we 
write, as an abbreviation, myaiy, vwaoy, swaoy, but 
the other symbols indicate exactly what must be 
said. In French occur ouaille ooaaee sheep , 
doyen dooaaeeyaeri ', &c., written waay, dwaayaeri 1 , 
&c. The singer will always use the vowel form. 


These consist in gliding from an original 
accented vowel to a short obscure u, or an 
indefinite obscure murmur written h j as the mere 
symbol of voice. They are very frequent in 

English, both received and provincial, though they 
are unknown in received German, Italian, arid 
French. In received English they occur in two 

Vanish Murmur Diphthongs, AAii, AUu. First 
as a " vanish " of aa, au, thus aa'u, au-u, which 
arises from carelessly raising the tongue and greatly 
diminishing force while finishing off aa, au, and as 
such are comparable to the other " vanishes " ai'i 
or ai-y 'pp. 300, 460), oa-uo or oa'w (pp. 36a, 47#), 
and should be as carefully avoided by the singer. 

True Murmur Diphthongs, EER, AIR, OAR, 

OOR. Secondly they occur after these and other 
vowels as a substitute for R', which may be always 
added on after them, and must be so added on 
when a vowel follows. In ordinary Glossic we 
write EER, AIR, OAR, OOR, in order to convey 
to English readers, who have never studied speech^ 
the nature of the sounds heard. But these symbols 
would entirely mislead a foreigner. "When no 
vowel follows, no R' is heard in Southern pronun- 
ciation, but in place of it simply u, to which the 
voice glides in the true diphthongal fashion. It is 
also the regular habit of educated English speakers 
to change the quality of the vowel in each case from 
primary to round, and in place of ee'ii, ai'u, oa'u, 
on-u, which have become "old-fashioned, or vulgar, 
or provincial, to say i'u, e-u, ao-u, uo-u, and it is 
thus only that ao occurs in received English. Thus 
" peer, pair, pour, poor," written in English Glossic 
as peer, pair, poar, poor, are really to be pronounced 
as pru, pe~u, paou, puo-u. And when a vowel 
follows, as when the syllable "ing" is added, the 
trilled r must be annexed, so that we say pvur'ing, 
pe-ur'ing, pao'ur'ing, puo'ur'ing. There is indeed 
no objection to saying pi-ur^pe-u'r 1 ,pao-ur\puo-ur\ 
even when no vowel follows. But the u with the 
glide leading to it must be inserted in each case, as 
it is this vowel and glide which indicates the 
presence of r to an English ear. To say pee-r ing, 
pai r'ing, poa r'ing, poo'rwg, as may be heard from 
foreigners, and even occasionally from Scotchmen 

Sec. VI. 



and Americans, has an extremely strange and even 
uneducated effect to Southern English ears. The 
words "glory, glorious," which often occur in 
sacred music, must never be sung gloa -r'i, gloa'rius, 
but always glao'ur'i, glao'ur'ius. With this par- 
ticular diphthong, containing the beautiful vowel 
ao, another error is also committed, as ao is not 
familiar to us in other combinations. The whole 
combination ao~u is changed into au, and thus you 
may hear glau-r'i, glau'rius shouted out, and 
"oars," properly ao-uz, spoken of as awz ; and 
"tore," properly tao-u, reduced to tau\ All this 
should be corrected. The English singer should 
not only be able to sing i'u, e'u, ao~u, uo'u, but be 
aware that these sounds are more adapted for 
singing than the inadmissible sounds eer', air', oar't 
oor', from which they were derived, and even than 
the admissible i'ur', e-ur', ao-ur' uo-ur. They form 
difficulties for foreigners, but the Englishman finds 
even greater difficulty with the foreign sounds, 
where no change of the vowel is allowed, and the 
r is trilled. To a German, dir (to thee\ mehr 
(more),rohr (tube), uhr , clock), are pure deer', mair', 
roar', oor 1 , and di'u', me-u', rao'u, uo'u, would be 
almost unintelligible, and would be startlingly 
strange to his ears, unless indeed he accepts them 
as forms of the common, but faulty, German 
uvular l r, as dee'r, mai'r, l roa l r, oo l r. In Italian, 
where only a true trilled r' is used, they would be 
still worse, although the vowels ai, oa sometimes 
become ae, ao' before r' ; compare dire dir (to say), 
volere voler (to wish\ am ore amor (love), pure pur 
(however , mestiere mestier (business), oro or 
(gold , which are dee'r' ai dee'r', voalai-rai voalarr', 
aatnoa'r'ai aamoa'r' poo'r'ai poo'r' , maisteeae'r'ai 
maisteeae'r' , ao'r'oa ao'r . In French also, though 
the uvular '? is common, no u must be inserted, 
but we must call dire to say), faire (to do), ignore 
(is ignorant of), corps (body , four (oven), sure 
(sure), leur (their , simply deer', faer', eeny'aor 1 , 
kcor', four , suer , loer' . The English learner will 
find much difficulty in keeping these vowels pure 
(that is, primary and not widened , and at the 
same time riot introducing his favourite u, as well 

as in trilling an r' which does not precede a vowel. 

Inserted R'. In case of such words as " par, 
north " it is of course allowable to use the " vanish" 
and say paa-u, nau'uth, but in the South of England 
it is usual to say simply paa, nau th. The aa-u, 
au'u may, however, be heard at the end of phrases, 
as : below par, in war, oiloa- paa-u, in wawu. 
This leads to a curious misapprehension. The 
speaker, proceeding by natural analogies, entirely 
loses sighft of spelling. To him " papa, law " have 
just as much right to this " vanish" u as par, war ; 
hence he says pupaa'u, lau'u. Immediately some- 
one learned in spelling laughs at him for adding 
on an r' or aa-u, as the objector calls it. But the 
speaker has merely made a natural " vanish " and 
has never thought of an r . But worse remains 
behind The speaker has always been accustomed 
to add an r' after the murmur diphthongs i-u, e'u, 
ao'u, uo'u, when a vowel follows, and says chi u 
(cheer) but chiu r'up-, (cheer up), tvu tear; but 
te-u r'up- (tear up), bao-u (bore) but bao'u r'in (bore 
in , muo-u (moor) but muo-u r'up (moor up,. Why 
then should we not avoid a disagreeable gap 
between two vowels, and say: pupaa-u r'iz dhe-u 
(papa is there), dhu' lau'u ru'v dhu' land (the law, 
or lore, of the land, the true cockney would make 
no difference , a' drawu'r'ing room (a drawing 
room) . Or rather, as we English generally have 
a dislike to aa'u and au~u before r', he leaves out 
the u as soon as he puts in r', and says pupaa- r'iz, 
lau- r'u'v, drau'r'iiiff. It is usual to say that this is 
very horrid, and the singer who has any desire to 
be thought educated must not for one instant fall 
into it ; but it is very natural, in strict accordance 
with our present habits of speech, and can only be 
corrected by an entirely extraneous and very 
difficult study of orthography. When spelling 
is known we have the following rules. 

Rules for the Use and Avoidance of English 
Murmur Diphthongs Never make a murmur 
diphthong in speech when E, does not appear in 
the spelling. Never make a murmur diphthong 



Sec VI. 

by putting a vanish to aa, au, or even by adding u 
to aa, au, when a following R is not written. 
Never fail to make a murmur diphthong when R is 
written after ee, ai, oa, oo. Never fail in such a 
case to make a trilled R' precede the vowel follow- 
ing the murmur diphthong. Never introduce a 
trilled R' when R is written and no vowel 
follows. These rules are difficult, and the 
system of English Glossic avoids them with great 
ease and without notable alteration of the spelling. 
But the rules must be well mastered by all singers. 
To prevent any misapprehension, the apostrophised 
r' has been used whenever the r is trilled, through- 
out this treatise. 

Murmur Triphthongs are frequent in English. 
They are formed by gliding from an ordinary ei, 
oi, ou, eu diphthong, in whatever form, it occurs, 
on to a short u. 

EIR, OIR. In the case then of the two first 
there is a " waving " glide, as it may be called, for 
the tongue first rises to the high-front or ^-posi- 
tion, and then sinks to the raid-mixed or w-position, 
or at least as far as the high-back or u -position. 
Thus ftrefuiu orfa'tu, lyre luiu. This produces a 
check or constriction in the flow of sound, and 
readily gives rise to two syllables, as fui-^-u, 
lui-^-u. Hence great confusion prevails. But in 
singing, such words form strictly one syllable, and 
hence the singer should practise the glide care- 
fully. The first glide to the must be taken 
sharply and strongly, to bring it well out, the 
second form I to u should be weak and just 
indicated, in fact, as our writing shews, it is not 
more than a slur (p. 45a) and above all the final u 
should not be dwelt on, as otherwise the effect of 
two syllables will be produced. If the sense seems 
to require a strong ending, add a slightly trilled r\ 
as fuiur', hiiur . The oi-diphthong seldom runs 
on to a glide. The word " moire " is occasionally 
called moiu, but it is not an English word, and if 
it should occur in English singing the word had 
better be treated as a French word, and called 
mooaar, or as an anglicised French word, and 

called mwauu. Similarly, memoir mem'wau, devoirs 
devwau-z, reservoir rezuvivau-u. ' Choir ' is now 
always kwuiu, and is even spelled " quire" in the 
Book of Common Prayer. 

EIRE', EIEER', EIUR'. When a vowel follows 
this combination different usages prevail. In 
"fiery" the custom of inserting the "e" shews 
that three syllables were meant to be taken, as 
fm-u-ri, but in singing only two are usually 
taken, as/ww-r'i. In " tiring, inspiring, desirous," 
and such-like common words, the glide must be 
used, as tmu-r'ing,inspiiiu-r'ing,dizmu-rus; indeed, 
to split the mu into two syllables, ui-u, has a very 
slovenly effect. To distinguish these cases easily 
in common English Glossic we write feir, leir, 
fei'rr'i, inspei'rr'ing, dizei'rrus for the true triph- 
thong, and fei'err'i, inspei'err'ing, or fei'ur'i, 
inspei-ur 1 ing for its division into two syllables. 

OTJB, OTJRR', OUERR', OTMIR'. The case of 
ou is nearly the same. "We say hour uuou in one 
syllable with two glides, from u to uo and then 
back to u again, making the first sharp and clear, 
and the second relaxed and faint. But here on 
account of the rounding of the lips interposing 
between two unrounded vowels, there is still more 
difficulty in keeping the monosyllabic effect pure, 
and persons hesitate much between uuou and 
wwo-f-w, running off into tshe second on the slightest 
inducement. In this case, as in the former, the 
older English writers of verse generally make two 
syllables. When a vowel follows, this effect is 
more ready to appear. Using the common English 
Glossic method of writing our for uuou, and ouer 
for uuo-^-u, as more easily understood by the eye 
than the true systematic writing, we hear flower 
flour, flower, flowery flow err' i or flou'ur'i, power 
pour, pou-er, overpowered oa-verpowerd or pou-rd, 
shower shour, shouer, showery sliou'err'i or 
shou'ur'i. But in singing as a general rule the 
true triphthong has to be taken, and hence it 
should be much practised. 

EUR, ETJRR'. The case of eur offers no more 
difficulty than the ordinary triphthong ; it is 

Sec. VI. 



dimply iuo-u with two glides, the first quite 
distinct, the second more lax. Thus cure ktuo-u, 
pure jnuo'u, or in ordinary Glossic keur, peur. 
There ought to be no difficulty also in keeping the 
triphthong pure when a vowel follows, as curing 
kiuo-u-r'ing (which is written kewrring], never 
Kioo-r'iitff (which is written keu'r'ing). Observe 
then the necessity of writing rr' to indicate this. 

Vocal E or EE, Equal to TJ-, TJU' Long. In all 

these cases of murmur diphthongs and triphthongs 
we have had the degeneration of an original R,' 
into a pure vowel u, on to which a preceding vowel 
glides. How this could arise will be seen here- 
after. (See Glossic Index, under tl r.) It is now 
the only received pronunciation, and must be 
strictly observed. . Short vowels do not occur 
before this sound, but as this sound is really a vowel, 
it may be, and often is, lengthened. The singer 
has already learned to lengthen it like any other 
vowel. It is quite easy for him to sing ku- pw fw 
or kuu- puu- fuu-, and he should even know how to 
say ke'- pe'- fe'-, ku'- pu'-, fu'-. These four vowels 
w,u'', uu-, e'- are different from each other, and 
yet very closely related in sound, the two first, 
u-, u"- are barely distinguishable, but the two last 
uu-, e'', although also barely distinguishable from 
each other, form a contrast with the other, being 
deeper and thicker and broader. Now in many 
accented syllables " er, ir, yr " are written, as in 
" serf, stir, 'myrrh," and in others " ur, or, our" 
are employed, as in " surf, cur, attorney, jowrney." 
Scotch speakers, who do not use the vocal R at all, 
here make a great distinction, and say aer', in the 
first and uur' in the second set, although not 
uniformly. In many provinces, where the "r" 
is differently pronounced, speakers make a similar 
distinction. Hence, apparently, writers on English 
pronunciation have sometimes insisted on the 
*' correctness " of a similar distinction in ordinary 
speech, and would pronounce the first set of words, 
say, as su-f, stu-, mtr, and the second as suu~f, 
kuu- atuu-ni, j'uu'ni. It is certain that when such 
a distinction is made, it does not strike the ear as 

unpleasant. To call the first set of words suu-f, 
stuu-, muu- would be unpleasant, because it is an 
unusual broadening of the vowel. But to refine 
the vowel in the second case, and say su-f, ku-, 
atu-ni, ju-ni, although it may sound " thin " to 
those accustomed to uu-, has not at all an ill effect, 
and, so far as my observations extend, it has 
become the general custom of educated speakers to 
renounce a difference of usage, which was very 
difficult to carry out strictly, and to employ the 
finer sound w in all cases. As this finer sound is 
represented by " er " in most cases in older 
spelling, the symbol er has been used for it in 
ordinary English Glossic. This er, however, does 
not simply mean u~, but it implies the liberty of 
lightly trilling an r' after it, when no vowel 
follows, and the necessity of trilling an r' after it 
if a vowel follows, thus 1 write serf for both 
" serf " and " surf," and also ster, mer, ker, aterni, 
jer-ni, implying w in each case certainly, and wr" 
in each case permissively, but not ur', which would 
have a thoroughly strange effect. 

Vocal E or EE in Weak Syllables. This covers 
all difficulties in accented syllables. In unaccented 
syllables the range of vowel writing is much 
greater. According to Mr. Melville Bell the 
sound is generally u\ which need not be anxiously 
distinguished from u, as the difference is more felt 
by the speaker than heard by the listener. Hence 
I shall hereafter use u only in such cases. Thus, 
doller dol u, observer obzu-vu elixir eelik-su, captor 
kap-tu, murmur mu-mu, honour on-u. "When the 
trilled r' is added, which is always allowable where 
there was an original " r " in the writing, it is 
very light, and the glide on to it is so weak, that 
the effect is not at all like an accented ur'-. Hence 
here again in ordinary Glossic we write dol-er, 
obzer-ver, eelik-ser, kap-ter, mer-mer, on-er, the mere 
position of er in an unaccented syllable telling the 
whole history.. 

Distinction of Weak Final A and Weak Final 
EE. But now a difficulty arises, which is felt as a 
great difficulty by persons of imperfect education. 


Sec. VI 

The final unaccented a in a large number of words 
is pronounced precisely as ' or u, that is, precisely 
as the vocal r in the words just cited. Thus pica 
pm-ku, sciatica sm-at-iku, idea uidee-u, sofa soafa, 
acacia ukai-shiu, umbrella umbr'el-u (not um m - 
far'el'u), villa vil-u, drama dr'am-u or dr'aa'mu, 
asthma as-mu, China Ohurnu, era i-ur'u, hegira 
A<yV (not hijui-ur'u), sonata soanacrtu (as an 
English word, soanaa'taa in Italian), saliva 
sulm-vu, and so on, which we write in ordinary 
English Glossic with a, thus pei'ka, seiafika, 
eidee-a, soa-fa, akai'shia, umbr'el'a, vil'a, dr'am-a, 
dr'aa-ma, as' ma, Chvi'na, ee'rr'a, hej'-ra, soanaa'ta, 
salei'va. Why should these not be written pei'ku, 
&c., or pei'ker, &c. ? Why, for example, should 
not " dear idea" be deer eidee-r ? In the last case the 
sounds are unlike ; we really say di'ii, a mono- 
syllable, containing a murmur diphthong, and 
uidee-u, ending in dee'u, a dissyllable, with at most 
a slur between ee and u, not mdi'u with a glide. 
Compare such an exclamation as "I, dear ! what 
an idea ! " ei, deer ! whot un eidee-a ! For the other 
words, though " villa" may rhyme perfectly with 
"distiller," "drama" with "hammer", and 
" Flora" with " restorer," as vil'u, distil-u, dram'u, 
ham-u, Flao-ur'u, restao-ur'u, there are different 
permissive pronunciations in the two cases. "Villa, 
drama, Flora," may be pronounced vil'a', dram-a", 
Flao-ura. They are indeed not unfrequently so 
pronounced, and the pronunciation is esteemed as 
eminently elegant and refined. The singer, too, 
is counselled to sing them always in this way, 
because the a 1 is a much more pleasant quality of 
tone than u to sing upon To write Glossic a in an 
unaccented or weak final or initial syllable points 
this out perfectly, because a itself would never be 
sung upon if it could be avoided, and ' has been 
already mentioned as an allowable substitute for a 
even in closed accented syllables (p. 34 a) But to 
sing a' in such words as " distiller, hammer, 
restorer," thus distil'a', ham'ct restau-ra', is con- 
sidered very bad indeed, and to show either great 
ignorance or great affectation. Again, these three 
words not only may end in a trilled r' at all times, 

but must do so if a vowel follows, as distil- ur uv 
spir'-its, $c. But to add on a trilled r' to "villa, 
drama, Flora," as dhis vil'ur' iz prif.-i, this dram'ur', 
iz hevi, dhis Flao-urur' iz broa-kn, is looked upon as 
extremely vulgar. Hence, although in ordinary 
easy speech before consonants there is no difference 
between the unaccented or weak terminations 
written -a, -er, in ordinary Glossic, both being 
called -u, they have different tendencies, and ai-e 
hence never permitted to rhyme, except when a 
ludicrous effect is intended. Hence they will in 
future be distinguished as a, er. 

Dissyllables in EE Distinguished from Murmur 
Diphthongs and Triphthongs in R. This vocal 
syllabic R or er enables us to draw some important 
distinctions. Thus ower (one who owes), tow-er 
(one who tows) , row-er (one who rows) , have each 
two syllables, oa-u, toa-u, roa-u, with pure vowels 
before u, but oar ^of a boat), tore (did tear), roar, 
have each only one syllable, as ao~u, tao'ii, rao-u, 
with a murmur diphthong in which the vowel is 
changed before u. It should be remarked that 
in Mr. Smart's Pronouncing Dictionary the dis- 
tinction here insisted on is not clearly made. See 
Nos. 33 to 54 of his signs, as given in Section XIII 
below. Again, people are apt to call a '' drawer," 
and a chest of " drawers," drau-, drau-z, in place 
of drau f u, drau-uz, the murmur diphthong awu 
being unpleasant ; but this "drawers" ought not 
to rhyme with " claws, paws." because in these the 
" vanish " au'u (which has the same sound) would 
be out of place, and " draw, draws" should never 
be called drau-u, drau'iiz for the same reason. But 
drawer (one who draws) is always drau-u' . Hence 
we write in common Glossic draw drau, drawer draur, 
draw-er drawer, draws drau'z, drawers draurz, not 
only to shew the distinction, but to point out where 
an added trilled r is or is not permissible. Of 
course, all these "permissions " and "prohibitions " 
to add an r depend upon an older state of the 
language, and at a future period customs may 
entirely change. But the singer has to learn the 
educated literary received pronunciation of 1870-80 
and no other. 

Sec . VI. 


No Vocal E in German, Italian, or French. 

There is no such thing as a vocal r in received 
German, Italian, or French ; but in German in 
unaccented syllables, the common "r" often 
renders the preceding " e " obscure, that is, like u 
or u\ Thus German eier (eggs), feuer (fire), 
bander (ribbons), manner (men), are aarur\ foi'ur\ 
baen'dur\ maen-ur , with a very faint weak glide on 
to the r', which, however, is never lost, so that 
final " e", and " er," on which much of the sense 
depends, are never confused, thus eine gute frau (a 
good woman), ein guter mann (a good man) are 
distinctly aai'nu' goo'tu' fraau, aam goo'tu'r 
rnaan-. Similarly faint trills exist in Cumberland, 
Derbyshire, and many provinces. The Germans, 
however, very frequently use the uvular l r (see 
p. 51, and also V in Glossic Index, Section XII) 
in place of the trilled r', like our own Northumber- 
land speakers. 


The classes of diphthongs here enumerated are 
properly speaking not the only ones which can or 
do occur. In most of these cases there is an 
alteration of position of the tongue, or of both 
tongue and lip, or of tongue, lip, and throat. The 
tongue may move alone, forming " tongue glides," 
which is the true nature of the "vanish" ai'y 
(p. 46). And the lips may also move alone, as in 

60 (p. 47#), which is uu'-^-oo, or uuoo, the glide being 
formed only by closing the lips from the wide open 
to the high -round form. This is a Lancashire and 
Derbyshire "lip glide.'' Similarly, uu-\-oa or uuoa 
is a very common " lip glide " diphthong in the 
South of England, and may be constantly heard 
in the exclamation, "Oh!" and in a doubtful 
" No ! " On the analogy of 60 it may be written 
6a. The common " vanish " oa'w is also of the 
60 class, for it is generally made by bringing the 
lips closer together, while pronouncing o, without 
raising the tongue, and hence is not completely 
oauo. Both 60 and 6a should be avoided, and the 
full oo, oa should be struck firmly and clearly. A 
similar " lip glide " would occur in i-\-ue or \ue 
i, compare French ueee, p. 49(5), and in al-\-eo or aieo 
and e-\-oe or eoe ; also in aa-\-ao or aaao. And in 
the same way we might alter other vowels. Many 
of these occur as provincialisms, and all have to be 
sedulously avoided, except as exercises to become 
acquainted with their effect and learn how to 
correct it by knowing its nature. There are also 
" throat glides," where the lip and tongue remain 
at rest, and the change is effected in the throat. 
The most marked of these is i-\-ee or iee, written 
e'e, where the throat is narrowed during utterance. 
This is also a Derbyshire and South Lancashire 
sound, which should be avoided. 

There are also nasal diphthongs, in which one or 
both elements are nasalised. This is particularly 
the case with ei diphthongs when an n follows 
(see p. 44#). In this case we have, therefore, "nose 
glides," which should also be carefully avoided. 





Glottids Defined. The subject of the present 
Section is of extreme importance to the singer, and 
it should be well studied. The speaker also will 
find it useful in correcting many faulty methods of 
commencing vowels, especially after consonants. 
The nature of the " glottis " is explained on 
p. 180. "Glottids" glot-idz are actions of the 
glottis and the parts connected with it, as the 
vocal chords, which compose its sides, and the 
emission of air which passes through it, and is 
especially regulated by it, on its way from the 
lungs to the outer air. Their action is to start and 
end a vowel or other sound, not to modify it, that 
is, they deal especially with the " attack " and 
" release " of vowels, and the emission of un- 
rocalised breath, with its passage to vocalised 

H, Flatus, Glottis Open. Keep the glottis 
wide open, and force the air from the lungs rapidly 
through it (see p. 180). When this flatus passes 
subsequently through any vowel position, as <?<?, aa, 
oo, it produces a peculiar sound, which is an 
indistinct musical note, giving the notes of the 
resonance cavities through which it passes, mixed 
with more or less unmusical wind-rush. These 
" flated vowels " may be written by prefixing the 
sign to the vowel, thus ee, aa, oo, are such 
flatuses (flai'tusez; derived from vowel positions. 
Thus the "voiceless" ooee of p. 466 might be 
written ooee. If we thus produce oo, oa, au, 
aa, ai, ^ee, we shall hear a decidedly ascending 
scale of notes, reminding us very much of the 
effect of turning water under tolerable pressure 

from a tap into a jug, or decanter, as it fills. This 
cannot be used by the singer ; it is as much a noise 
and an annoyance as the wind-rush over the 
mouthpiece of a flute. Hence the singer has to 
avoid it as much as possible. In other positions, 
it forms consonantal " hisses," to be considered 

H', Whisper, Glottis Contracted. The edges 
of the glottis are brought nearly in contact, so 
that the division of the air into "puffs" (see 
p. 186) is very imperfect indeed, and the result lies 
between the former flatus and the subsequent 
voice. It is much used in speech, because it is 
sufficient to make the vowels distinctly intelligible 
to an ear which is close, and even, with an effort, 
to a whole theatre, but it is very fatiguing, 
especially to the lungs, as it consumes a very large 
quantity of air, even when it is not intended to be 
heard at a distance, and it is totally unfit for 
singing. Whispered vowels are written thus, 'ee t 
'aa, 'oo, &c. 

H', Voice, Glottis Closed, the Edges of the 
Vocal Chords being in Contact. This is the voice 
considered independently of its modification by the 
upper resonance chamber (see p. 190). The symbol 
is useful to express an obscure utterance through an 
indeterminate position or glide. In the case of 
dialectal murmur diphthongs, not arising from a 
suppressed "r," which are numerous, and often 
very short indeed, leading to the feeling of simple 
vowels, this A' may be used as the second element, 
and contrasted with the true murmur diphthongs, 

Sec. VII. 



thus i'u, iu, Hi, of which the first has the most 
distinct and the last the most indistinct termin- 
ation to the glide. Writers of dialectal specimens 
often use " ea, oa" to express eeh', oak 1 , among 
other sounds ; some, however, write " eer, ear, 
air," and so on, where no r' might be sounded, 
while the presence of r in writing necessarily 
implies some permission at least to sound r'. In 
such cases eeu, aiu, &c., or eeh\ aiti, &c., are the 
proper symbols, as they forbid the use of r in 
speech. As all vowels require this action of the 
glottis, the vowel signs ee t aa, 00, &c., are supposed 
to include it. 

I Gradual Glottid. The glottis is open, or in 
the state for producing flatus, when air first issues, 
and is rapidly contracted to the whisper state, and 
then closed for the voice state. The vowel position 
of the resonance cavities having been assumed, say 
for ee, the result is that we hear a " glide " in the 
quality of tone, of which ee, 'ee, ee are parts, the 
flated vowel ee gradually passing into the 
whispered vowel 'ee, and this again gradually 
passing into the full vowel ee. This gives an in- 
distinct, blurred kind of commencement of the 
vowel, called the "gradual attack," and written 
jee. It is common, enough in careless speech, but 
it is wanting in precision for the singer, because 
his true singing tone ee is preceded by an un- 
musical series of sounds, and although they are 
much shorter than the note themselves, they are 
always more or less offensive. If, as sometimes 
happens, the flatus is made more prominent, which 
may be written ihee, a sort of aspiration is produced 
where none should be uttered, and this has a very 
bad effect both in speaking and singing. After 
the vowel is established it may leave off in the 
same way, the vocal chords gradually separating 
so that we have a reversed glide or " gradual 
release," ee, 'ee, ee, which may be written eej. 
The whole effect is therefore written jeej. This 
gradual release is still more common than the 
gradual attack, and produces even a worse effect, 
because the force of the wind, previously expended 

on driving puffs of air through the vocal chords, 
finding a clear passage, produces a much more 
audible flatus, and the result could be almost 
written jee^/i. Singers should never use the 
gradual glottid, and speakers in England are 
recommended to discontinue it. In the release 
eeih, oo/A, if the vowel positions are maintained, 
we obtain effects like ee'yh, oo'kh, which are 
extremely unpleasant, although in some languages 
(as Danish) they are received. 

1 Clear Glottid. The glottis is closed to the 
voice position, before the air is driven from the 
lungs, but the chords are held only loosely against 
each other, so that the air can immediately force 
them asunder, thus tee. The effect is that the 
voice begins instantaneously, and without any 
preparatory flatus or whisper. Similarly in releas- 
ing, the air should cease to be forced from the 
lungs before the vocal chords are separated. The 
result is like a clear or clean " edge " to the vowel 
at both ends, thus feet, as distinguished from the 
" burred " edge of the gradual glottid ?<^. This 
is the true method of attacking and releasing 
vowels for the singer, and all speakers who wish 
to be heard well at a distance should employ it. 
The effect is extremely neat and pleasant, from the 
absence of unnecessary noises. It should be most 
diligently practised, and great care should be 
taken to avoid not only the gradual glottid but 
the check and jerk presently to bo described. As 
every vowel is supposed to begin and end with the 
clear glottid, unless some other method is indicated, 
it is not necessary generally to indicate it. It 
clearly separates syllables between two vowels 
which do not glide or slur on to each other. This 
has been hitherto pointed out by the hyphen, 
which, however, indicates properly a union and 
not a separation. Hence in place of chaos kai-os 
it would be proper to write kai-fos, or if there is 
the usual slur kai-^-os, but for general purposes the 
hyphen or accent-mark suffices, as kai-os, kai'os. 
The difference of the slur kai-^-os and the clear 



Sec. VII. 

attack kai-fos, is something like that between 
taking two notes to one bow or to two bows on the 

; Check Glottid. Let the vocal chords be so 
tightly compressed, that it requires more than 
ordinary force of wind to be sent from the lungs 
in order to separate them and allow a "puff" to 
pass. This produces a staccato (staakkaa-toaj 
effect. When a stone is sent from a sling, it 
leaves the thong with a clear, well-defined initial 
velocity, very different to the sudden action 
produced by striking the stone with a very 
hard hammer. The former case resembles the 
clear glottid, and the latter the check glottid. 
There is a kind of explosion about the check 
which is disagreeable to English speakers, but it 
is very characteristic of the German habit of 
speaking. It is not commonly used in German for 
every initial vowel, but principally when it is 
desirable to shew that a consonant .does not glide 
on to a neighbouring vowel, as in "erinnern" 
(remind) aer';een-ur'n, not u-r'in'en as Englishmen 
usually pronounce it ; " unausstehlich " (unen- 
durable) oo"n;aaoo's-shtai'leeky' h. This " check " 
is not considered a beauty in German, and hence 
need not be imitated by Englishmen, who, how- 
ever, should put on the clear glottid ? to indicate 
the division. It may be interesting to know that 
the check is used as a means of accentuation in 
Danish, as " mand " (man) maa;n, and it is one of 
the Arabic letters, called haamzaa. It is quite 
unknown in Italian and French. A vowel may be 
released upon the check, as well as begun upon it ; 
this is accomplished by closing the vocal chords 
suddenly, and so tightly close that the air, which is 
still driven from the lungs, is condensed and checked 
suddenly. The effect is heard in speaking when a 
vowel is suddenly interrupted, as in saying : " Did 
you see the ca...?" meaning "cat," supposing 
that the speaker were suddenly unable to finish 
the word. It is also not much dissimilar to a 
hiccup. As a release it forms one of the Chinese 
tones at Canton, called the shoo;. The double 

effect of the check attack and check release, as 
;ee;, is useful in singing extremely staccato notes, 
as it effectually separates the notes, with more 
suddeness than the clear glottid, though not so 

H or Jerk, HH, HI, H;. The air from the 
lungs may be laid on gradually, clearly, or 
suddenly. In singing and speaking the "clear" 
method is generally pursued, the lungs being well 
inflated, and only just so much wind being 
"turned on" by the action of the muscles of the 
ribs and of the diaphragm (dei'ufram, or muscular 
separation between the lungs and stomach, &c.), as 
will suffice to keep the vocal chords in proper 
action, and force regular puffs through them. The 
gradual method is not convenient for speaking, 
and impracticable in singing. It would imply 
imperfect vocalisation. The force of air set on by 
the clear method may vary considerably, produc- 
ing more or less loudness,. as in the crescendo and 
diminuendo of the singer. The sudden method of 
setting on the air implies a "jerk," or an action 
suddenly made very great and rapidly diminishing 
to something small. This jerk is made by a man 
with his diaphragm, the action of which may be 
felt by placing the hand on the pit of the stomach. 
By a woman the jerk is effected by the muscles 
between the ribs suddenly contracting the lungs. 
By a pair of ordinary bellows we may illustrate 
this action well. After opening the bellows in the 
usual way, we may compress them very gently, 
and thus make a faint stream of air come out, 
scarcely moving a candle flame. This answers to 
quiet respiration. We may gradually increase the 
force, producing a strong motion in the flame. 
This answers to a crescendo. Or we may compress 
the bellows suddenly, producing a violent jerk, 
which will certainly blow the candle out. This is 
a strong H. But we make the jerks slight and 
successive, which will blow the flame aside and 
allow it partially to recover, without extinction. 
This is an ordinary quiet H. These "bellows' 
actions" of the lungs (or physems/ei'smz) require 

Sec VII. 



much study by the singer, but belong more to the 
management of the voice and breath than to pro- 
nunciation simply, and must consequently not be 
further treated here. Now suppose that the 
glottis were open, the result of a jerk in case of 
actual speech would be to produce flatus C A, with 
considerable initial force, which may for the 
moment be written hh, where the first h repre- 
sents the jerk only. If then the mouth were 
placed in the position for any vowel, as ee, we 
should have hee, instead of an hh, which does not 
distinguish the position of the vocal organs above 
the vocal chords. If then we passed on rapidly to 
Q 'ee and ee as in the gradual glottid, we should 
have an effect which might be written tyee, as 
distinct from the ihee before employed. The 
difference between h^ee and ihee consists in this, 
that hiee begins with a sudden large amount of 
flatus, and hence with a very perceptible noise, 
whereas ihee may begin with merely such an amount 
as is perceptible, without being very striHr.g. The 
tyee is an "aspirated" (as'pirai'tedj ee in the 
ordinary meaning of the word. It has the mani- 
fest disadvantage of introducing an unmusical 
amount of flatus quite unsuitable for singing. 
This HI is, however, regularly used in German, 
and in Scotch, and is used by so many English 
speakers, that it is never wrong to employ it, 
however disagreeable it may be. It is quite 
unknown in Italian and French, and many other 
languages. But just as hj is a jerked gradual 
glottid, we may evidently have A?, a jerked clear 
glottid. This would be produced by bringing the 
glottis into the position for the clear glottid, before 
setting on the air from the lungs, and then setting 
on that air with a jerk. The consequence would 
evidently be a vowel-sound beginning quite clearly 
but very suddenly and rapidly diminishing in 
force to the usual amount, thus It is quite 
evident that this is the proper method of marking 
the place of the aspirate by a singer, because it 
makes the effect perfectly perceptible, and adds 
nothing unmusical. The singer should carefully 
practise this " clear jerk " with all the vowels 

ending with a simple clear release, as hieej. 
h-}ee?, hfact? h^aaj. hiaa?, to quick and slow notes. 
The last gives the singing " laugh," which would 
be thus quite clear and 'ringing. It is my own 
practice, I believe, so far as I have watched myself, 
to use hf rather than hi initially in speaking, and 
I find it a very common custom in England. It 
appears also to be the custom in India, as I have 
been told by educated natives, to use the clear 
jerk /<} only, and certainly the old Sanscrit writers 
on speech-sounds, do not justify the assumption of 
a previous hi in that language. In ordinary 
Glossic hi and hj. are not distinguished, and h 
simply is used, leaving it undecided which form 
should be employed. But in almost all English 
words which begin with "h" in writing, either 
h? or hi must be pronounced. The exceptions are 
very few, and have diminished of late years. 
Even now " hour, honest, honour," and their 
derivatives, have no "aspirate," but "humble, 
hospital, herb, hotel," have it almost always 
(though "hostler" is now written <; ostler," the 
" h " having disappeared even in writing). Atten- 
tion to the proper insertion of h has become a kind 
of test of education, persons who " drop their 
ai-chez" being considered out of the pale of 
society. Hence the greatest possible attention 
must be paid to its due insertion. Those who do not 
usually employ h are apt to substitute a check, and 
say ;at for hat. This only serves to call the especial 
attention of hearers to the speaker's defect. 
Others give a careless gradual glottid iat, as if 
there never had been an h. This must bft over- 
come. The high Germans, like the Scotch, never 
fail to "aspirate." The Italians own that they 
have no aspirate at all. The French, who talk of 
their "h aspire" (aash aaspeer'aij generally 
replace it by a clear glottid ?, as " le heros " leo 
jairoa (the hero), the main test to their ears being 
that the preceding vowel is not elided, or a pre- 
ceding consonant run on to it. This test fails foi 
the single word "onze" (eleven), for they say 
lae wan'z oer', leo ?can'z due mwaa for "les onze 
heures, le onze du mois" (eleven o'clock, the 



Sec. VII. 

eleventh of the month) although the word was 
never spelled with h. Some French actors try to 
pronounce the flated jerk hi, but they generally 
fail. In the South of France, however, I am told 
that hi is common, but that is not the received 
pronunciation. A curious fault with many 
Englishmen (and some Low, not High, G-ermans) 
is to omit the h where it ought to be sounded, and 
sound it where it ought not to be heard, and this 
especially happens when the speakers are nervous, 
and wish to speak particularly well. This can 
only be overcome by patient practice on the use of 
the open and closed glottis without reference to 
particular words. The first great difficulty is to 
make such speakers hear the difference, and this 
is best effected by means of artificial words, to 
which no association is attached. See Section XI, 
Ex. 16, and Section XII, Glossic Index, under H. 
Contrasts are very useful in case of much 
difficulty, as : ee ee ee : hee hee hee \ ee hee ee hee : 
: hee ee hee ee \ ee hee ee : hee ee hee \ ee hee hee : 
: hee ee ee \ and so on with all the vowels and 

diphthongs, and care should be taken to produce 
the effect of the clear jerk on weak or unemphatic 
syllables without producing the slightest effect of 

Croak, Bleat, Wheeze. There are several other 
important glottids, such as the Danish croak ,r, or 
letter " r," the Arabic bleat i, called '.aayn, and 
wheeze 'A, called 'haa, but as these are very 
difficult sounds for Englishmen, and do not occur 
in the languages here treated, they need not be 
further mentioned. 

Why H is the Only Glottid written in Ordinary 
Glossic. Of the glottids here treated, the aspirate 
h is the only one indicated by a special letter in 
ordinary Glossic. The clear glottid ? is 
sufficiently indicated by the absence of any letter 
or symbol of glide. It is only in discussing points 
of pronunciation that the clear glottid has to be 
distinguished from the check on one hand and the 
slur on the other. 



voiced Consonants The nature of consonants 
is in so far the same as that of vowels, that for one 
whole series of them the vocal chords are set in 
action in the same way, and the voice resounds in 
the same cavities, so that the only real difference 
consists in the modifications of those cavities, 
which are of a nature to render the emitted voice 
in most (not all cases, entirely unmusical and 
unfit for singing. These are called " voiced " 

Flated Consonants. -In another series of con- 
sonants, the voice is not set on at all, but the 
larynx being open, merely flatus is modified by 
resonant passages, so that the only real difference 
of the resulting sounds from flated vowels (p. 56) 
is that the resonant chambers are more obstructed. 
These will be called " flated" consonants. 

Whispered and Gradual Consonants. Of course 
the flated consonant can glide into the voiced 
consonant, which has the same resonance cavity, 
precisely in the same way as the flated vowel into 
the complete or voiced vowel, and in the interval 
a " whispered " consonant will be generated. The 
glide may also take place in the reverse order, 
from the voiced through the whispered, to the 
flated consonant, and this transition is more 
common in English, the first case being common 
in German, and neither occurring in Italian or 
French. In the case of vowels, as only the voiced 
vowel was recognised in writing, this " gradual " 
change was marked by prefixing or affixing the 
gradual glottid to the vowel sign. The same may 

be done with consonants, but as the flated con- 
sonant is so common as to have a special symbol, it 
may be placed before or after that of the voiced 
consonant to shew the change; thus in German 
sie's (she it) jzees or szees ; and in English, seas 
(plural of " sea ") seezi or seezs. 

Mute Consonants. Both of these series of con- 
sonants have decided sounds of their own, which 
can always be prolonged for a sensible time, and in 
most cases quite as long as any vowel. Hence the 
ordinary definition of consonants, implying that 
they can only be sounded with a vowel, is incorrect. 
But there is a third series of consonants which 
have absolutely no sound of their own, which are 
merely positions that entirely obstruct the passage 
of sound, and which are therefore only effective 
by forming the initial or final point of a glide of 
voiced or flated sounds, both of which glides occur, 
the latter being very common in English finals. 
These consonants are called ' mute." Both the 
" flated " and " mute " consonants are " voiceless." 

Systematic Arrangement of the Consonants. 
Consonants have been classified in numerous ways. 
When all the consonants used by different nations 
whose speech has been investigated, are taken into 
consideration, or even all the consonants used in 
the received and provincial pronunciations of the 
four languages here considered, they are so 
numerous as to render any classification difficult 
and complicated. It will be necessary here to 
consider all the received consonants in English, 
German, Italian, and French, and some others 



Sec. VIII. 

whicn occur provincially or arise from imperfect 
atterance, because they must be noticed in any 
directions for perfect speech and studied when 
they occur, to avoid them. The Systematic Table 
of Consonants on p. 17 contains only 80 out of 
much more numerous forms used in various 
languages. The capital letters in the Table 
indicate the 23 English consonants, the small 
Roman letters indicate the 8 additional consonants 
used in German, Italian, and French; and the 
Italic letters shew those 49 further consonants 
which occur regularly, occasionally, or only pro- 
vincially in all four languages, but will have only 
to be incidentally mentioned. 

Oral and Nasal Consonants. The linear division 
is first into two great groups of 70 " oral," and 10 
" nasal " consonants. In the first the nose is 
entirely inactive, the uvula being pressed firmly 
against the back wall of the pharynx. In the 
second, the nose is open, but more or less of the 
ora A cavity is allowed to act with it, the peculiarity 
being that the waves of sound pass into the outer 
air through the nose only, by the entire closure of 
the mouth at different places, as for the mute 1 
consonants, but the resonance is partly oral. In 
both divisions the " voiceless " and corresponding 
" voiced" consonants are placed under each other, 
the three great divisions of " voiced," " flated," 
or " imploded," and " mute," being distinguished 
by these names. Some voiced consonants have no 
corresponding flated forms in the Table, because 
such forms are not in use, although of course they 

Oral Consonants. In the 70 oral consonants 
four different grades are distinguished " shut, 
central, lateral, trilled." 

Shut Consonants, Mute, Imploded, Sonant The 

22 " shut " consonants close the aperture of the 
mouth against any passage of flatus or voice. The 
voiceless series contains the 9 " mutes " proper, as 
P, T, K. The voiced series contains the 9 
" sonants," or voiced shut consonants, as B, D, G, 
in which the voice is set on, but the air forced 

from the lungs is unable to escape by the mouth or 
nose, and consequently such a condensation of the 
air is rapidly produced within the mouth as to 
prevent the production of any sound audible 
externally. Hence for B, D, G there is an audible 
voice sound which cannot be continued beyond a 
very brief period without altering the position 
which shuts it off. But there are evidently two 
other means of producing sound, by driving flatus 
into the same aperture, or by suddenly raising 
the larynx, or otherwise condensing the air. The 
first of these might be distinguished as "flatants" 
(flai'tentsj , and the second as "implodents" 
(imploa* dents J , which is the name given by Dr. 
Merkel (Mae^'hl), the first person who drew 
attention to them. The second only are known 
to exist in Germany, and also (as I analyse the 
effect of the definite article for t'man=d maan) 
in Yorkshire, &c. They may be written as B, D, 
G, shewing that the condensation of air, which is 
the peculiarity of B, D, G, is effected not by th<- 
entry of voice, but by the contraction of unvoiced 
air in an enclosing cavity. These then form the 
4 imploded shut consonants. These sounds are of 
considerable importance dialectally, but the singer 
has simply to avoid them. 

Central Oral Consonants, Hisses and Buzzes. 
In the 26 " central " consonants there is an un- 
obstructed narrow passag-e left between the tongue 
and the palate, forming more or less of a central 
groove, as for the EE-position (diagram 8). This 
gives to the 13 "voiced" consonants more or 
less tbe character of a " buzz," of which Z is 
the type; and to the 13 "flated" consonants 
more or less the character of a " hiss," of 
which S is the type. The groove, however, may 
be almost obliterated, as when the soft lip or 
tongue touches the teeth, and the breath can only 
get through by the yielding of the soft part, as in. 
the hisses F, TH, and the buzzes V, DH. These 
were placed by Mr. Melville Bell, and after him by 
me in the " Standard Cour&e," p. 61, in the next 
division, but 1 think that they are far more 
suited to this division. 

Sec. VIII. 



lateral Oral Consonants, or L Class. In the 8 
"lateral" (latur'eli consonants there is a central 
obstacle, the point of the tongue closely pressing 
against the hard palate, round which there is a 
tolerably free passage. The type of the 5 ''voiced" 
forms is L, the most vowel-like of all the oral 
voiced consonants The type of the 3 flated forms 
is the Welsh "11" or 'LH, in which one of the 
lateral passages (the left) is generally blocked. 

Trilled Oral Consonants, or K' Class. In the 

14 "trilled" consonants, the central passage is 
obstructed by a flexible valve, which is made to 
vibrate by the action of the passing air, very much 
in the same way as the vocal chords themselves, 
but as the valve acts much more sluggishlv and 
imperfectly, the result is a periodical interruption 
of the passing flatus or voice, known as a "trill." 
The type of the 7 voiced forms is R' , the 6 flated 
forms are only incidentally in use. Among these 
are included two rudimentary forms, t( r and "r, 
which are not trills proper. 

Contacts and Approximations. The 13 columns 
in the Table indicate an arrangement by the parts 
of the mouth which come either actually or nearly 
in contact for the formation of these shut, central, 
lateral, or trilled, openings or obstructions. The 
first 12 are arranged from left to right, so that the 
point of approximation of the organs passes from 
the lips to the extreme back of the mouth ; for the 
thirteenth both the extremities come into action. 
The names written over each column shew by 
what organs the approximation is effected. The 
words "point, front, back" refer to the tongue. 
The particular action for each caae will be 
explained afterwards. This Table of 80 con- 
sonants may be compared with that in the 
" Standard Course." p. 61, for the English 23 
consonants only. In describing the mode of 
forming these consonants and their peculiar 
powers, it will be most convenient to take them 
in the order of the cohunns, which is that of their 
physiological formation by contacts and approxi- 

AND (2) FLAT. 

P. Shut Mute. Lips Round and Flat. The 
lips are brought into close contact (diagram 15), as 
when breathing through the nose, but the teeth 
are kept apart, and the nasal aperture is closed, 
unless the following sound is meant to be ori -nasal, 
as sometimes happens in French only, as in paon 
pakn' (peacock), hence it is generally closed. The 
glottis is also closed for the clear attack ? on the 
following vowel in received English, Italian, and 
French, but many English speakers have the 
glottis open for the gradual attack ;, the effect of 
which must be considered in the next Section, and 
those (chiefly Northern) Germans who distinguish 
P and B, also generally use the gradual attack j. 
The lungs are ready to emit breath directly the 
closure of the lips is relaxed, but not an instant 
before ; this is an important point. With the clear 
attack, the only one that singers should use, the 
lips open, the lungs are compressed, and the voice 
acts at the same moment. This should be carefully 
studied to avoid " breathiness." Say p?aa, not 
pjaa, nor p- h}aa, nor p-fyaa. In closing with the 
clear release, the compression of the lungs ceases 
as the lip position is reached, as aa?p. If this is 
the close of a sentence or phrase, generally the 
glottis is immediately opened, and a certain 
amount of flatus is driven out to relieve the 
speaker, written thus aajph, or a slight " click " is 
heard, written thus aa?p, this is neither always 
nor most frequently the case. These peculiarities 
will be examined and explained in Section IX. 
In the meantime observe that when paa, aap are 
written, p^aa, aa?p are meant, the clear attack being 
the only proper mode of speech for singers, and 
the final windrush or click being unmusical and 
permissible only on special occasions, to be here- 
after examined. 

B. Shut Sonant. Nose shut off, lips firmly 
closed, voice set on and forced by the lungs into 
the cavity of the mouth, which is placed in 



Sec. VIII. 

readiness for the following sound. As long as the 
lips are tightly closed, the voice produces a dull 
muffled sound, rather of the nature of a grunt, 
which can he considerably altered in effect hy 
hollowing or rounding the cheeks and the lips 
(keeping their edges closed), and can he continued 
for ahout a second, or at most two seconds, hut 
will always he finally stopped hy the condensation 
of air in the mouth becoming too great to allow of 
the proper formation of waves of sound. In 
actual practice the sound never lasts beyond a very 
small fraction of a second, but it is always enough 
to distinguish P from B, that is, a glide on to a 
following vowel commencing with absolute silence, 
as for P, from a glide commencing with a con- 
tinued voice sound, as for B. B is quite clearly 
produced in English, Italian, and French, and no 
difficulty is felt with it in these languages. But 
Germans do not usually distinguish P and B, and 
when they are anxious to do so, they use pi or 
p-hi for P, and in case of B continue the voice or 
"grunt" for some time. Both ihis gradual or 
jerked gradual attack and grunt should be avoided 
as quite unmusical and unnecessary, even by 
Germans, and should never be acquired by English 
singers of German. No Germans learn to dis- 
tinguish P and B when final. They profess to say 
P but very often say B, according to the glides 
which occur. See Section IX. 

B. Shut, Implodent. This is the sound sub- 
stituted for P and B at the beginning of words in 
a large part of Germany, and more especially in 
Saxony. The entrance to the nose and the passage 
through the lips are closed as for P, and even the 
larynx is completely closed by the epiglottis, so 
that the air in the mouth is thoroughly inclosed, 
and has no room to escape. Then by a strong 
muscular action the larynx is raised, forming a 
piston, which compresses the air, as in a condens- 
ing pump, or a common ' ' pop-gun." The result 
is a dull " thud," which somewhat resembles the 
"grunt" of B, but is yet too different from it to 
allow those who know P and B familarly to 

recognise either a P or a B sound. When P is 
expected a B seems to be said, when B is expected 
a P seems to strike the ear. But at the end of 
syllables no implodent is possible except as follow- 
ing a mute, and hence only P is said. On this 
German peculiarity are founded many bits of fun, 
the German being always made to say exactly 
contrary to what an Englishman would say ; but 
the fun is often driven further than actual use 
allows, as in Leland's " Breitmann Ballads." 
Attention is drawn to it here for the use of English 
singers, that they may know that this is a local 
peculiarity which need not be imitated, and that if 
they cling to English use, pronouncing P or B 
according to the spelling, they will be as well 
understood as Germans themselves, and merely be 
considered to have a refined pronunciation. Three 
years residence in Saxony has rendered me 
thoroughly familiar with a confusion which at 
first seems incredible to an Englishmen. 

W, V Central Buzzes, and WH, F' Central 
Hisses. It is in these that the round and flat 
positions of the lips become of importance. The 
position of tongue is also different for the W and 
V. The voiced forms "W, V are taken first 
because they are best known, but the action of the 
lips is shewn best in the flated forms WH, F'. 
The W is a peculiar English consonant which I 
have not met with elsewhere in Europe. The 
WH seems to occur in some pronunciations of 
Spanish, as Juan Whaan-, but whether this is 
received or local or provincial I do not know. 
Even in English WH is passing away, and is little 
heard even in educated Southern pronunciation. 
But many words are distinguished by its use, as 
wheel weal whee'l wee'l, which should be no more 
confused than : feel veal fee' I vee'L Hence the 
singer will have to deal with it as he deals with F, 
and make its flatus sensible, though he must 
always make it short, because, as long as it lasts, 
flatus is always a positive interruption of the 
music. For W and WH the lips are brought 
together nearly in the high- round position 

Sec. VIII. 



(diagram 12), but the aperture is closer. The 
tongue is high-back or in the oo-position (diagram 
5). If the aperture of the lips were the same for 
oo and ^v when the voice is set on, an oo vowel 
would of course result. Germans, Italians, and 
Frenchmen, not perceiving that, the opening of the 
lips is too small to admit of anything but a buzz, 
treat our w, therefore, as simply the unaccented 
initial do of a diphthong. This is of course under- 
stood, though felt as an inexplicable foreignism by 
an Englishman, who himself hears the Italian 
uomo ooao'moa as wau'moa, a sound which would 
be also understood, but also felt as a foreignism by 
an Italian. The English feels the Italians ooai for 
his wai much too "thick." The real difference 
lies in the lips. When oo is pronounced the lips 
are quite stiff and motionless, their only action is 
to ' ' round ' ' or diminish the cavity of the mouth 
to make its resonance deeper. But for w when it 
is pronounced forcibly (and this is better felt for 
iv h, as flatus has more motive power than voice), 
the edges of the lips tremble slightly, and the air 
inserts itself between the teeth and the lips 
(especially the upper lip, and just beyond the- 
corners of the lips; blowing them out like a sail, 
as may be seen in the mirror, and easily felt by 
placing the tips of the fingers lightly at one time 
over both the upper and lower lip, and at another 
just beyond the two corners of the mouth, while 
uttering ivh and w forcibly for as long a time as 
possible. Of course, when w is pronounced in the 
usual brief manner this " bagging " of the upper 
lip is no longer visible, but it can be just felt with 
the finger. By uttering ooai wai, ooaa waa, &c., 
in rapid succession this effect may be better 
perceived. It was for this reason that the lips 
were said to be "round" for W, perhaps "inflated" 
or "bagged" might have been more expressive. 
On the contrary there is no bagging of the lips for 
V, F'. The lips are by contrast "flat." The 
tongue is not necessarily raised, as for w, to the 
high -back position, it seems indeed to be rather in 
the position for the next vowel. The corners of 
the mouth are rather pinched in than not, and the 

air is driven between the lower lip and the upper 
teeth upwards to the edge of the upper lip. If 
the hand be held just before the lips when saying 
wh and /' forcibly, the different direction of the 
flatus is well felt. For /, as is well known, the 
lower lip touches the upper teeth, and the flatus is 
forced between the lower lip and the upper teeth, 
so that not only is the lower lip more contracted 
than for /', but the hiss is much stronger. The 
blowing for wh is like that of heads of Boreas or 
other wind gods, with puffed cheeks and lips ; the 
blowing for/' is like the blowing with a thin flat 
stream of wind to cool hot tea or soup. For V 
it is only necessai-y to set on the voice instead of 
the flatus, but the effect in moving the lips is not 
so apparent. 

The Germans always use V in place of English 
W, and of English V, neither of which they are 
able to pronounce without much practice. The 
consequence is that they seem to say w in English 
when v is expected, and v when w is expected. It 
is possible that the Londoner's and Kentishman's 
confusion of his " w, v " may arise from his 
saying v' in both cases. This was asserted by Dr. 
Beke, but it is so many years since I have- been 
able to hear the sound from lips to which it was 
native, that I cannot say positively what they do. 
At any rate when a German talks of one vulgar 
woman, saying v'aon vtiol-gar' v'uom-en, the 
Englishman is apt to hear von wuol-ger vuom-n. I 
know two or three Germans, long resident in 
England, excellent linguists, who speak English 
well and with a good choice of words, who have 
got over other difficulties, often thought insuper- 
able, and who cannot (or at least do not) pronounce 
the English W with certainty. In the North of 
Germany V is said to be used even in speaking 
High German I have never yet heard V from a 
German when speaking his own language. The 
sound of V is so much more musical and better 
suited to the singer than V, that singers are 
recommended to use V for V even in English 
singing (not speaking), and at any rate to bestow 



Sec. VIII 

great care upon its acquisition if they wish to sing 
German songs. 

W and WH occur in English whenever they are 
so written as the beginning of a word (except 
words beginning with who, in which the w 
is not attended to . V occurs in German wher- 
ever w is written at the beginning of a word, and 
also in the initial combination " qu-," called kv-'. 
F' occurs in German only after P, as in pfahl 
(post) pf'aa-l, where the combination is much 
easier than pf as pfaa-l, for which the under lip 
had to be suddenly drawn back and pressed against 
the upper teeth. But most of the educated Middle 
and Upper Germans are now learning to use pf. 
Some German theorists wish to use /' whenever a 
German word begins with v, as von (of), vater 
(father), thus f'aon, f'aa-tur'; but I cannot 
recollect noticing this in practice ; it may exist in 
some districts. Both/' and v" occur as the sounds 
of written "f, v" in Hungarian. The v occurs 
also for written " b, v " in Spanish. But all four 
consonants w, wh, v\ /', are absolutely unknown 
in Italian and French. 

'BE, 'WK, Lip-trilled Buzzes, 'PR Lip-trilled 
Hiss. For ( pr flatus being driven forcibly through 
the lightly closed lips, they are made to open and 
shut with great rapidity, thus interrupting and 
checking the current of air alternately. Babies 
delight in the sound of l pr, but the principal 
reason for calling attention to it here, is that it 
roughly represents the action of the vocal chords 
in the larynx, which open and shut in the same 
manner, only with much greater rapidity and 
perfection. The lips are sluggish and require 
much force to move. By controlling the extent 
of their vibrations by muscular action, or better 
still by a ring of metal, the vibrations may be 
confined to the extreme edge. The mouth-piece of 
a trumpet, French horn, or Trombone, is a con- 
trivance of this kind, and it is this vibration, this 
series of puffs, which produces the musical tone. 
This tone, therefore, receives its original pitch 
from the tension of the lips and force of the wind, 

is then reinforced and " qualified " by the 
resonance of the cavity of the horn itself. In the 
case of the French horn, the performer's hand 
inserted at the bell opening, enables him to alter 
the pitch and quality of the tones. The analogy 
between this and the motion of the vocal chords, 
the cavity of the mouth and action of tongue, is 
complete, and may serve to render the operation 
more evident. 

For 'br voice takes the place of flatus, and con- 
siderable exertion is required. This sound is 
interesting as the voiced sound of 'jt?r, and also 
for being used in a very forcible state, with a clear 
and almost metallic rattle, for stopping horses bys 
German coachmen. In a very tight state, it is 
a defective utterance of " r " in England and 
probably everywhere, written l wr in Glossic. The 
lips for l wr are tight, not loose as for w, with 
which it is usually confused, especially in print, 
because w is the nearest sound to it, but those 
who really use this l wr, resent the notion that they 
say w. The tightness of the lip much limits the 
amount of trill, and hence makes the sound more 
like w, but the sound is generally much more 
lengthened than w. This is the drawler's very 
rude ve'wr-i 'wroo'd, usually written " vewy wude" 
in Punch. It is needless to say that singers must 
have nothing to do with 'pr, l br, or 'wr, which are 
here explained merely to be corrected. 


M Shut Hum, and MH Shut Snort. For m 
the lips are as for b, but the uvula is advanced 
(diagram 22 >, so that the voice passes to the outer 
air through the nose only, but is permitted to 
resound in the whole interior cavity of the mouth, 
just as it does for b, but with the advantage of 
a free outlet, when the nose is in a healthy and 
unobstructed state. If the nose be obstructed by 
pinching the nostrils tightly, the same sort of 

Sec. VIII. 



muffled sound will be heard as for b, but decidedly 
qualified by the resonance of the nose, and it will 
rapidly cease by condensation Various other 
changes of quality can be effected by compressing 
the nose at different places and with different 
degrees of force, from the end of the bonv part, 
down to the nostrils. Such experiments shew the 
meaning of nasal resonance When there is much 
mucous Smeu'kus) in the nose owing to catarrh 
(kataa-r), or cold in the head, the resonance is 
much injured, and m comes to sound rather as a 
defective b, which may be written bm\ It may be 
imitated when there is no cold in the head, and is 
said to exist as a usual sound in Westmorland. 
The m itself is so vocal that complete airs can be 
executed upon it, which are then said to be 
" hummed." It will be found, however, in 
running the scale up and down upon m, that the 
tongue is very active. The lower jaw is depressed 
and the tongue low, in the low-mixed position for 
the low notes. As the pitch rises, the jaw rises, 
the teeth lock, and the tongue rises in the mid- 
mixed form (diagram 4), the resonance being 
much injured if the tongue is not kept in the 
mixed position. The peculiarity of the tone 
makes it desirable that singers in general should 
not dwell upon it, although as an occasional 
variety, musical parts have even been written for 
humming; thus Mozart in the Magic Flute has 
given a few bars to Papageno (Italian Paa'paa- 
jai-noa, but in the original German opera, always 
Paa-paagai'noa), which are entirely sung on m, his 
mouth being supposed to be closed with a padlock. 
Hence m acts as a true nasal (as distinguished from 
a French ori-nasal) vowel. The reason why it is 
usually classed as a consonant depends upon its 
mode of gliding, hereafter described. It occa- 
sionally forms a syllable in English, as in rhythm 
fith'm, chasm kaz'm, spasm spaz'tn, prism priz'm, 
and our numerous " -isms," as sophism sof-izm, 
where it forms a distinct syllable. But in the 
termination -Im, it ought not to do so, as elm elm 
not el-m, film film' not fil'm, because the I is also 
vocal, and glides on to it as if it were a vowel. 

Some persons even say t(*ttm t j&im, which sounds 
must be carefully avoided. But when m forms a 
syllable by itself, singers will find it convenient to 
follow this hint, and say kaz'u'm, &c., making the 
2 buzz very short, taking the chief length of the 
note to the vowel u j or u at pleasure, and ending 
with a sharp glide on to m. which will be just 
faintly touched, so as to have as little of the dis- 
agreeable nasal resonance as possible. In saying 
kaz'm properly, the buzz of the 2 is heard till 
the mouth closes for m, and the uvula being 
immediately opened for the nasal sound, there is 
merely a nasal glide while the tongue is removed 
from the z position, so that no vowel at all is 

For mh, flatus is treated in the same way as 
voice for m. It is not an acknowledged element in 
any mode of speech. But it is recognised in 
English by Mr. Melville Bell in " lamp, ' which he 
writes lamhp. The meaning of this will be 
understood hereafter, when we come to treat of the 


F Central Hiss, and V Central Buzz. These 
are the only consonants formed by the joint action 
of the lips and teeth. The lower lip is somewhat 
retracted and pressed more or less tightly against 
the lower edge of the upper teeth (diagram 18) and 
the flatus or voice being forced between the teeth 
and the lip, blows the lower lip slightly upwards 
and outwards. The pressure of the lip on the 
teeth may have any degree of force, and as it 
lightens the lower lip is less retracted, till finally 
the flatus and voice passes the teeth so easily that 
the ear cannot tell whether / or /', v or v' were 
intended. Hence it is not usual to find both v and 
v recognized in any language (as they are in 
Dutch, where, however, v is rather yo or fv, see 
p. 610). In German, for example, though v' is 
extremely common, v presents such great diffi- 
culties (p. 65) that even Dr. Merkel in describing 



Sec VIII. 

it shews that he did not appreciate it, and hence 
we may believe that those who assert the presence 
of v in German are in error. English, Italian, 
and French have distinct v but no v\ German has 
/ in general use, and f after p, but even this is 
becoming lost. The six forms iv h w, f v ', /, v, 
are thus distributed 

English wh w / v 

German f v' f 

Italian / v 

French / v 

In modern Greek where v and not v' is re- 
cognised, I have heard all forms from v to v, the 
dental character increasing with the vehemence of 
the speaker. Probably the same may occur in 
Spanish, and possibly the Italian v is thus 
descended from an older Latin v\ a change which 
has also occurred in the Indian languages. 

The singer has to use / in all four languages 
here treated, and v in all but German, where he 
employs the much pleasanter v\ Of course if the 
singer or speaker has no front teeth he must use 
f and v 1 in all languages. But singers are bound 
to fill up any gaps in the front teeth at least, to 
prevent any deterioration in their quality of tone. 
In singing, the sound of / being entirely unmusi- 
cal, must be reduced to the smallest possible 
dimensions, sufficient to make it audible, but real 
audibility must be secured, even at the expense of 
musical sound, or distinctness of speech will be 
altogether lost, because the glide from / would be 
confused with the glide from p. The learner must 
practise such exercises as faa faa faa, paa pace, paa, 
faa paa faa, paa faa paa, with all vowels and at 
all pitches, slowly and with great rapidity, taking 
care not to make the hiss of / too prominent, and 
should place a friend at a distance to inform him 
by silent signals, which is heard in each case. 
Sounds without meaning should be chosen for this 
purpose, in order that the ear of the listener may 
not be prepossessed. V and B should be exercised 
in the same way, the buzz of V not being too 

prominent. Then W and V, a very difficult 
exercise, and, still more difficult, V and V. Much 
practice is here necessary. The final /and v must 
also be especially practised to avoid lengthening 
the /, or adding on an / after shortening v, and 
thus saying haa'vi or haa-vf instead of haa-v. 
Unnecessary flatus must be avoided by the singer 
on all occasions. 


TH Central Hiss, and DH Central Buzz. The 
point of the tongue is brought against the upper 
teeth so that a small portion of it can be just seen 
below them, but the thickness of the tongue rests 
against the back of the front teeth, so that the tip 
of the tongue is not actually between the teeth 
(diagram 25, in which the teeth are represented as 
too far apart) ; at the same time the top of the 
tongue rests against the side upper teeth rather 
tightly, much in the same way as for t, so that 
really the greater part of the flatus for th and voice 
for dh passes between the teeth and the tongue. 
There is therefore not a great deal of difference in 
the effect of the hisses of / and th, both being 
produced by forcing the- hisses of air between a 
tolerably stiff obstruction i^lip for / and tongue for 
th}, and a perfectly unyielding obstacle (the teeth 
in both cases). Hence /and th are easily confused 
The principal difference lies in their effects on a 
following vowel. Such a phrase as vat fin fin ov vit 
fikfish would be unintelligible in place of dhat thin 
Jin ov dhis thik fish, and foreigners do not confuse 
th dh with/, v, but with their f and d\ which have 
nearly the same position and glide. In Orkney } 
Shetland, Kent, and part of Sussex, the words 
" the, they, that, those," &c., are pronounced with 
d. Under certain circumstances dh becomes d, and 
th becomes t in other dialects. Of course, no 
educated Englishman is liable to make such con- 

Sec. VIII. 



The sounds of th, dh, are by no means peculiar 
to English. Icelandic, Modern Greek, and Arabic, 
have both th and dh, Spanish has two sounds 
which strike the English ear as the same, and 
Danish has dh. But it so happens that these 
sounds are utterly unknown to Germans, Italians, 
and Frenchmen. For them the simplest rule is, 
" place the point of the tongue between the teeth 
anti try to say s, z." The result, though imperfect, 
is at least always intelligible. 

The singer must treat these as he does /, v ; 
make the hiss and buzz very short, but audible, 
and rely chiefly on the glide. He should exercise 
himself with th, dh, in precisely the same way as 
with/, v, and should vary the exercise by mixing 
all four letters together, as faa thaa vaa dhaa, 
faa dhaa vaa thaa, faa dhaa thaa vaa, and so on. 
And it is still more necessary for dh than for v 
final to avoid the gradual release ; beware of 
making bree-dh into bree'dhi or bree'dhth, because it 
is very common at the end of a sentence, and 
because the final whisper would spoil all delicacy 
of effect in singing. 

5, 6, 7, & 8. ORAL CONSONANTS, WITH (5) GUMS 


It is convenient to take these four series together 
because they are so closely related that one helps 
to explain the other. 

T, T, ,T Shut Mutes ; D, D', ,D Shut Sonants, 
D, D', ^D Shut Implodents. For T the lips and 
teeth are open, the upper surface of the point of 
the tongue is pressed firmly against the hard 
palate, just behind the gums, but not touching 
them (diagram 16), and then the outer margin is 
spread over the palate and against the teeth, so 

as to completely prevent the passage of air 
through the mouth, but yet to leave a considerable 
cavity between the top of the tongue and the 
palate just behind the place where the point of 
the tongue is made to touch the palate. The 
glottis is ready for the clear attack, but no air is 
driven from the lungs till the tongue begins to 
move from the palate, just as for P (p. 63 and the 
formation of D and D from T is precisely the 
same as that of B and B from P (p. 63), and need 
not be described again, but D requires especial 
notice because it is the only implodent constantly 
used in some English dialects. In Cumberland, 
Westmorland, Yorkshire, and Durham, the definite 
article the is regularly pronounced d or d', and 
in Lancashire, Cheshire, Derbyshire, and North 
Lincolnshire, it has that sound occasionally, its 
regular form there being the simple hiss th. In 
such a phrase as " at the door," the "the" sinks 
into d in all these counties, as aat d doour', with 
very gentle /', which is sometimes quite inaudible. 
In singing provincial songs this has to be attended 
to, as d or th is not reckoned as a syllable, and 
hence has no note allowed to it, but in either case 
there is an interruption to the music, which for 
general purposes has simply to be diligently 

The position of the tongue for T, D seems to be 
peculiarly English, in Europe, and perhaps in the 
world. The Indians recognise it as the same as 
that of their "cerebral" (ser-ibrelj letters. But 
these are more properly ,T, ,D, for which the under 
(instead of the upper] side of the point of the 
tongue is pressed against the same point of the 
palate, or one slightly further removed from the 
gums. This hollows out the front of the tongue 
behind the point of the tongue, and gives a 
peculiar shape to the cavity above the tongue, 
which is also affected by the way in which the 
tongue has to stretch out sideways to form a firm 
closure with the side teeth. The effect of this 
hollowness on the following vowel is rather 
marked, so that t taa t daa are really quite distinct 
from taa daa. These sounds are mentioned here 



Sec. VIIL 

because of their connection with other important 
sounds in the same column, and because Anglo- 
Indians are so much troubled with them. In fact, 
our t, d positions lie exactly between the "re- 
verted" t t, /?, and the "advanced" t', d', for 
which the upper surface of the tongue is brought 
firmly against the gums, with the under part 
resting against the front teeth, the rest of the 
closure being formed with the sides of the tongue 
and the side teeth as before. These are the "dental" 
t', d' of almost every nation of Europe except the 
English, and notably of German, Italian and 
French ; and they also occur in India as well as 
t t, d. The intermediate character of our own t, d 
renders it extremely difficult for an Englishman to 
hear the difference between the two Indian pairs 
of letters, t', d' and f, t d, although important 
differences of meaning exist according as one or 
other is used, and I have been told by Indian 
Civil Servants who had been many years in India, 
that they were unable to hear the difference. Yet 
a native Indian who spoke English well and had 
been in France, in speaking with me at once 
identified his " dental" or " advanced " t', d' with 
the French, and his "cerebral" or "reverted" 
t t, d with the English consonants. The dental 
f, d 1 certainly occur in some English dialects 
before r, and especially when tr' follow s, and 
listening to a German's sfr'aong for strong may 
assist the learner to a right appreciation of the 

After these explanations it will be seen that an 
Englishman need not trouble himself with acquir- 
ing t' t d' for foreign languages. His own t, d 
closely resemble them, and can occasion no mistake, 
because they never occur in other European 
languages, and are not offensive to the ear. The 
chief difference being in the action on the vowel, 
and if that is attended to all will go right. It is 
only when an Englishman goes to India that he 
has to learn the two other pairs of sounds, and 
although this is a matter of great practical 
importance we have nothing to do with it here. 

S, SH, S', T'H Central Hisses, and Z, ZH, Z', 
D'H, Central Buzzes. Those who whistle are 
aware what changes they produce in the resonance 
of their mouth by the motion of the tongue, 
which in every position must allow the air to pass 
centrally over it towards the lips. For S the front 
of the tongue is " arched," that is, it is convex at 
the upper part (diagram 19), and the sides are held 
firmly "by the palate and side teeth (diagram 28) so 
that there is a narrow channel over the upper 
surface of the tongue, narrowing still more towards 
the point of the tongue and between it and the 
hard palate, gums, and teeth. The point of the 
tongue is kept quite hard and stiff, and is perfectly 
unruffled by the passing flatus. The lower lip is 
somewhat retracted. The glottis is wide open. 
This is the ordinary so-called "dental" s. Very 
little change is produced in the hiss by bringing 
the point of the tongue over against the lower 
gums, and " advancing" the strongly arched front 
to form the very narrow channel between tongue 
and teeth. The sharpness of the hiss depends on 
the narrowness of this channel, and appreciable 
differences of effect are produced by widening it, 
among other reasons, because it is then difficult to 
keep ihe tongue stiff enough. This " advanced " 
form of * is useful as a corrective to those who 
have a tendency to lisp, which arises from bringing 
the point of the tongue in the first position so near 
the bottom of the front teeth as almost to strike it. 
When not quite striking, the effect is that here 
written fh, and is said to be the sound of " z " 
in Tuscan (the best) Italian, when followed by 
" i" and another vowel in an unaccented syllable, 
as grazia (thanks) grace' f heeaa, vizio (vice) 
vee't'heeoa, but this is not the pronunciation 
recommended for English singers, who should 
use the recognised graa'tseeaa, vee-tseeoa, without 
caring even whether the t should or should not be 
t\ The true Spanish z is said to have the same 
lisping sound, but Englishmen are here recom- 
mended to use their own th. Say " cats, nets, 
pots, cuts, puts" kats, nets, pots, Jcuts, puots, and 
observe the effect of the t on the following s, in 

Sec. VIII. 



drawing that part of the front of the tongue just 
behind the tip, closer to the palate, so that there is, 
it least at first, a continuation backwards of that 
extreme narrowness, which in the ordinary s lies 
only between the point of the tongue and gums or 
teeth. This is written s', and is said to be the 
true Tuscan Italian pronunciation of initial "z" 
in accented syllables, as in zio (uncle) s'ee-oa. The 
English speaker is not recommended to attempt 
this. He should confine himself to tsee-oa, touch- 
ing the palate first and so leading on to the *' 
involuntarily. This is also the recognised pro- 
nunciation, and is certainly the sound of the 
German initial " z," as in zuzuziehn (to draw to) 
tsoo-tsoo-tsee-n. This initial combination ts, run on 
to the following, and not affecting the preceding 
vowel, will require much practice in German and 
Italian ; it does not occur in English and French. 

In all these varieties of S, the front of the 
tongue is well arched, the point is well forward, 
and there is consequently no hollowness at the 
back. But for SH the typical form of the tongue 
is that for 4 T with the under surface of the tongue 
towards the palate, which it does not touch, 
allowing the air to pass over between this reverted 
under surface and the palate, and to eddy, as it 
were, in the hollow behind this reverted front of 
the tongue. This is the true Indian sA, which is 
related to ( t as * is to t. In English, German, 
Italian, and French, for sh occurs in all these 
languages, the typical form has undergone a little 
change, arising from the method in which it was 
historically derived, for it is a recent sound in all 
these languages, and not primitive, as in the 
Indian, Arabic, and Hebrew. For true SH the 
point of the tongue is drawn much further back 
than for S (as may be readily seen in the mirror 
and felt by the probe), and is directed towards the 
hard palate at some distance behind the gums 
(diagram 26) , so that when looked at in the mirror 
the under surface of the tongue is well seen, 
shewing that it is not presented to the palate. 
The front of the tongue behind the narrow passage 
thus formed is consequently rather straight than 

hollowed (it is rather too straight, however, in 
diagram 26), but it is sufficiently different from 
the arched front of S to entirely alter the nature 
of the sound. In Germany, certainly, and some- 
times in England, the lips are also considerably 
protruded for SH, being curved outwards so as to 
form a trumpet-bell shaped aperture. This is 
very marked in the command hush ! and is so well 
known that the mere assumption of this position 
of the lips, without emitting any breath, is 
generally understood as an order to be silent. 
Still this position of the lips is not at all essential 
to the production of the sound, and gives it rather 
an inelegant 'thickness.' S is a hiss, SH is a 
whish, or hush. S or st in English and French, is 
in German and Italian, is used to rouse and call 
attention. SH in all the four languages is used to 
calm, to indicate moderation of sound, or even to 
order silence. This arises from the contrast of the 
sharp hiss S, and the dull whish SH. 

In singing, the hiss S is apt to be very 
prominent, especially when final, much more so 
than the whish SH. Some singers seem to have a 
positive fondness for the sound, though it is 
entirely un vocal, and interrupts the music pain- 
fully. It is generally possible to recognise the 
presence of every s in a hymn, where the other 
letters escape observation. The singer must 
therefore be very careful to shorten the hiss as 
much as possible. It must indeed be heard, but it 
should be very unobtrusive. It is so sharp and 
cutting that the least touch of it is well perceived. 
Hisses and buzzes can be made exceedingly short 
by a rapid separation of the parts of the mouth 
which generate them. There seems to be a great 
desire, however, to retain the position at the end of 
words. Hence the singer should practise saying 
sees, sais, saas, saus, soas, soos, with an almost 
immediate removal of the tongue, lowering it, not 
by the muscular action of the tongue, but of the 
lower jaw, which will drag the tongue with it, and 
render the hiss impossible. The sounds of S and 
SH are common in all the four languages. SH is 
written sch in German, except before t, p at the 



Sec. VIII. 

beginning of words, when it is written , as in 
stehen spielen, now called shtai'n shpee-len almost 
universally, even in Hanover, where stai'n spee-len 
used to be heard forty years ago. Occasionally, 
however, sh'tai-n, sKpee-len may be heard (see sh' 
below). In Italian sc before e, i, and sci other- 
wise, and in French ch represent this sound. 

The letters Z (with z', dh] and ZH differ only 
from the corresponding S (with *', fi) and SH, by 
having the glottis closed for voice, instead of open 
for flatus. But the narrowness of the passage is 
so extremely ill-fitted for vocal resonance that the 
effect is that of a strong buzz, even more marked 
than for v, dh, and more unpleasant to maintain, 
whereas the hisses s, sh are much pleasanter and 
easier than the hisses /, th, because the air passes 
freely through a narrow but unobstructed passage, 
and has not to squeeze through between a sluggish 
obstacle (lip or tongue) and an immovable barrier 
(teeth^. This leads to some curious results. In 
none of our four languages are z, zh primitive 
(they have been in all cases historically derived 
from other actions, which cannot be here des- 
cribed) ; and there is a constant tendency to open 
the glottis and let the easier hiss and whish be 
heard. In the few English words beginning with 
z, of which "zeal, zest, zigzag, zone, zoological" 
(all foreigners), are most in use, the z is either 
made extremely short, or refined by a gradual 
attack, as pee' I or szee'l, with the s scarcely 
touched, but no singer should allow himself to sing 
jz or sz. In German the initial * before a vowel 
is always pronounced with this gradual attack, 
except when influenced by a preceding vowel or 
voiced consonant (which can only be I, m, n, r' in 
German) as sie, sehen (they see) jzee, izai-n, or 
szee, szai-n, with the * just touched, as separate 
words, but szee zai'n when connected. This 
pronunciation, though universal, is not acknow- 
ledged, and hence singers may confine themselves 
to simple z. In Italian, initial z never occurs 
except under the influence of a following voiced 
consonant, as sdegno (indignation) zdai'ny'oa or 
or szdai'ny'oa, with light *. The 

Italian initial combinations which produce this 
effect are " sd, sg, sgh, sm, sn;" I have not noticed 
it in " si." These combinations do not occur in 
French, but I have observed Frenchmen say zmees 
for Smith Smith. There are the same words with 
initial z in French as in English, and the z is kept 
light but pure, as zael, zaest, zeegzaag, zoan, 

Final z (written " s ") occurs frequently in 
English, and if followed by a pause of perceptible 
length, has invariably the gradual release, as sins 
sinzi or sinzs, scenes see~nzi or see'nzs. But in this 
case the z is apt to be made very short, and the * 
very long and conspicuous. This is usually pain- 
fully prominent in children's singing. Singers 
should practise keeping the z pure to the end. 
The z itself is certainly quite unmusical, though 
not unvocal, and from its bad quality of tone 
should never be long sustained. But it must not 
be omitted, and must not run off into s. 

Final z never occurs in German. It is always a 
pure sharp s, whether written " s, ss," as in das 
(the) daas, nuss (nut) nuos-, or " sz," as in flusz 
(river) fioo's. 

Final z never occurs in Italian. 

Final z often occurs in French speaking, and is 
written "-se," as rose raoz, but in French singing 
this becomes raozeo, except before a vowel, so that 
it is only in very recent times that any real z final 
has been known in this language. 

Medial z, that is, z between two vowels, is very 
common, and is indeed the usual way of pro- 
nouncing a written " s " in that position in all the 
four languages. 

Many languages have no z, as Spanish, Ice- 
landic, Welsh. 

Initial zh never occurs in English, but it is 
extremely common in French, written " j," as 
jejase (I chatter) zheo zhaaz, or "g" before " e," 
as gene (inconvenience) zhaen, geole (gaol) zhoal. 

Final zh never occurs in English, but is frequent 
in French speaking, through the omission of final 
"e," as in age (age) ahzh, but not in French singing, 
where this " e " is pronounced, thus ahzheo. 

Sec. VIII. 



Medial zh occurs in English in a very few words, 
as division divizh-en, confusion ku'vfioo-zhen, and 
similar words, leisure lezfriuor or lezh'ei, treasure 
trezh'iuor or trezh-er, and similar words. It is 
an extremely recent introduction. In French it is 
very common, as outrager (to outrage) ootraa-zhai. 

ZH never occurs in German or Italian, although 
SH is common in both languages. 

L, L', 'L, ,L, Lateral Murmurs, and LH, L'H, 
LH, Lateral Hisses. The common English L is 
the true type of the lateral passage in the mouth. 
The point of the tongue is pressed firmly against 
the palate, as for T, but the sides of the tongue 
are free, so that the air can pass between the sides 
of the tongue and the cheeks or teeth on both 
sides, and in doing so will generally cause both of 
the sides of the tongue to nutter slightly (diagrams 
20 and 27). The lips are wide open, in a natural 
inactive position, and the teeth are well apart. 
The whole under surface of the tongue is seen in 
the mirror, but none of it touches the palate 
itself. The glottis is contracted for voice. If it 
is open, and flatus pass through the same position 
as for LH, the sides of the tongue are seen to 
vibrate much more. This sound of Ik does not 
occur in English, but it is not unfrequent in 
colloquial French, as table taablh, although the 
entire omission of the "le " is more common still, 
as taab, in which case the b is lengthened, or 
rather, when the b is released the tongue is in the 
position for I, so that there is a glide from b to /, 
but the I is not prolonged to form a syllable, as in 
the English tai'bl ; it is rather absolutely mute, 
though the fact of bringing the tongue to the 
I position and the glide up to it, convince a French- 
man that he really pronounces it. Occasionally, 
when very energetic he may do so, but the 
recognised form even then is taablh\ the I gliding 
on to ti p. 56&) as a remnant of taableo, and any 
sound like taab' I is purely foreign, English or 
German. This taableo is the recognised sound, and 
is the only form used in singing, except when 

there is a vowel on to which the I can glide, so 
that the hiss Ih be always avoided. 

If the point of the tongue be advanced fully 
against the gums and top of the hinderpart of the 
front teeth, we have the " dental " or " advanced" 
L', the only acknowledged sound in German, 
Italian, and French, for which, however, the 
Englishman may always use his own L, so that he 
need feel no trouble in making this distinction. 
It is, of course, I'h, the flated form of I', and not 
lh, which is really heard in French. 

If the under surface of the tongue is brought 
against the palate, so that we have a hollow front, 
as for k d (p. 69#), we obtain the "reverted" /, 
which possibly occurs dialectally in England, but 
produces such a disagreeable thickening of the 
sound, that singers must be very careful to keep 
the front of the tongue well arched for their own 

In all these I, there is a passage on both sides of 
the tongue. By pressing one side of the tongue 
tightly against the teeth and palate (as in prepar- 
ing to make the click to start horses), that side 
will be closed, and the result will be a unilateral 
(ewnilat'ur'elj or one-sided I, written l l. The 
unilateral effect is heightened by also closing half 
of the mouth. The flated form of this is l lh, 
which is the Welsh " 11," thus quaintly described 
by William Salesbury in the oldest English book 
on Welsh pronunciation, in 1567 : " The Welsh 
II is spoken the tongue bowed by a lyttle to the 
roufe of the mouth, and with that somwhat 
extendying it selfe betwyxt the fore teeth the 
lyppes not all touching together but leaning open 
as it were for a wyndow the right wyke of the 
mouth for to breathe out wyth a thycke aspirated 
spirite the same II. But and if ye wyll haue the 
very Welsh sounde of thys letter, geue eare to a 
Welshma when he speaketh culltell, whych be- 
tokeneth a knyfe in Englysh : or ellyll a ghoste." 
These words are called Wlh'tae'lh 1 ae'lht''lh in 
Welsh. Many Welshmen deny the unilateral 
character, but my Welsh teacher (a clergyman at 
Beaumaris, in October, 1857) insisted upon it. 



Sec. VIII. 

This consonant is the only one in Welsh which 
offers any difficulty, and has often to be imitated 
by English people, who also sing Welsh songs. 
The usual English imitation thl, as Llangollen 
Thlangoth-len for 'Llaangao'lhaen, is very in- 

The English L is the most vocal of the English 
oral consonants, and may itself form a syllable, as 
in little lit-l, tackle tak-l, apple ap'l. But the 
resonance is not agreeable enough for singing 
upon, and hence it is preferable to say lit'tt'l, 
tak-u'l, ap-u'l, giving the principal part of the note 
to ' and closing with a sharp glide on to I, which 
is briefly but audibly sustained, as previously 
explained for vocal m (p. 67#). In speaking, how- 
ever, I is purely vocal after p b, t d, though a slight 
vowel, or at least a distinct glide, is perceptible 
after k g. Thus in apple, babble ap-l, bab'l, the 
lips are closed for p, b and the tongue put into the 
proper position for I, at the same moment, so that 
when the lips are opened, there is only a short 
glide and the I alone follows; whereas for ap-u'l, 
bab'u'l, the lips are closed for p, b and the tongue 
put into the position for u' (or u at pleasure) at 
the same time, so that on releasing the lips, there 
is a glide on to u', and then one from u' on to I, 
and however short the u' may be, this is percept- 
ibly different from a glide on to I only. Again for 
little fiddle lit-l fid'l, the point of the tongue when 
in the t, d position is also in the I position, and 
without removing it at all, we simply release the 
sides of the tongue, and there is the smallest 
possible glide heard during this motion, after 
which a pure I remains. But to introduce any 
vowel, as u 1 , between t, d and I, the point of the 
tongue must be removed and replaced. However 
rapidly this may be done, a totally different effect 
is produced, and this is written lit'u'l fid-til. In 
the case of tackle, higgle tak-l, hig-l, the contact of 
the tongue for k, g, as we see by diagram 17, 
renders the placing of the point in the po&ition for 
I impossible without previously releasing the back 
of the tongue from the k, g position, and there is 
therefore an exceedingly short time for which 

there is a completely unobstructed passage, so that 
some obscure vowel of an indeterminate character 
results. In singing we may hold this as tak-u'l, 
hig-u'l, but in speaking we do not hold it, and 
hence have only the effect of a glide lasting for a 
longer time than in the other cases. 

This vowel / is common in German, and in 
Austrian names it is commonly written without a 
vowel, as Ischl, Gungl eesh-l, guong-l, but in 
common words it is written el, as in bibel beeb-l 
(Bible), fackel faak-l (torch), wandel v'aan-dl 
(walk). But even here the theoretical pronuncia- 
tion is ail, as beeb-ail, f dak-ail (which is really 
never used in actual speech), and beeb-ul,faak-ul, 
v'aan-du'l are quite admissible, in fact preferred in 
declamation, and necessary in singing. In usual 
Glossic we write beeb-el,faak-el, v'aan'del. 

No vocal I occurs in Italian or French. 

B', B", ,B Point Trilled Buzzes, and U B Point 
Bise, B'H, B"H Point Trilled Hisses The first 
difference between the English initial R' and L is 
that the passage for air is central in R' (diagram 
28) and lateral for L (diagram 27). The next 
difference is that the sides of the tongue vibrate 
slightly for L, and the point of the tongue vibrates 
more strongly for R' . The position of the tongue for 
R' (diagram 21) andS (diagram 19) is very similar. 
The whole back and part of the front is almost 
in the same position for T, S, and R' (diagram 16, 
19, 21) being fixed firmly against the palate and 
side teeth for T. But in T the point of the tongue 
stops the passage by being pressed up against the 
palate ; for S it narrows the passage by being held 
stiffly near the gums and teeth ; for R' it is held 
loosely in the same passage, across which it can 
"flap," so as at one time, when the point bends 
down, to admit the air to pass more freely than for 
S, and at another, when the point turns up, to 
check it almost as much as T. This " flapping " 
or vibrating of the tongue is too rapid to be 
effected by a " voluntary " muscular action, and 
the incapacity which so many persons feel to 
" trill their r's " arises from attempting such an 

Sec. VIII. 



action. The " trill " of the loose point of the 
tongue seems to be produced just in the same way 
as in a loose piece of paper held in a crevice 
through which the wind "blows. (I once had this 
effect provokingly produced "by the loose end of a 
piece of wall-paper which came just over a little 
chink between the window-frame and wall of my 
bed-room , the result being horrible groans and 
moans on a windy night, of which it was difficult 
to discover the origin). By holding a piece of 
paper in the crevice of a window slightly open 
when there is much wind, this fluttering is easily 
seen. The fluttering of flags on a windy day is 
another example. The loose point of the tongue 
is really placed in a crevice through which wind 
is driven, and if we only take care to leave it 
sufficiently elastic, by relaxing the muscles of that 
part while the rest remains stiff, it will be rapidly 
driven to and fro by the passing air, and produce 
the required "trill." On one occasion, many 
years ago, when I was explaining the phonetic 
method of teaching to read before a class of 
teachers at the Home and Colonial Schools with a 
class of very young children to exemplify my 
teaching on, I found that three of these children 
could not " trill their r's." I succeeded after about 
a minute in making each of them trill an r' very 
intelligibly by these directions. " Say z. Buzz it 
well." The children were delighted with the 
buzz, and it is important for them to continue it, 
and make it strong, because it causes the point of 
the tongue to tingle, and they thus become 
concious that it is resisting an obstacle. " Now 
then don't you feel the end of your tongue rather 
queer ? Hadn't you to hold it very tight ? Very 
well, now then buzz again and let the end of your 
tongue go loose and be comfortable." And the 
trill came out at once. Another way of acquiring 
trilled r 1 before any given vowel, as in r'aa, is to 
repeat daa daa daa with the greatest possible 
rapidity, trusting to increase of speed to make the 
d imperfect, and hence to arrive at something like 
r . This is the method usually recommended, but 
it appears to me inferior to the other, first because 

it is accomplished by a voluntary muscular effort, 
and we merely wish to render a membrane in- 
voluntarily obedient to an external force, without 
any use of muscle ; and next because the tongue 
in saying r never assumes the completely checking 
position for d ; and lastly, because the utterance of 
any vowel, as aa after d, requires the tongue to be 
entirely removed from the molar teeth and then 
returned to it, whereas for r' the tongue must 
never leave the molar teeth, so that we are 
training our muscles falsely throughout. 

For R' the glottis is closed for voice, but the 
sound is constantly interrupted by the trill, which 
is not fast enough to produce a musical note (as 
for the wall-paper in my window-frame) but gives 
the effect of " beats " in music, as when two notes 
of almost the same pitch are sounded together. 
This is vocal enough to be sung upon (as in the 
voix celeste vwaa sailaest stops of an organ or 
harmonium) but by no means pleasant. Hence in 
German, Italian, and French, where the trill is 
naturally much stronger than in English, it should 
be considerably softened, by decreasing the extent 
of the swing of the vibrating parts, which 
diminishes the sharpness of the beat, and also 
decreasing both the rapidity of the vibrations 
and the length of time that they last. Still the 
trill must be heard. In English it occurs only 
and always before a vowel, and is replaced by the 
"vocal r," that is, the vowel u or ' in other 
places (p. 53). For this reason in the most 
ordinary English Glossic it is sufficient to use r 
for both the vocal and trilled effect, thus roa-rring 
for r'oa'rr'ing, that is, r'ao'ur'ing. (" Teacher's 
Manual," p. 202). But this double use of r has 
been purposely avoided in the present treatise 
where it was important to draw the. attention of 
Englishmen to the distinction. The difficulty 
which they experience in German, Italian, and 
French, and more especially Italian, is to pronounce 
a clear and distinct trill when no vowel follows, with 
either a long or a short vowel before this trill, as 
Italian veer' too", French vaer'tue, and if necessary to 
" double " the sound, as Italian gooaer''r'aa gueria 



Sec. VIII. 

(war). No shade of an introduced vocal r, or 
really vowel u, it , must be introduced. The vowel 
must glide on to the r' as clearly and sharply as ou 
to a d or z. It is by means of d and z that this 
effect can be best acquired. Practise aad, aaz, 
aar' aadz, aadzr' ', and so on with all vowels. 

The tongue is sometimes more advanced than in 
diagram 21, so that in the upper movement of the 
tongue it approaches the teeth rather than the 
palate. This gives the " dental " or "advanced" 
trill r", which properly occurs after a real (thus 
8t'r"ai for st'r'ai stray, the common str'ai], in 
dialects which use t\ The singer need not trouble 
himself with it. Whatever his natural trilled r' 
may be, provided it is trilled, and made with the 
front of the tongue arched he may use it. But 
there is another trill made with the front of the 
tongue hollow, as it is for t d (p. 69 j and zh (p. 7l), 
and this is the West of England t r. For this / 
the tongue is " reverted," and the trill is made by 
the under surface of the tongue flapping to and 
from the palate. The effect is extremely rough 
and disagreeable, but very characteristic of the 
locality. Any inhabitants of districts where it is 
used should correct the habit if possible, especially 
in singing, where it greatly spoils the effect of all 
vowels which it follows. 

If, however, the reversion is not more complete 
than for sh (diagram 26), the point of the tongue 
being only slightly raised, the effect, though de- 
cided, is not by any means so bad. But when voice 
passes over the tip, stiffened to such a degree that 
it cannot vibrate, the effect is not unlike the vowel 
M itself. This is Mr. Melville Bell's untriUed ,.r, 
or " rise," as I prefer to call it, which on this view 
of its formation is a mere modification of t r t and 
hence may be regarded as a " rudimentary " trill. 
For convenience this tt r may be classed among the 
trills themselves, although it is really an imperfect 
or "pervious" t d, bearing the same relation to the 
" impervious " t d itself as v' to b, or gh to g. Mr. 
Bell considers that this is the true form of " r " in 
English wherever it occurs, initial or final, only in 
the latter he considers it " a semi-vowelized sound 

of (t r ("Visible Speech," p. 70), which may be 
considered as sufficiently distinguished by position. 
Thus he writes: Agrippa, art, permitted, for, 
stretched, forth, answered, as Aag tt rip'aa, ah (t rt, 
pe 1 it rmit'ed) fo i( r, st t( raetsht, fao (t rth, a''nse' (( rd, 
which I pronounce Ugr'ip'u or Agrip-a\ acrt, 
pumit-ed,fauu, str'echt, fao'uth, aan-sud. The real 
difference here is as to the use of r 1 or u r, the 
vowels are of no consequence, either set being 
admissible. To me the use of initial (l r has the 
effect of defective utterance, and it occurs to me 
that Mr. Bell insisted on his form (l r to instruct 
Scotchmen (among whom he had lived so long) to 
avoid their very strong trill. In English the 
trilled r' must be much lighter than in Scotch or 
Irish or Italian, that is, the distance by which it 
flaps backwards and forwards must be less, and 
hence it must never approach the palate so nearly, 
and also the number of vibrations and duration 
of vibration must both be less. All this is effected 
by diminishing the force of the breath which is 
driven through the mouth, and increasing the 
muscular looseness of the point of the tongue. In 
some of our dialects the amount of trill is barely 
perceptible, but there is a something present 
different from either any vowel or the rise ,,r, 
which attentive examination enables us to appre- 
ciate as a point trill. A perfectly untrilled rise ft r 
has a singular effect. It is much used in America, 
and I have found the name of this country a 
perfect of test, a kind of Shibboleth (Judges xii., 6) 
for distinguishing even those Americans who 
speak most like Englishmen. They always say 
ume l( r'iku or a?me it r-ika\ not umer'-iku or 
a > mer''ika'. 

All these forms of R' would have their flated 
forms, such as r"A, r'A, t rh, (( rh, of which the two 
first are introduced into the Table, as, in colloquial 
French, "-re" often becomes r'h, or more properly 
perhaps r"7i, as sabre saabr"h, or still more 
colloquially saab, but more properly saabrh', and 
in singing, saabreo. Compare the French Ik, lh\ 
p. 73. The flated t rh, f( rh, I do not remember to 
have heard. 

Fee. VIII. 



N, N", ,H, Shut Hums, and NH, N"H, Shut 
Snorts. The tongue is placed precisely in the 
same position for n as it is for d, for n" as for d\ 
for ( n as for ( d, but the nasal passage is opened in 
the usual way ( diagram 23), and the voice escapes 
through it entirely (shewn by experimenting with 
the nostrils as for m, p. 66). But there is a 
resonance in the part of the mouth communicating 
with the throat, and limited by the tongue. The 
cavity for n thus formed is much smaller than the 
cavity for m. Hence the resonance is not so full. 
The difference is easily tried. Hum a few notes 
on m, and then repeat them for n without opening 
the lips, and finally repeat them for n with the lips 
open. The first quality of tone differs decidedly 
from the second, but the second and third are 
identical, shewing that the part of the mouth 
beyond the tongue in case of n has no effect on 
the resonance. The n is decidedly more nasal, and 
less musical than the m. Still it is possible to sing 
on n, which forms a distinct syllable in many 
English words, as open, oa-pn, taken tai'kn, lessen 
les-n. In the well-known bass song, "The sea! 
the sea ! the open sea ! " (words by Barry Corn- 
wall, that is, Proctor, and music by Chevalier 
Neukomm Sheovaalyai Naorkaom, in English 
Noi'kum) there is a long and important note on the 
last syllable of open. 

ie sea, the sea, e op - en sea 

Philips, who was the original singer, always sang 
the "en" to n, and the dull nasal effect (I have 
heard him sing it) was very disagreeable, coming 
as it did immediately after the fine oa. But 
Philips contended that the word " open " was 
properly pronounced oa-pn, and that it would be 
erroneous to say either on,' pew or oa-puw. The 
true middle course is to say oa'pu'n. The u' is to 

be prolonged and have the main effect of the note, 
but just at the end it glides up quickly and briefly 
to n, which is just touched before the voice quits the 
note. The n is thus made audible, and the effect 
is totally different from oa'pu', while the sharp 
glides to n in oa'pew, oa'puw are altogether avoided, 
so that these disagreeable pronunciations are not 
presented to the mind of the listener, and the 
horrible change of quality of tone from oa to n is 
not heard. This is the method in which singers 
are recommended to sing the syllables which con- 
tain a simple n. Of course, they will continue to 
speak them correctly. Compare the remarks on 
vocal m, p. 67 0, and vocal /, p. 740. In such a word 
as oa-pn, the syllable on n has no glide leading to 
it. The mouth closed for p may remain closed or 
open for n, as we have seen, and the tongue 
assumes the n position so rapidly after the p 
closure, and before the nasal passage is opened, 
that no vowel and no m can intervene. To say 
oa-pmn, oa-bmn would be difficult even to English 
organs. But for oa-pu'n the mouth opens before 
the nasal passage opens, and hence an oral vowel 
escapes. In the still more common case of vocal 
n after t or d t as eaten ee-tn, Newton Neu-tn, 
sodden sod-n, wooden wuod-n, there is absolutely no 
motion of the tongue in passing from the mute or 
sonant to the ??, and hence no glide on to the n is 
possible. The nasal passage is opened, and the 
nasal resonance is added to the oral ; the utmost 
that can happen by way of glide is the passage 
from imperfect to perfect nasalisation as the uvula 
leaves the back wall of the pharynx. It is, how- 
ever, always possible to remove the point of the 
tongue and produce a real oral vowel, and hence 
as before we may and should sing ee-tu'n, Newtu'n, 
sod'u'n, wuod'u'n. In cases like oaken oa-kn, 
broken broa'kn, twiggen twig-n, there should also 
be the shortest possible glide in passing from k to 
n, but exactly as in tak'l, hig'l (p. 740) there is 
more tendency to introduce a vowel, and in some 
forms, as chicken chick'in, a clear vowel is usually 
employed. For listen lis'n, mizen miz-n, the glide 
is very short, as the tongue for s, z is already half 



Sec. VIII. 

arranged for ?/, and the tip has only to be suddenly 
thrown up. In kitchen kick-in a clear vowel is 
common, but not so in beechen, birchen bii-chn, 
berchn, nor in ashen, freshen ash f n, fresh-n, where 
the treatment is quite similar to that in lis-n. 
And earthen erth-n, heathen hee'dhn are similarly 
related to eet'n, but as the th is quite dental there 
will be a tendency to use the dental " in prefer- 
ence to the real English n ; in fact, there is a 
difficulty in retracting the tongue from the th 
position (diagram 25) to the n position (diagram 
23 , and I find that my own practise is, not to 
retract the tongue, but to leave the point against 
the teeth, and raise the part just behind it to touch 
the gums and palate up to the spot where the 
point is usually placed for n. This would not be 
the case in foreign languages. 

Vocal n" is very common in ordinary German 
speech, but it is considered incorrect, and it 
should always be replaced by an obscure vowel 
' followed by n" t as in English singing, thus 
lieben lee-bu'n" or lee'bun", for which lee-bu'n may 
be used by English speakers, not lee-bn. In such 
words as " meinen " to think) it is common to say 
mahyn-^-n, that is, the first n is taken short, and 
then there is a perceptible diminution of force, 
without a complete cessation of voice, followed by 
a new vocal n. It is better, however, to say 
mahyn-un, and in singing this is necessary. 
Germans profess to say maayn-ain, but this is not 
the practice even in solemn declamation. There is 
a combination of syllabic vocal I with the usual 
non-syllabic n very common in German, which 
Englishmen often find difficult, as in nudeln 
noo'dln (vermicelli), wandeln vaan'dln (to walk), 
where the combination is similar to our fallen 
fawln ; or as some persons pronounce kiln (for 
which kit is more usual), and like our elm. In 
singing and speaking say noo-duln, v'aan'duln not 
noo'dlu'n, v'aan'dlun (the usual English error N , and 
still less noo'du'lu'n, v'aan-dulu'n. In usual Glossic 
we write noo'deln, v'aan'deln. 

There is no vocal n or n" in Italian or French. 

The snort nh (or n"h as the case may be) is 
sometimes heard as a kind of snuffle, and as a 
defective utterance of children, and when we 
endeavour to clear an obstruction in the nose, by 
closing the mouth as for t, and blowing through the 
nasal passages. It is no longer recognised as an 
element of speech, except by Mr. Melville Bell, in 
such a word as tent, which will be considered in 
Section IX, but it formerly replaced the " k" in 
words beginning with " kn," as " know," and the 
pronunciation nhnoa was laid down by some 
orthoepists of the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries, and nhnaa may still be heard in 
Cumberland. Of course, singers will carefully 
avoid such a disagreeable interruption to music. 
The Germans pronounce a pure kn, as in knabe 
knaa'bu (bov\ 


Y, Central Buzz, and YH, Central Hiss. This 
is the only form of this series which is generally 
recognised. The tongue is nearly in the same 
position as for ee (diagrams 1 and 8), but it is 
pressed much closer to the palate at the top, 
sensibly diminishing the narrow channel left by 
ee between the tongue and the palate, so that it is 
difficult to squeeze out any voice at all, and what 
reaches the ear is very obscure and broken, so that 
it differs materially from ee. Hence it is quite 
possible to distinguish ee from yee, although many 
people find a difficulty in so doing. It is not an 
uncommon English or German sound, as in yea 
yai, ja (yes, G.) yaa. In French and Italian it is 
replaced by an ee, forming a diphthong of the 
third class (p. 48), as cavalier (horseman, F.) 
kaavaaleeai, des yeux (eyes, F.) daezeeeo, jeri 
(yesterday, I.) eeae-ree. But Englishmen may 
without hesitation use their common and familiar 
y, and say kaavaalyai, daezyeo, yae-ree, which are 
the Glossic forms usually employed. 

Sec. VIII. 



If flatus is used instead of voice YH results. 
This sound occurs only in English, in such words 
as hew, hue ytuoo, Hughes Yhiooz, human 
yMoo-mu'n, humid yhioo-mid, humour yhwo'mu'r 
(formerly called yoo-mu'r). But English orthoepists 
have generally failed to recognise it, and consider 
that hfioo, hfioo-z, lifioo-mun are the real sounds, 
and this was most probably a previous pronuncia- 
tion. As singers should always avoid the intro- 
duction of flatus when admissible, they are quite 
at liberty to say hfioo, hfioo'z, hfioo'mu'n, with the 
simple clear jerk, and thus get a perfectly vocal 
sound, much easier to produce. In usual Glossic, 
therefore, we write heu, heuz, lieu-men, heu-mer. 

CH' Shut Mute, and J' Shut Sonant, with the 
Consonantal Diphthongs CH Hissed, and J Buzzed, 
and their True First Elements TY' Shut Mute, 
and DY' Shut Sonant, and Second Elements SH' 
Central Hiss, and ZH' Central Buzz. Now 
suppose that the extremely narrow channel above 
the tongue which is left in y becomes entirely 
obliterated by forcing the tongue against the 
palate so as to make a complete stop. In order to 
do this it is best to plant the point of the tongue 
firmly against the lower gums. The result is a 
shut sonant consonant J'. In singing j'aa, the 
front of the tongue should not be allowed to hollow 
in the slightest degree, or else more or less of an 
yaa effect would be produced. If the reader 
succeeds in making this contact firmly and releas- 
ing it well on to the aa, the resulting sound faa 
will be almost indistinguishable from jaa, and Mr. 
Goodwin (in 1852) considered that this true shut 
consonant was the proper sound of the English 
;', which is usually analysed as dzhaa. The 
voiceless form would be CH', and Mr. Goodwin 
also considered this to be the true form of the 
English chaa, usually analysed as tshaa. I find 
from vivd voce observation that native Sanscrit 
scholars actually pronounce the two shut con- 
sonants which are interposed in their series of shut 
consonants between t t and k, and between t d and g, 
precisely as ch', j", and decidedly not as tsh, dzh, 

which have evidently no claim to be considered 
shut consonants at all. The real Sanscrit series 
are k, ch', f, t', p, and g, /', t d, d', b. Now the 
object of mentioning this curious sound is to draw 
the singer's attention to a possibility of avoiding 
the initial unpleasant hiss and buzz of ch, j, in 
chest, jest, as usually pronounced, by substituting 
ch'est,j'est. The final forms in such age such ai'j, 
if treated as such' ai'f simply, would be unin- 
telligible. The glide up to ch',j' is so nearly the 
same as that up to t, d, that they would be heard 
as a variety of su't, ai'd, unless a vowel followed, 
or unless some voice or flatus were emitted after 
the letters, as is usual with all shut consonants. 

Now if we release ch', not through yh (which 
would require considerable effort in order to retain 
the tongue in its place and groove out the central 
channel), but by withdrawing it bodily, so that 
the whole upper surface of the tongue ceases to 
have contact with the palate, though the point of 
the tongue remains planted against the lower 
gums, we shall obtain an " arched front " or 
S-sound, modified by having the narrow channel 
backward instead of forward, and differing from 
the " hollowed front " or SH-sound, by having the 
principal opening in front of the surface of the 
tongue instead of behind it. On the whole this 
modification resembles sh more than *. and it is 
I hence written sti . (Its position in the 9th column 
j of the Table C, p. 17, though most convenient, for 
a reason, to be given presently, is not quite correct ; 
the natural order is rather *, sh', sh.) This sound 
of sh' is said to be the true Tuscan Italian pro- 
nunciation of Italian ce in cinque (five) sh'eeng-- 
kooai, dieci (ten) deeae'sh'ee, which sound to an 
Englishman as shing'kwai dyae-shi, and for which 
he is recommended to use the theoretical sounds 
cheeng'kwai, dyae chee. But if a final ch' be released 
upon sh' very lightly, thus such'sh' no Englishman 
would find any fault with the pronunciation for 
such, and if a vowel followed, as in touching 
tuch'-ing, even this release is not necessary. My 
own impression is that ch in English is not ch' 
nor ch'sh', nor tsh nor even quite tsh'. I find on 



Sec. VIIL 

carefully watching my own pronunciation of such, 
that I do not begin exactly with sut, for which the 
point of the tongue alone should touch the palate, 
but that in reality both the point and part of the 
front of the tongue lie on the palate, which is indi- 
cated by tif in column 9, p. 17. This ty' generally 
arises from some ee or I following t, as in nature 
nai'fiuou. When ty* is released, it is not easy to 
go to the position sh, for which the tongue is more 
or less bent in exactly the opposite direction, being 
concave instead of convex to the palate ; but it is 
very easy to drop to stt as already described, and I 
find that I really say suty'sh'. Indeed this way of 
deriving sti is most convenient for Englishmen* 
and for that reason I took the liberty of putting 
ty' and sK in the same column of Table C, p. 17. 
Between cA'sA' and ty'sh 1 there is no practical 
difference, and either may be considered the 
analysis of ch, which will always be used in 
writing. But tsh is no. doubt not the analysis, 
although it has been generally assumed so to be. 
By merely using the voice instead of flatus, we 
obtain fzti or dy'zh' , and not the old dzh, as the 
analysis of J, which will be always written. 
Observe, however, that when j is final and is not 
followed by a vowel or voiced consonant, it is very 
usual to substitute dy'sh 1 for dy'zh', probably 
because zh never occurs finally in our language. 
Thus ' do you know his age ? ' would be generally 
pronounced colloquially dyuonoa'izai- dy'sh' ? The 
singer should avoid this flatus, and endeavour to 
sing ai- dy'zh', which is what is meant by writing 
ai'j. The habit, however of saying ai-dy'sh' and 
the difficulty of uttering zh final, will render this 
rather troublesome at first. 

These observations explain also the old deriva- 
tions of ch,j, from ty, dy, and the English habit in 
" nature, verdure," &c., of introducing a ch and j 
sound as nai-chu' , vwju (in common Glossic, 
nai'cher, ver'jer). The change is from nal'tiuou, 
vu'dluou through nai'ty'u , vu'dy'u' to nai'ty'shu' , 
vu'dy'zh'u', that is nai-chu', vu-ju'. But on the 
principle that the singer should avoid hisses and 
buzzes whenever he can, he should distinctly say 

nai-tluou, vu-dluou, or in common Glossic nai'teur y 
ver-deur. This is also recommended as far the 
pleasantest and most desirable pronunciation in 
public speaking. 

The sounds represented by ch, j, wherever they 
are written may be considered the same as in 
English, however they are really pronounced, 
because the differences are so slight that long 
practice would be necessary to acquire them with 
certainty. The ch is found in German, as deutsch 
(German) doich, Zschokke name of a German 
author) Ghaok-u. But j is never found in that 
language. Germans use ch for it when initial, and 
generally also when final, but sometimes say dch 
when final, as Ch dor dch for George 

Italians have both ch and j (or the substituted 
forms sh', zh"), and when these sounds have to be 
doubled the first is taken either consciously as 
f, d', but possibly in reality as ty' and dy', or else 
ch j and j' respectively. Thus cielo (heaven) 
chae'loa or chyae'loa, ciarla (chattering) chaar'-laa ; 
caccia (chase) kdat'chyaa ; gemito (groan/ jae m - 
meetoa, giusto (j\ist)joo'stoa, oggi (to-day) aod-jee. 

The French have neither eh nor j except in 
foreign words, where they are written "tch, dj," 
meaning tsh, dzh. But there is great reason to 
believe that ch, j were the sounds of the present 
French initial sh, zh (written " ch, j ") at the time 
of the Norman conquest, and even much later. 

KY' Shut Mute, and GY' Shut Sonant, with 
their Derivatives KY'H Central Hiss, and GY'H 
Central Buzz. More closely connected with yh, y 
than all these forms, and absolutely confused with 
them occasionally by German writers are ky'h, 
ffy'h. In the older pronunciation of English, which 
may still be heard, a kind of y is introduced after 
k and g before an aa sound, as cart kyaa't, guard 
gyaa'd, sky skyadi, which often passes into 
kyeeaa-t, gyeeaa'd, skyeeaal, and is sometimes made 
much more prominent, as skyee-yaai -to be avoided 
as a nightmare by all singers. On careful examin- 
ation, however, it appears that there is not a 
successive action of k and y, or y and y, but that 
the back and half the front of the tongue He on 

Sec. 7IH 



the palate, producing ky ', yy\ the exact counter- 
parts of ty\ dy\ in which, the point and half the 
front lay on the palate, so that ty', ch\ ky' form a 
graduated series of positions. This consonant re- 
leases most easily on the vowel ee, and hence 
introduces that sound. In Italian it is not 
uncommon in the so-called close diphthongs 
(p. 450), as chiacchierone (immense chatterer) 
ky'aakky'airoa-nai. But ky\ gy' need never be 
anxiously distinguished from ky, gy. 

Bring the tongue into the position for ky\ gy\ 
and then make a little channel in the middle for 
the air to pass, as for yh y, and the result is ky'h, 
ffy'h. The position clearly differs from that for 
yh, y, only by having the back part of the tongue 
high as well as the front part, but this difference is 
appreciable by a sensation in the soft palate for 
ky'h which is absent in yh. The distinction, 
however, is very slight, and requires much 
familiarity both with hearing and speaking the 
language to understand thoroughly, so that 
Englishmen may certainly use their own yh for 
ky' h. Thus madchen (girl) mae'dky'hen or mae'd- 
yhen, ich (I) eeky'h or eeyh, nicht (not) neeky'ht 
or neeyht. But it will not be sufficient to use y 
ior ffy'h The ffy'h when strictly pronounced, is 
very sensibly rougher than y, as general gy'haen- 
airaa'l, not yaenairaa'l ; fliegen (to ny)fae'ffy'hu'n, 
not fae-yu'n ; berge (mountains) baer' -gy' hu ,not 
baer'-yu'. "Whenever y is thus used for ffy'h, 
although intelligible, it has a ludicrous under-bred 
effect on a German ear. It is far better to use a 
common g, and say gavnairaa'l y jlee'gu', baer' 'gu , as 
is done in the North of Germany. It i8 only in the 
termination "-ig" that y may be used by preference, 
as konige (kings) keo-neegy'hu or keo-neeyu or even 
keo'nyu. The consonant ffy'h is always ky'h when 
final, as konig (king) keo'neekyh or keo'neeyh. 

The consonants ky'h, ffy'h are unknown in 
English, Italian, and French. To an Englishman 
they at first sound like sh, and many find it 
difficult even after weeks of residence in the 
country to believe that Germans do not say ish, 
velsh, for eefy'h, v'aelky'h. The consonant ky'h 

occurs in booted afte-r ee, ae, e sounds, as nicht 
(night) neky'ht. 

The singer has to make the ky'h hiss as short as 
possible, but the glide must be distinct. The gy'h 
becomes better by being taken as g or y, as last 

LY' Lateral Buzz. Assume the position for ty 1 
already described, and loosen the contact between 
the tongue and back side teeth, so that there is a 
small exit for the air on each side of the tongue. 
Or else assuming the position for I (diagram 20), 
draw up the front of the tongue (the part im- 
mediately behind the point) and bring it in contact 
with the palate. The position would then be a 
mixture of diagrams 20 and 1, with 27 instead of 
8 ; so that it might be described as an attempt to 
pronounce I and y at the same time. But it is 
essential that there should be a passage on each 
side of the tongue. Close the glottis for voice. 
On driving voice through forcibly, there is a con- 
siderable rush on each side out of the narrow 
opening, causing very perceptible trembling of the 
sides of ^he tongue, and generally a bubbling of 
saliva, so that the sound is anything but pleasant, 
and should be retained as short a time as possible. 
It is very unlike the vocal resonance of I. On 
releasing the tongue on to an aa position, as ly'aa 
somewhat of an ee effect seems to interpose, and in 
Italian, where the consonant is common, it is 
always released first on an ee, as gli (the, or to 
him) ly'ee ; paglia (straw; paa'ly'eeaa ; orgoglio 
(pride) aor'gao'ly'eeoa. In Spanish, where it is 
also common, the ee is not written, but is heard all 
the same, as llano (plain) ly'eeaa-noa. The sound 
used to exist in French, and Littre in his great 
French Dictionary, insists on its being always 
pronounced, but it has quite vanished from 
received French pronunciation, and is replaced by 
ee or ee, forming a diphthong with the preceding: 
vowel, see pp. 45, 46i, 47. 

The sound ly does not occur in English, but in 
saying such words as million mil'yen, brilliant 
brilyent, if the I is dwelt upon, and thus doubled,, 


Sec. 7III 

ly' may be generated by the way, thus mil'- 
l-ly 1 -yen ; but this is unusual. In German the 
sound is unknown, and Germans are apt to replace 
it by ky'h or yh when final, as email aimaayky'h 
or aimaayh, for aimaay (enamel). 

The singer must not dwell upon the very un- 
pleasant buzz of ly\ but pass rapidly to the ee, and 
if he finds a difficulty, simply endeavour to say ly, 


NY' Shut Hum. The tongue is put into the 
position for ty', but the passage to the nose is 
open. This leaves a small and rather peculiarly 
shaped aperture at the back of the mouth, which 
modifies the nasal resonance, rendering it sensibly 
worse, and hence not one fit to be sustained. The 
effect of the initial consonant is almost ny, and of 
the final consonant almost yn ; thus Englishmen 
often call Boulogne booloi-n in place of boolaony" 
and hear Montagne as montei'n instead of moan'- 
taany' . But such errors must be carefully avoided. 

NY' does not occur at the beginning of words in 
French, and in the middle of words it constantly 
releases on to a vowel, as gagnons (let us gain) 
gaany'oari , very nearly gaan-nyoan' , not gaan-yoari 1 ' . 
In singing ny' always releases on to a vowel, as 
moan'taany'eo, almost moan tadn-nyeo . And as this 
is allowable even in speech, the English speaker or 
singer can always use ny if he prefers, and should 
never use the atrocious yn. 

In Italian NY' rarely occurs at the beginning of 
a word as gnomo (a gnome) nyao-moa, but it con- 
stantly forms the beginning of a syllable, as 
bisogna (business) beezao-ny aa. It never occurs 
finally. Hence the Englishman can still use his ny. 

NY' never occurs in English or German. 

12 & 13. ORAL CONSONANTS, WITH (12) BACV 3* 

K, KW Shut Mutes, and G, GW Shut Sonants, 
and G Shut Implodent. For K the tongue is 
brought nearly into the position for oo (diagram 5). 
but makes a firm contact with the soft palate above 
the tip of the uvula. On looking into the ope^. 
mouth, by means of the mirror, it will be seen that 
the contact is really so high as to conceal the 
arches of the palate completely, the whole back of 
the tongue resting on the soft palate, and com- 
pletely preventing the passage of air. The K is 
absolutely mute, and becomes effective merely by 
its glide on to or off from a neighbouring vowel. 
The glottis is closed for the clear attack thus fyaa 
not for the gradual as kiaa, nor for either a jerked 
clear attack k-hfaa, or a jerked gradual attack 
k-htaa, and hence not k-haa. The formation of G 
and G from K is precisely the same as that of B 
and B from P (p. 640) , and the implodent has no 
particular interest, for it is not used either in 
England or Germany. The size of the air-chamber 
behind K is almost quite confined to the throat, 
for nearly all the mouth is cut off by the contact 
of the back of the tongue with the soft palate. 
Hence G can be sounded for a much shorter time 
than B, for which the air-chamber extends to the 

For K, G then only the back part of the mouth 
is occupied, and the lips are free. To bring out 
the effect fully the lips should be quite open 
diagram 11). But it is evident that a great con- 
trast would be effected by making them assume 
the high-round form (diagram 12). The result is 
written KW, GW, as in queen kw'een, guano 
gw'aa-noa. The effect is different from kwee-n, 
ffwaa-noa, and also from kooee-n, gooaa-noa. For 
in the first case (kw ) there is a glide from k and 
w at the same time, in the second (kwj there is 
irst a glide from k to w, and then from w, but few 
persons appreciate this difference, and hence in 
ordinary Glossic it is enough to write kwee'n^ 
gwaa-noa. In the third case, which is that of the 




[talian quanto (how much) kooaan'toa, guanti 
(gloves) gooaan'tee, there is distinctly a vowel (ooj 
following the k, g, and not a buzz (w), but yet for 
ordinary purposes we find it enough to write 
kwaan'toa, gwaan'tee, so that ordinary Glossic 
kw, gw have really three values, unless specially 
noted. In Italian then kw', gw' are replaced by 
koo-, goo-. In German kw' is replaced by kv', as 
in quast (tassel) kvaast, quer (transverse) kv'eer', 
compare English queer kw'eer. In a few French 
words, however, I am inclined to think that true 
kw',gw' occur, as coiffeur (hair -dresser) kw'aafeor', 
coin (corner) kw aen' , goitre (swollen neck) 
givahtr" '. And in precisely the same way, by 
closing the lips to the high-round form, while the 
tongue says t, d, r , s, we get tw' , dw' , rw 1 , sw', 
which seem to occur in French toi (thee) tw'aa, 
doigt (finger) dw'aa, roi (king) r'w'aa, sole (silk) 
sw'aa, and similar words. In all these cases, 
however, oo or w is the recognised form, in place 
of w' , and may be also said. Compare the fourth 
class of diphthongs, p. 49#, where the existence of 
tw , dw' in English is indicated. 

KH, KW'H Central Hisses, and GH, GWH 
Central Buzzes. Assume the position for K, and 
then slightly loosen it, so that a very thin stream 
of air can squeeze itself between the back of the 
tongue and the palate. Watching the tongue in 
the mirror as this loosening is effected, the very 
slight forward motion of the whole tongue by 
which it is done may be easily seen. When 
flatus is expelled the result is a peculiar hiss, 
which is not sharp as for *, because the palate is 
here quite soft, and the hiss is often accompanied 
by a slight rattle of moisture, which is always 
more or less to be found in this position. This is 
the German ch in ach aa'kh (ah!) doch daokh 
(however), and always after sounds of aa, oa, ao. 
It never occurs at the beginning of a syllable in 
German. It also occurs in Scotch in similar 
positions. After the vowel oo, the lips are often 
left round when the kh is pronounced, and the 
result is kw 1 h, which bears the same relation to 

kh as kw' bears to k (p. 82), thus auch aawkw'h 
(also), buch boo'kw'h (book), but as this effect has 
not been generally acknowledged, a simple kh may 
be used, as aawkh, boo-kh. If voice is driven out 
instead of flatus we have gh y gw'h, as in tage (days) 
taa-ghu, taugen (to be worth) taau-gw'hen or 
taawghen. This voiced sound gh is often found 
much more difficult by English people than the 
flated kh, but it is used by Germans as much softer 
and pleasanter than the sonant g. As however in 
the North of -Germany g is always used, as taa-gu, 
taawgen, English singers may employ it in 
German songs. Gh never ends a word in German 
unless the next word begins with a vowel, but it 
makes the preceding vowel long, and becomes kh, 
as tag (day) taa-kh, taugt (is worth) taawkw'ht or 
taawkht, and if the g sound of gh is used, it may 
become k, as taa'k, taawkt, but this is very harsh. 
When ' ch ' is written in German, k must never 
b employed. The sounds of kh, gli are unknown 
in English, Italian, and French. It is necessary 
to distinguish carefully between these sounds 
kh, gh, or kw'h, ffw'h, and the ky'h, gy'h 
already explained (P-80^), because there is no 
difference in spelling, and everything depends 
upon the preceding sound. The kyh, gy'h are 
heard after the palatal vowels ee, ai, ae, tte, eo, oe 
and after r", I, n ; and kh, gh may be taken in all 
other cases, since kw'h, gw'h are not recognised. 
In the diminutive syllable " chen," kyhen is said, 
but no other syllable begins with ky'h in German, 
and no syllable begins with kh or gh. 

'B, 'GH Back Trilled Buzzes, "R Uvula Rise, 
'RH, 'KH Back Trilled Hisses. While the nasal 
passage is well cut off by pressing the upper part 
of the uvula against the back wall of the pharynx 
(p. 210), the lower part of the uvula is free, as 
shewn in diagram 2. If this part be now advanced 
so as to lie almost upon the back of the tongue, 
and be left quite loose, the stream of air passing 
between it and the tongue causes it to flap or 
vibrate. Much difference of effect is produced 
according as there is little or much moisture and 



Sec. VIII. 

according to the hardness of the uvula or its 
freedom from the tongue, and according as there 
is a more distinct sound of kh, gh in union with 
the flated 'rh and voiced 'r. When the tongue is 
raised to the position of kh, gh, the effects, 
which are written 'kh, 'gh, occur in Swiss German 
for kh, ky'h, and gh, gy'h, and need only be noted 
to be avoided, though they are recognised sounds 
in Arabic. When the uvula is made too stiff to 
flap perceptibly, but lies above the tongue, it 
slightly interferes with the passage of the vowel 
and produces an effect analogous to the point rise 
(t r (p. 76#) which may be called the uvula rise, and 
written "r. It is heard in South Northumberland 
between vowels, so that " very " becomes vaa"ri, 
and at the first moment the sound seems to be 
vaa~-i, but on close attention the little roughness 
produced by "r will be heard. The full " uvula 
trills," 'r, 'gh, are extremely rough, coarse, and 
unpleasant in English speech, and barely in- 
telligible in some words. They are indeed not 
recognised in any of our four languages, but are 
nevertheless in constant use in German and 
French, and in Northumbrian English (in the last 
of which the 'r is even labialiscd as 'rw'}, but not 
in Italian. Their nature has to be known in order 
to be carefully avoided, if possible, especially at 
the ends of words, where they are especially dis- 
agreeable. They may be heard from most 
Germans and Frenchmen who speak English, and 
noticed especially in final " r," which of course 
is not trilled at all in received pronunciation, thus 
'where' in the mouth of a German is apt to become 
v'ae-'r'rh, the voice being quickly abandoned in 
final 'r, and the flated 'rh being chiefly heard. 



NG Shut Hum, and NGH Shut Snort. Place 
the -tongue in the position for Jc, but open the nasal 
passage ^diagram 24), the mouth may be open or 
shut. When voice is allowed to pass, there is a 
peculiar hum on which it is possible to produce 

musical sounds. Experiment with the nostrils as 
for m (p. 670). Try the various nasalities m, n, ng, 
by keeping the mouth shut and humming on them 
in succession, thus, assuming any easy pitch 

m n ng n m ng ng m n 
and observe how much more resonant m is than 
either of the others, and n than ng, owing to the 
difference in the size of the resonant portion of the 
mouth, and how much more nasal, reedy, and 
unpleasant ng is than either of the others. The 
singer should consequently avoid prolonging it, 
but, when necessary, should prolong the preceding 
vowel and make the final glide conspicuous, thus 
not sung' with ng lengthened, but su'ng with u 

The consonant ng never occurs at the beginning 
of words or after long vowels or diphthongs in 
English, where ing, ang, ong, ung are the only 
combinations known, as in 'sing, sang, song, 
sung.' But in German it is also found after ee, da, 
de, uo, as singen, sang, gesange, gesungen ^to sing, 
sang, songs, sung) zeeng'en, zdang, gezdeng'u, 
gezuong'en. Observe that in English when ng 
comes between two vowels, g is sometimes added 
and sometimes not, as longer (more long) long-gu, 
(one who longs) long-u. In German the g is never 
added, as langer (more long) laeng-ur" ', finger 
feeng'ur*. At the end of words it is provincial in 
English to add on a g, as song songg, and quite 
vulgar to add on a Jc, as nothing nut h' ing k. In 
German the Jc final is not unfrequently added on, 
as gesang (song) gezdangk, which some poeta even 
make to rhyme with dank (thank) ddangk, but as 
the usage is not admired in Germany it need not 
be imitated. NG never occurs initial in German. 
In Italian ng occurs before a following k or g, as 
franco (free/ fr'adng-koa, ringhiare ;to gnash the 
teeth) reenggeeaa-rai. The sound is unknown in 
French, being superseded by the nasal vowel 
wherever it might have otherwise occurred, as 
rang rahn', &c. 

3. VIII. 



The tiated form ngh does uot occur, so far as I 
have observed, although Mr. Melville Bell assumes 
that it is introduced before a following flated con- 
sonant, as in rank ranghk. 

Musical Qualities of Consonants. The 80 con- 
sonants which it has been found necessary to 
enumerate may be classed thus : 

The 9 Mutes, namely, P, t\ T, ( t, ty\ ch\ ky\ K, 
kw 1 have absolutely no sound at all, and become 
effective only by determining the beginning and 
end of glides, and these glides may be on to flatus, 
purposely introduced, as will be explained in the 
next Section. 

The 4 Implodents ^ d\ d, g, audible, but 
unsustainable and unmusical. 

The 13 Flated Centrals or Hisses WH, /' T, 
TH, th', s\ S, SH, sh', YH, ky'h, kh, kw'h; the 
3 Flated Laterals Fh, Ih, <lh ; the 5 Flated Trills 
l pr, r"h, r'A, ( rh, <M, and the 4 Flated Nasals, 
have indeed sounds, which in some cases are very 
marked, but are in no cases musical, and hence 
are wholly unfitted for singing. They therefore 
always interrupt music by noises, which must be 
heard to render the words intelligible, but must be 
exceedingly short to make the disturbance en- 
durable. The singer must therefore trust mainly 
to the glide of which they generally form the 
beginning or end 

The other consonants are voiced, and in so far 
can be sung. 

The smothered effect of the 9 Sonants, B, d', 
D, t d, dy\ /', gy\ G, gw\ and the extremely short 
time that they can be sustained render them unfit 
for singing, even if they cannot be considered 
actual noises. 

The 13 Voiced Centrals or Buzzes, W, v' V, 
DH, (Fh, z' Z, ZH, zK Y, gy'h, gh, guSh, have at 
best as much musical effect as the schoolboy's 
instrument, a piece of paper placed over a comb 
and voiced. Try to sing the opening bars of 
4 God save the Queen " to V DH. Z ZH thus 

and observe the wonderful effect. After hearing 
this it will be felt that if these sounds are to be 
produced at all in singing, they must be barely 
heard, and that the main reliance must be on the 
absence of hiss, and the presence of glides. 

On the other hand, the 5 Voiced Lateral Con- 
sonants or Murmurs, F, L, 'I, t l, ly\ except perhaps 
the last, ly\ are more or less musical, but even 
when they form a syllable, it is better to introduce 
the vowel u' to sing on, closing with the glide on 
to the lateral consonant. The ly* has a very reedy 
effect. Try, however, the effect of singing 
alternate bars of '* God save the Queen " on I 
and ( l. 

Of the 9 Voiced TriUs, or Vibrants (vei-brentsj, 
*br, 'wr, r", K', 4 r, tl r, V, "r, l gh, untrilled (t r is 
scarcely distinguishable from the vowel u, and can 
be sung just as well ; it is of course, not a vibrant at 
all, properly speaking. But with the other 
vibrants (r\ ( r, ( r need alone be considered) the 
interruptions of the voice produce a harsh 
" tremolo " (trae'moaloaj effect, which is endur- 
able for a short time, and may be sometimes used 
with advantage. Of these r 1 is the best, and must 
always be very strongly pronounced in Italian, 
Trat may be always lightly touched in English. It 
is so much superior to l r that the latter should be 
carefully avoided even in German and French. 
As t r is a mere provincialism it has not to be 
studied, but its effect is much worse than r\ 
though superior to V. 

Of the 6 Voiced Nasals, M, ", N, ,, ny\ NG, 
one, ny* combines the disagreeable reediness of 
both ng and ly\ and is quite unfit for singing ; and 
although m, n, ng can be used for musical notes, 
their quality of tone is disagreeable (p. 84) and 



Sec. VIII. 

should not be sustained, so that when m t n 

form syllables, they should, be sung as u'm, w', 

with the u' sustained, and m, n short. See pp. 675, 
740, 77. 

Gradual Transition from Vowels to Consonants. 
Hence we feel that the real distinction between 

vowels and consonants consists in their musical 
capabilities, and that I, r', m, n, tig, known as 
liquids or " vocals," are so much superior to the 
other consonants that they might form a separate 
class, so that omitting the less important sounds, 
we might arrange the others in order of musical 
character, thus, placing the best first : 


Vowels.... AA, AU, OA, UO, E, OE, UE, EE ; AHN', OAN', OEN', AEN' ; H' (voice). 

Vocals .... L, M, N, R', NG-. 

Glides .... -f 

Buzzes .... Z, ZH, V, DH, W, Y ; H' (whisper). 

Sonants .. B, D, G. 

Slurs .... -7- 


Hisses .... S, SH, F, TH, WH, YH ; 'LH, E'H ; H (flatus), i (gradual^, H T (gradual jerk) 
Implodents B, D, G. 

Mutes P, T, K; ? , (;) HI (pure jerk). 

The speaker has to give full effect to all of these, 
the singer must rely upon the vowels, vocals, and 
glides for musical tones. Of the others the mutes 
are most important as producing no interruptions 
but merely determining the direction of a glide, or 
the mode of setting on the voice, and the rest are 
inflictions which the singer must not omit in any 
case, but should mitigate as much as possible, and 

hence reduce as nearly as may be to the condition 
of mutes, relying on the glide for making them 
clear and intelligible. Hence we feel the neces- 
sity of studying the action of glides from and to 
consonants, or the effect of consonants on 
adjacent vowels, and other consonants, at con- 
siderable length and with great care, as in the n^ 




Vowel, Mixed, and Consonant Glides Denned 
and Distinguished. The general nature of Glides 
is explained at the beginning of Section VI (p. 420) 
as consisting in a continually variable sound, 
having a distinct beginning and end, with a con- 
necting path. 

Vowel Glides begin and end at vowels, which 
may be themselves prolonged musically, but form 
no part of the glide itself, and merely serve as 
clear marks of its beginning and end, and the path, 
which in this case consists wholly of voice sound, 
forms the really appreciable "voice-glide." Such 
vowel glides have been fully considered in Sec. VI. 

Mixed Glides have a vowel at one extremity and 
a consonant at the other. When the consonant is 
a vocal (p. 86 \ the mixed glide bears a strong 
resemblance to a vowel glide. When the con- 
sonant cannot be sustained musically, but has a 
sound of its own, being a buzz, sonant, hiss, or 
implodent, it still serves to mark the beginning or 
end of the glide distinctly. But when it is a 
mute, the beginning or end of the glide is rather 
uncertain, just as the beginning of motion in a 
ball suspended by a thread that is set on fire. 

Consonant Glides have a consonant at each ex- 
tremity. If both consonants are mute, a glide is 
impossible. If one is hissed and the other mute, 
or if both are hissed, there is a hiss glide only, as 
distinct from a voice glide. If one is voiced and 
the other mute or hissed there is an approach to a 
mixed glide. If both are voiced, there is an 
approach to a vowel glide. 

Murmur Triphthongs Reconsidered. The great 
importance of mixed glides to singers will mate it 
necessary to consider them at some length. First 
recur to the murmur triphthongs (p. 52&) such as 
in fire fmu, where the vowel glides would be more 
fully represented u-\-i-$-u ; that is, there is the 
vowel u, bearing the stress, gliding sharply (-J-) 
on to the vowel , which does not bear the -stress, 
and this gliding weakly (-f-) or slurring on to u, 
which has also no stress. The real stress is not so 
much on u, which is very short, as on to the earlier 
part of the glide, in u-\-i. The weakness and want 
of stress in the slur i-^-u prevents this from 
making the whole into two syllables. 

Action of a Vowel between two other Vowels. 
Syllables. Now take aalaa or aa-\-i-\-aa, when 
there is a sharp glide from aa to i and from t to aa t 
without any proper repetition of 1. Here the 
double glide, first diminuendo and then crescendo, 
is so conspicuous, that the ear naturally separates 
the sounds into two groups, or " syllables " (from 
a Greek word meaning "collection" or group). 
A speaker would therefore be apt to lengthen the 
middle t, separating it into two parts by decreas- 
ing the energy, which may be represented by the 
sign of *--?, thus aa-\-i-^-\-aa, which makes the 
two groups more conspicuous. 

To feel the effect of the glides more distinctly 
suppose that one or both are omitted, and represent 
the result by (.. ), so that aa...\ means the vowels 
aa and i with a silence in place of a glide between 



Sec. IX. 

them, but with the greater stress on the first 

vowel. Compare 

aa...l...aa, aa-\-i...aa, aa... \-\-aa, aa-\-i . l-\-aa, 

With these also compare 

aa-^i--aa, aa-^-i-^-aa, aa~i-\-aa, aa-{-i-^-i-\-aa, 


Where the -7- shews that there is no cessation of 
voice, but merely a diminution of force, so that 
the glide becomes a slur, and is very inconspicuous, 
and the I shows that this vowel is both without 
force and lengthened. 

In ordinary Grlossic we should write these ten 
cases thus 

aa t aa, aay aa, aa yaa, aay yaa, aayaa 
aayaa, aayaa, aayaa, aayyaa, aayyaa 
Thus confusing glides and slurs. To the singer, 
however, it is of considerable importance whether he 
has suddenly to check the flow of air from his lungs 
or not, and hence he is always more inclined to slur 
than to break, that is, to use (-;-) than to use (...). 
Thus aa...i,...aa would have to be sung with the 
clear attack and release to each vowel, as 
taai...ti}..4aa?, but aa-~i--aa would require the 
clear attack at the beginning and end only, as 
)aa-$-i--aa}, the glottis remaining in the position 
for voice all the time. 

Action of a Vocal between two Vowels 
Syllables. In these cases we have simple vowel 
glides. In the mixed glide between vowel and 
vocal we can trace the same effects as 
aa...l...aa, aa-\-l...aa, aa...l-\-aa, aa-\-l. . . l-\-aa, 

aa-^-l-^-aa, aa-\-l--aa, aa-$-l-}-aa, aa-\-l--l-\-aa, 


In ordinary Glossic writing the necessity of 
collecting into one written word the symbols of 
the sounds which compose it, and of avoiding such 
connecting marks as (-}-, --), have led to the con- 
fusion of slurs and glides, and to represent either 
of them by writing the vowels close together. 
The difference of stress in the beginning and end 
of glides did not need to be distinguished, because 

the consonant, even when vocal, has necessarily 
much less force than the vowel. Hence as before 
these ten cases are written 

aa I a, aal a, aa laa, aal laa, aalaa 
aalaa, aalaa, aalaa, aallaa, aallaa 
This is quite enough in practice when the custom 
of the language is understood, but not enough for 
the purposes of accurate study. In the present 
examination, then, (...) will be generally repre- 
sented by separation, and (-}-) by closeness of the 
letters, but (-f-) will be retained except when the 
consonant is doubled. Thus the ten cases will be 
accurately distinguished as 

aa I aa, aal aa, aa laa, aal laa, aalaa 
aa-^-l-^-aa, aal--aa, aa-^-laa, aal--laa, aallaa 

Now here, in the first case, we have three 
distinct and separate emissions of voice, aa I aa, 
without glides. It is convenient to call these 
syllables or groups, although each consists of only 
one sound, just as we call " one " thing a " number" 
of things, although a " number of things " should 
evidently consist of " more than one " thing. The 
first case, aa I aa consists, then, of three syllables. 
The sixth case, aa--l~aa, also gives the effect of 
three syllables not well detached, because there is 
only relative not absolute silence between them. 
The other eight cases consist of two syllables each. 

For aal aa and aal-^-aa it is evident that the first 
syllable ends with I, which is felt to be slightly 
prolonged in the second form, and the second 
syllable begins with aa, with a clear attack in one, 
but in the other, with no attack at all, because the 
glottis has never ceased to act and to produce voice. 
The two syllables in the firct case are separated by 
a silence, in the second by a " muffled" voice. 

For aa laa and aa-^-laa, the first syllable ends 
with aa, having a clear release aa} in the first case, 
but merely a reduction of force in the second case. 
The second syllable begins with I with a clear 
attack tf in the first case, but merely with renewal 
of force in the second. The two syllables are 
separated by a silence in the first case, and by a 
muffled voice in the second. 

Sec. JX. 



For aal laa and aal-^-laa there axe also distinctly 
two groups, and the separation is evidently made 
in the first case by a silence, and in the second hy 
a remission of energy in pronunciation of l~l, 
so that -j- serves again to divide the syllables. 

For aalaa the I is short, and for aallaa it is long, 
but there is no reduction of energy during its 
continuance. The whole length of the I itself 
forms, therefore, the sensible separation between 
the first and second glide. And if we group the 
beginning of I with the preceding aa, we must 
group the end of I with the following aa. We 
come then to the conclusion that the syllables 
divide " in the middle " of I or II. 

Action of a Buzz or Sonant between Two 
Vowels. Similar considerations apply to the cases 
where the consonant which separates the syllables 
is a buzz or a sonant. Thus we can and should 

aa z aa, aaz aa, aa zaa, aaz zaa, 
aa-^-z-aa, aaz-^-aa, aa-^-zaa, aaz-^-zaa, aazzaa 

aa b aa, aab aa, aa baa, aab baa, aabaa 
aa-b-^-aa, aab-$-aa, aa-^-baa, aab-^-baa, aabbaa 

Action of a Hiss between Two Vowels. When 
the dividing consonant is a hiss, as in aasaa, there 
is a slight distinction. The glide from the vowel 
to the hiss, aas, begins necessarily with the voice. 
Should that voice be carried on up to the hiss, that 
is, while the tongue moves from the aa to the s 
position, and should the glottis be then suddenly 
opened, so that flatus only can be heard? This 
action may be represented by aas. Or should the 
voice die off into a whisper, and pass into flatus 
during the glide ? This second action may be 
represented by aa?s. Or does the voice continue 
into the s position, producing z, and during that, 
position change through whisper rapidly to * ? 
This third action may be written aazi or aazs. 
And similarly in passing from the s to aa, where 
does the voice begin ? In the s, thus szaa ? im- 
mediately after the s, thus saa ? with a gradual 

transition after the s, thus sjaa ? The habits of 
different nations and individuals here differ con- 
siderably. So far as I have observed, it is common 
in English to say aajs and aas, and it is common 
in Italy to say aazs and aas, but the first often 
falls into simple aaz. In German aaz and aas, and 
in French aaz and ahs are both usual. The 
English singer is recommended to say das, aas, 
making the change smartly and suddenly in 
passing from the vowel to the hiss, because the 
slightest suspicion of z is unpleasant to our ears, 
having a Zum-erzetzher effect. But the *, of course, 
must never be lengthened in singing ; we must use 
s~s or *...*, with two short s, in place of ss. The 
ten spoken forms are then 

aa s aa, aas aa, aa saa, aas saa, aasaa 
aaj-^-s-^-iaa, aas-^aa, aa^-^-saa, aas-^-saa, aassaa 
The slurs require the gradual attack and release, 
because the glottis is never closed ; but the effect 
is not pleasant. It is important, however, for the 
right understanding of glides to note the great 
distinction between aas arid aa s, or even aaj-~s, 
that the singer may accustom himself, even when 
the vowel is much prolonged, to bring out the 
glide smartly and clearly. 

Action of a Mute between Two Vowels Kecoil 

When the separating consonant is a mute, the 
case again changes aspect. The glide is once more 
a complete voice glide, but there is no resting-place 
at the mute. The voice is simply cut off at the 
end of the glide, and this is effected not merely by 
the closing of the external apertures, but by the 
closing of the glottis itself. Hence the three 
separate syllables and slurs become impossible. 

If we say aa p aa, the effect is the same as aa aa, 
except that perhaps there is rather a longer pause 
between the two vowels. To make any audible 
effect possible we must either " implode " the p or 
introduce flatus or voice either before or after the 
p, as aa b aa, aa hp aa, aa h'p aa, aa ph aa, 
aa p-h'aa. Of these the after-flatiis ph, pro- 
nounced very rapidly, is most common in England, 
and is sometimes known as the " recoil." In this 



Sec. IX. 

case an ph aa can indeed be made quite audible 
as three distinct syllables, but then ph really 
contains a flatus-glide from the p position to some 
easy indefinite position, say that of flated u or . 
That this is really the case may be felt by saying 
rapidly, ph, th, kh ; th, kh, p Q h; kh, ph, 
th, when it will be found that each of the three 
sound is easily distinguishable, although, if there 
were no flatus-glide, there would be nothing heard 
but a succession of the same flatus sound h. If 
the sensitive back of the hand be held before the 
mouth while saying ph, t Q h, kh, the force of wind 
will be found to be very great for the two first, 
and the character and direction of the blast to 
differ considerably in each of the three cases. 

But even this contrivance fails for the slur. It 
is, of course, impossible to keep a stream of air 
passing through the mouth when the passage 
through the mouth is shut, and if we merely 
diminished force in passing from aa to p, we 
should simply render any effect of the p inaudible. 
Hence the five forms aa p aa, aa-^-p-^-aa, aap-^-aa, 
aa-^-paa, aap-^-paa must be excluded, and there 
remain only the five important forms 

aap aa, aa paa, aap paa, aapaa, aappaa 

For aap aa, the voice glides precisely as for 
aab aa, but ceases, by an action of the glottis, as 
the p position is secured, and the voice does not go 
on resounding in the closed mouth, as for b. The 
effect of the glide in aap without anything to mark 
its termination, is very incomplete and mutilated. 
But when a vowel or other consonant follows, it is 
the only one admissible. Some persons will say 
aaph, but the singer should never allow himself 
to indulge in anything so unmusical. For aa paa 
the glide on to p is lost, but that from p remains. 
This is just as mutilated as aap, but it has not the 
same effect, because the voice dwells as long as it 
pleases on the final aa. But many persons find it 
not distinctive enough, and introduce an aspira- 
tion, SLap-hfaa or p-fyaa, both of which are highly 
objectionable ; the former is a German, the latter 
an Irish error. For aap paa both glides occur, and 

there is a perceptible silence between them which 
divides the syllables. But in aapaa this silence 
disappears. The second glide begins where the 
first ends, with no more interval than is necessary 
for reversing the action of the muscles, so as to 
open instead of closing the lips. But for aappaa 
that separation is slightly increased by making the 
contact tighter, giving an " energetic " character 
to the consonant. The remarks on p apply with 
proper changes to t and k. 

Vowels Running on to Consonants, and Con- 
versely, Open and Closed Vowels, Final and 
Initial Glides, Medial, Doable, and Split Con- 
sonants. When a mixed glide takes place from a 
vowel to a consonant in any of the ways just stated 
the vowel is said to " run on " to the consonant or 
to be " closed" by it, and to occur in a " closed " 
syllable ; but when'it is separated by a silence, or 
only united by a slur, it is said to be an " open " 
vowel, or to occur in an "open syllable." The 
consonant is said to act " finally " on the vowel, and 
to "close" it. The glide is "the final effect" of 
the consonant on the vowel. 

When the mixed glide takes place from a con- 
sonant to a vowel, the consonant is said to "run 
on" to the vowel to ''attack" it, to act on it 
" initially." 

When a consonant forms a mixed glide with both 
a preceding and following vowel, the length of 
separation of the glides may be long, or short, or 
absolutely nothing at all. When as short as 
possible, as in aapaa, aasaa, the consonant is said 
to be "medial," or to produce its medial effect. 
When just perceptibly lengthened and strengthened 
as in aappaa, aassaa, it is said to be "double" or 
" energetic." When there is an actual perceptible 
pause or slur between the two glides, as in aap paa, 
aas+saa, the consonant is said to be " split " or 
" dislocated." The last case occurs properly only 
in spelling syllables, or when a singer is obliged 
(by the fault of the composer) to take breath 
between syllables. The "double" effect is very 
common in Italian, as hanno (thev have) aannoa, 

Sec. IX. 



not aan-^-noa, and even in English, compare 
bouquet bookcase buok-ai buok-kais, missive missent 
mis'iv missen't, unowned unknown unoa'nd unnoa'n, 
penny penknife pen'i pen'neif (not pen'if, as some 
say. It also occasionally occurs in German and 
French. The "medial" effect is the most com- 
mon in English and German when it closes an 
accented and begins an unaccented syllable, as 
messen (measure) maes-en, konnen (to be able), 
koen-en, manner (men) maen~ur', happy hap-i, &c., 
where in ordinary orthography two consonants are 
written as if there were a double effect. This 
double effect may, however, always be used by the 
singer, and frequently with advantage, as it tends 
to bring out the effect of the consonant better. 
In Italian and French the medial effect is not 
acknowledged theoretically. It seems to me that 
Italians end the syllable when possible by a slur, 
as sano (healthy) saa'-^-noa, not saa'noa, ridere (to 
laugh) ree'-^-dai-Z-r'ai, not ree'dair'ai ; the rule 
being that when the consonant or consonants after 
the vowel can be pronounced, (that is, have their 
effect made audible, by Italians,) without the 
assistance of the preceding vowel, they should be 
so pronounced. But in French it seems to be that 
the consonant is always medial if possible (that is 
if it can be made to act upon both vowels) as 
malheureux (unhappy) maaloer'eo, not maa-~loe~- 
r'eo. In English an unaccented vowel is always 
"open" when preceding such a consonant as can 
produce its effect by help of the following vowel, 
as merrily mer'i-^-li, happiness hap-i-^-nes, repay 
ri-^-pai', presume pri~-zeu'm, laboratory lab'- 
u-^-ru-^-tur'i, navigable navi-^-gu~bl. emotional 

Tight and Loose Mixed Glides. The glide is 
tight," "close," or "smart," when there is a 
j considerable distance between the positions of 
the vowel and consonant, and this distance is 
) travelled in a short time. Hence to produce the 
i effect of a consonant clearly, the glide should be 
i made rapidly and smartly. In English when the 
I vowel is long it is usual to make the glide " lax " or 

" loose." The voice seems to loose energy, and it 
glides weakly, and hence not very clearly on to the 
consonant. This is peculiarly a vice of singers, who 
have to lengthen even short vowels, and to whom 
the noise of a consonant is a nuisance. They 
consequently altogether lose the effect of con- 
sonants even in syllables which in speech have 
short vowels, and therefore, as the voice is in full 
energy on commencing the glide, have smart 
glides. But the omission of a final consonant, 
coupled with the inevitable lengthening of a short 
vowel, is quite enough to make a word unintellig- 
ible. Hence the singer has to practise his glides 
very carefully till he can make them perfectly 
smart, with long vowels gliding on to mutes, as in 
aa-p, aa't, aa-k, without any flatus after the 
consonant. He should sing them in any order to 
a person at a considerable distance, and not be 
satisfied unless that person hears every consonant 
distinctly, which he can easily signal by holding 
up the right hand for p, left hand for t, and both 
for k, without interrupting the singer. This is 
not an easy exercise, but it is one of the most 
important for a singer who would acquire a clear 
enunciation. The tightness and consequent 
audibility of the glide is produced by rather 
increasing the force of the vowel just as it begins 
to glide and keeping up the force till the vowel is 
lost in the consonant, that is during the whole 
glide, which must be made very short and sudden. 
In the first exercises, of course, the effects must 
be exaggerated, and then, when the action is 
familiar, they will have to be toned down to the 
requisite delicacy. 

Initial Mixed Glides from Voiced Consonants 
and Hisses. Initial mixed glides proper are those 
which occur from a consonant to a vowel, after a 
" pause," that is, after a very sensible silence, 
generally enough to draw breath once or twice, or 
at the beginning of a sentence or speech. In this 
case the vocals, buzzes, and hisses, should be taken 
very short, and the vocals, buzzes, and sonants 
should begin with the clear attack, }. There is no 



Sec. IX. 

danger in any of the four languages that vocals 
should be preceded by their flated forms, that is, 
that we should say Ihlaa for laa, with a gradual 
attack, because they do not possess this flated 
sound Ih, and consequently it is difficult for their 
speakers to utter it. But the buzzes are so rough 
and disagreeable, that there is a tendency to make 
them begin with the flated forms, that is, with the 
gradual attack, and in the same way there is a 
tendency in case of the hisses to introduce the 
buzz after the hiss. Thus in English there is a 
tendency to say whwen for when simply, and even 
to say wen for when. In the West of England 
fvaa, thdhaa, szaa, and even shzhaa occur, which 
under different degrees of energy give more or 
less prominence to the flated or voiced form, so 
that sometimes faa, thaa, saa, shaa seem to strike 
the ear, and at others vaa, dhaa, zaa, zhaa. The 
singer should always avoid this ambiguity. He 
should take one or the other form clearly. This is 
managed for the hisses by keeping the glottis open 
for the whole (very brief) duration of the hiss, and 
closing it suddenly to the clear attack at the 
beginning of the glide. The effect is then a hiss, 
followed by a glide which resembles that from a 
mute in having no previous duration of voice 
sound through a fixed position. The singer should 
practise * aa, saa y that is, s.,.)aa and si-^*aa, an( ^ 
note the difference of effect, and also the difference 
from si~\-aa (that is, s-\- 'aa-j-00) , where the change 
from flatus to voice takes place during the glide. 
For buzzes the effect is produced by beginning 
with the clear attack, as )vaa, that is, putting the 
organs in the proper position for voice at once, and 
thus avoiding the gradual attack, as yoaa,, giving 
fvaa. In German all the words beginning with 
* s,' as ' sie ' (she) are pronounced with sz, as szee, 
even by singers ; indeed it was by observing 
singers that I first became acquainted with the 
fact more than thirty years ago. Singers, however, 
are recommended not to indulge in the habit, but 
to commence with the clear attack, and make the 
buzz very short. As the Germans have no 0, or 
zh, and use/' only after p when they use it at all, 

this sz is the only combination of the kind which 
occurs in that language. In Italian and French, 
so far as I have observed, there is no tendency to 
begin an initial buzz with its flated form. 

When the initial consonant is a sonant, b, d, g t 
there is no real difficulty to an Englishman, 
Italian, or Frenchman, but most of the Germans 
have a considerable difficulty, because they are 
used to "implode," and say b, Q d, g, which is on 
the other hand difficult to Englishmen. The Ger- 
mans therefore try to prolong the voice sound of 
b, d, g, which is so difficult that they are apt to 
open the nasal passage, and say mbaa, ndaa, nggaa. 
This is a common habit among several nations, 
and is here only mentioned as a fault, into which 
singers might be easily tempted, but which they 
must carefully avoid. 

Initial Mixed Glides from Mutes. When the 
initial consonant is a mute, p, t, k, the difficulty of 
having a perfectly silent commencement of the 
glide leads very frequently both Englishmen and 
Germans (not, I think, Italians or French) to 
begin with the gradual attack. The consequence 
is that there is an explosive escape of flatus as the 
check to the voice is released, occupying the 
position of the glide, and then the vowel follows, 
beginning perhaps in part of the glide, and perhaps 
at its full position, thus p-\-h?aa or phaa, t Q haa, 
k Q haa, which may be written more conveniently 
pfaa, fyaa, tyaa, because the vowel is really begur 
gradually, and the explosion is simply occasioned 
by the release of a tight position. This is some- 
times exaggerated by suddenly jerking the lungi 
so as to force the flatus of the clear attack stil 
more strongly, as p-h^aa^ t-h^aa,, k-hfaa. This ii 
by no means unfrequent with public speakers ir 
England (I have even heard a minister, who usec 
this method consciously and designedly, declar< 
that it was the only method of making thes< 
consonants properly heard), and it is genera 
among those Germans who distinguish mutes fron 
sonants, that is, who do not " implode." That ii 
was common in older German we see from th< 

Sec. IX. 


iormspfaa-l, t's'oo, the actual pronunciations of 
'pfahl' (pole), * zu' (to), which arose from paa- 1, 
t'oo. Still these sounds are not required for in- 
telligibility, and should be most studiously avoided 
by the singer, because they introduce an unneces- 
sary and unsingable flatus. They also destroy the 
real singable voice glide altogether. The singer 
must carefully practice singing aa aa aa, pact, paa 
paa, taa taa taa, kaa kaa kaa, aa paa, aa taa, 
aa kaa, paa aa taa, paa taa aa, and so on, with 
different vowels, and feel the great difference 
occasioned by the glide, when kept strictly voiced, 
without a trace of flatus. This will add greatly 
to the beauty of his English and German singing, 
and it is quite indispensable for Italian and 
French. See Section XI, Exs. 2 to 8. 

Final Mixed Glides on the Voiced Consonants 
and Hisses. Final mixed glides proper from a 
vowel to a consonant, before a "pause," present 
similar difficulties. When the consonant is vocal, 
there is a tendency to prolong it unduly, especially 
if the preceding vowel is short. Thia is all very 
well in speaking, but as the vowels may always be 
lengthened in singing, and the vocal, though 
singable, is far less musical than the vowel, it 
must not be thought of in singing. The singer 
must endeavour to tighten his glide on to the 
vocal, and make that vocal very brief indeed, so 
that it comes to a sudden stop, as if broken off. 
Some length of time is necessary, of course, for the 
audible utterance of the vocal, and this will suffice 
to distinguish it from other consonants in the same 
column of the Table, on p. 17, that is, which are 
produced by nearly the same position of the organs. 
Thus aal is kept distinct from aad, aar', aan, with 
all of which it is liable to be confounded, owing 
to the great resemblance in the three glides. 
Similarly aam must be kept clear of aab, and aang 
of ang. As respects the nasals another point must 
be attended to ; no particle of the glide from the 
vowel to the consonant must pass through the nose. 
Hence the glides in aa-\-m, aa-\-n, aa-\-ng, are 
identical with those in aa-^-b, aa-\-d, na-\-g, and 

the only differences in the syllables consist in the 
instantaneous opening of the nasal cavity on the 
cessation of the glide in the first three cases, and 
the muffled resonance of the vowel in the mouth 
only in the last three cases. It is of extreme 
importance for a pleasing pronunciation of English 
not to allow the least nasality in any vowel sound 
or vowel glide. And these syllables form great 
difficulties to foreigners. There is no tendency in 
any of our four languages to drop the voice and go 
off to flatus, when the vocal ends, as aal-lh, 
aar'-r'h, although Germans often say aa'r-'rh, 
(p. 840) which is not to be imitated. 

When the final consonant is a buzz, there is a 
constant tendency in English to drop the voice and 
pass into the hiss, most with z, as aazs, but not 
unfrequently with dh, as aadhth, and more rarely 
with v, as aavf, as in: That's his ! I can't breathe! 
Have you five ? dhats -hizs ! ei kacrnt "breedhth ! 
hav eufeivf? The singer should avoid the flated 
form aa unsingable. The final zs is particularly 
disagreeable in singing. In German there is no 
final buzz in a glide, but only pure hisses. In 
Italian no word ends with a buzz. In French the 
final buzz does not pass off into a hiss, as la rose 
(the rose) laar'oaz ; observe here that the r' is 
medial. As regards the glide up to the buzz, it 
should be treated in the same way as for a vocal, 
but the buzz afterwards should be very brief. 

The final sonant, as in aab, aad, aag, has glides 
of precisely the same nature. The singer should 
continue the muffled resonance of the b, d, g, just 
time enough to be perceived, and especially avoid 
two methods often adopted to make these sonants 
more conspicuous. Many speakers, even so great 
an actor as the late Mr. Macready (Mu'kree'dij, 
and very many lower class tragedians, allow the 
final sonant to become medial, by adding a very 
brief and indefinite vocal sound, so that the sonant, 
which is brief and never ceases to be heard, is 
followed by a glide to some indefinite form, nearly 
u, which is represented by K , thus aab-h', aad'h', 
aag'h\ Thus ' stab, add, nag,' become stab f h\ 
ad'h', nag-h', that is nearly stab'u, ad'u, nag'u, 



Sec. IX. 

sounding like ' stabber, adder, knagger.' Other 
speakers, wishing to bring out the sonant more 
strongly, drop the voice, and end with flatus, thus 
aab-ph, aad'th, aag'kh, which is very apt to 
produce the effect of aap, oat, aak, and should 
therefore be also avoided. The proper method, 
especially for the singer, is to prolong the vowel as 
much as is required for the music, make the glide 
tight, just prolong the sonant enough to be felt, 
and end with a clear release. In German no word 
ends in b, d, g before a pause, but if a vowel or 
voiced consonant follow, I seem to hear the proper 
sound of b, d, g or yh, gy'li, at any rate such sounds 
are quite admissible. In other places final ' b, d, 
g' become pure^, t, k or M, ky'h, however they 
may be written. In Italian the elision of a vowel 
will sometimes, but rarely, produce a b, d, g at the 
end of a word, and similarly in French, and in 
both cases they are pronounced clearly. 

When the final consonant is a hiss, the only 
point to be remembered is to voice all the glide, 
and to open the glottis suddenly at the moment 
the hiss position is assumed, and not to prolong 
the hiss in singing. The greatest care has to be 
taken with s, which has such a cutting hiss. In 
German especial care is requisite with the final 
kh, ky'h. English singers of German are apt to 
omit them altogether, which of course is atrocious, 
and renders the words perfectly unintelligible and 
difficult to follow even with the text. But there 
should be a tight glide up to them, and then they 
should be sustained just long enough to be dis- 
tinctly separated. They are certainly bad inter- 
ruptions for the singer, but they are characteristic 
of the language, and must be well heard. Practise 
singing such phrases as : Ach ! nicht ich doch (Ah ! 
not I, though) aakh ! neeky'ht eeky'h daokh, to 
very long notes, and hence as aa~kh, me-ky'ht, 
ee ky'h, dao'kh, making the glide tight (exag- 
gerated), and the hiss light. 

Final Mixed Glides on to Mutes, Kecoil with 
Flatus, Click, or Voice. The mute final necessarily 
presents the greatest difficulty. In this case the 

glide ought to end in a silence, but, as already 
noticed (p. 90#) it often ends in the "recoil." 
Singers should be satisfied to end with the glide, 
as aap. But if the check is released, the mute 
should not glide on the flatus, but make a very 
faint smack or click by the sudden separation of 
the two lips for p, point of the tongue and palate 
for t, and back of the tongue and soft palate for k, 
all of which parts are moist. ^Representing this 
click by () at the end of a word, as a contraction 
of A, practise first holding the breath so as to be 
sure that no flatus escapes, and then saying p, t, 
k, as loudly as possible, and then gradually 
reduce them to the lightest sound which is just 
audible. This is the utmost amount of recoil that 
a singer should allow himself, thus aap, aat Q , 
aak '. It is sufficient to relieve the organs, and 
then the singer can breathe freely and noiselessly. 
And even the speaker had better limit himself to 
this faint click. It may be mentioned incidentally 
that these form the bases of the celebrated South 
African and North American clicks. In German 
the same practice may be adopted. In Italian 
there is scarcely any occasion to use it. In French 
p, t, k, could only occur finally by the elision of a 
' mute e,' and French speakers in practice prefer 
the faintest possible indication of this eo, which 
may be written eo to distinguish it from merely 
short eo ; and they then usually double the preced- 
ing mute, that is, they glide tightly up to it from 
the vowel, and loosely from it on to eo, making 
a barely perceptible pause between the two 
glides. This is especially done in poetry with all 
final consonants which arise from the elision of 
a ' mute e,' in order to supply its place, and 
made the existence of the elided syllable apparent. 
Thus chape (a cope) shaappeo, chatte (a cat) 
shatteo, moque (laughs at) maokkee. 

Consonant Glide from Vocal to Vocal. Passing 
from mixed glides we have to consider purely 
consonant glides, where each element is a con- 
sonant. The consonant glide of vocal to vocal is 
rare, and in English is only found after a vowel. 

Sec IX 



as in f alien fau-ln, elm. In fau-ln and such words, 
the tongue having come into the I position, the 
point is not removed from the palate, but the sides 
close to the teeth to complete the check, and the 
uvula descends to open the nasal passage. There 
is thus no room for any vowel to interpose, but 
there is a rapid glide from I to n. If, however, the 
point of the tongue were allowed to quit the 
palate for an instant, a voice sound, which we may 
write u\ would be heard for that instant, the I 
would glide on to it, and it would glide on to the 
, and two syllables would arise, thus fau-lu'n. 
In elm, the point of the tongue should be similarly 
maintained on the roof of the mouth, while the 
lips close in for the m, as and they close, the uvula 
should descend to open up the nasal passage. 
Many speakers find this glide so difficult, that they 
let the point of the tongue drop too soon, and 
hence introduce a vowel, as el-u'm. The vowel 
should always be avoided in this case. The 
termination In is very common in German after e 
or u, as nudeln (vermicelli) noo-du'ln, spiegeln (to 
mirror) shpee'gy'hu'ln ; and Im occurs in halm 
(stalk) haal-m, helm (helmet) hael-m. Neither 
occur in Italian or French. The final glides r'l, 
r'm, r'n, are quite optional in English, in ' snarl, 
arm, barm, tarn,' generally called snaa-l, aa-m, 
baa-m, taa'n, but allowably aa'r'm, baa-r'm, taa'r'n. 
But these glides are frequent in German, kerl 
(fellow) kaer'l, arm aar'-m, herrn (accusative of 
' herr,' sir) haer'n, and French perle (bead) paer'-l, 
charme (charm) shaarm, lucarne (attic window) 
luekaar'n, but not in Italian. For this glide the 
r' acts just as a tremulous vowel, and the tremor 
is continued through the glide. Such initials as 
tnlaa, nlaa, mr'aa, nr'aa, and even mnaa, r'laa, are 
quite possible, but do not occur in our four 

Consonant Glide from Vocal to Buzz. The final 
consonantal glide of vocal to buzz is rendered 
common in English by the mode of forming our 
plurals, as bells belz, crumbs krumz, hens henz, 
things thingz, and with permissive r\ foars feeur'z. 

These present no difficulty. The only care re- 
quired is not to finish off the z with an s, by 
dropping the voice, as henzs, &c. 

Consonant Glide from Buzz to Buzz. The con- 
sonantal glide between two buzzes is not so 
common, but it occurs final in English, as halves 
haa-vz, wolves wuolvz, breathes bree'dhz. These 
present two difficulties, to retain the voice through 
all the first buzz and also through the second. 
The latter is rarely done in the pause, in that case 
the buzz readily falls into the hiss, as haa-vzs, 
wuolvzs, bree'dhzs, which, however, the singer 
should avoid. None of these glides occur in the 
other three languages. One of these words con- 
tains an example of a vocal and a buzz, as in 
shelve shelv, twelve twelv, delves delvz, selves 
selvz. In French we have also Beige (Belgian) 
baelzh, charge shaar'zh. The permissive trill 
would give us starve staa-r'v, as in French larve 
(insect larva laar'v, but the combination is not 

Consonant Glides from Sonants to Vocals at the 
end of Words. In cable kai'bl, addle ad- 1, giggle 
ffiff'l, deaden ded'n, the vocals I, n make distinct 
syllables. Here the distinction between the glide 
on to the pure vocal and the interposition of a 
vowel must be perceived. In kai'bl, the tongue is 
brought into the position for I before the lips are 
separated from the b, so that no vowel can be 
inserted, but in verbal vu-bu'l, cymbal sim-bu'l, the 
tongue is not in contact when the lips are opened. 
For ad-l, idle ei'dl riddle rid'l, bidden bid-n, the 
point of the tongue is already in the position for I 
and care has to be taken not to remove it, but 
merely to slacken the contact of the sides of the 
tongue with the teeth to let out the I sound, or else 
to retain the side contacts firm, and open the nasal 
passage for the n sound. If the point of the 
tongue is removed in either a vowel sound is inter- 
posed, as in medal med'u'l, idol ei-du'l, bridal 
brei'du'l, abandon uban'du'n. Now the difference 
of the two pairs of sounds bl, dl and bu'l, du'l is 



Sec. IX. 

so slight that they are often confused, and as the 
latter are much more singable, the singer has been 
already recommended to use them in place of the 
former (p. 745). The case of gig 'I is rather differ- 
ent; but here the glide is only stronger. The 
tongue has a great leap to make from the position 
for g (diag. 17) to that for I (diag. 20), and while 
it is changing, the voice being omitted, there is a 
very evident glide. But this glide being altogether 
obscure in sound does not differ so much as in the 
last cases from the effect of an interposed u' ; com- 
pare wriggle, regal r'ig'l, ree'giil, and hence the 
use of the latter for the former is even more 
admissible in singing. Only it is necessary to 
make the glide from the u' to the I, n, loose, not 
tight, so that there should be no resemblance to an 
accented ul, un, as jid-ul m for fid'l fiddle, which has 
always a disagreeable effect. The final br', dr\ gr" 1 
become bu', du\ gu* in English, and bur\ dur', gur' 
in German, but may be heard in colloquial French, 
as sabre ^sabre) saabr' or saabr'eo, ordre (order) 
aor'dr' or aor'dr'eo, ogre aogr* or aogr'eo, and even 
the flatus is sometimes substituted, as saabr' h, 
aordrk, aogr'h. The final bl, dl, gl are sometimes 
treated in the same way in French, as sable (sand) 
saablh, but properly saableS, never saabl. In 
German the final I gliding from preceding sonant 
is written 'el' in general, and may be always 
called el (not ael), or u'l, but it often becomes a 
pure I, and is even occasionally so written, as fiedel 
(fiddle) fee-del, fee-du' I, or fee-dl, grxibeln (to grub) 
grue-beln, grue-bu'ln, or grue-bln, in which last case 
the glides are ue-\-b-\-l--n. None of these finals 
occur in Italian. 

Consonant Glides from Sonant to Vocals, and to 
the Buzzes W, Y at the beginning of Words. 
The initial bl-, gl- require care to keep the I very 
short, and yet make it sufficiently heard for the 
previous consonant to glide on to it sensibly. Such 
sounds as bl-loo, gl-loo, or bu'loo', gu'loo' are quite 
inadmissible, although occasionally heard. As gl- 
presents difficulties in the very rapid motion of the 
tongue (diagrams 17 to 20 , most children (and a 

large number of dialect speakers) convert it into 
dl-, which is very easy, because to pass from d to I 
we have only to loosen the sides of the tongue, and 
as dl- does not occur in our language, it occasions 
no mistakes. But it is nevertheless an error in 
speech which should be avoided. This error is not 
known in German and French, or in the very few 
and recent Italian words in which it occurs. In 
the greater number of Italian words gl- is replaced 
by gee or gy, as in ghianda (a gland, or acorn) 
geeaawdaa or gyaan'daa. 

The initials br'-, dr'-, gr' present no difficulties, 
but in bw- t dw-, gw- a peculiar effect results. In 
saying true bw- there is but a very slight gliding 
sound. The lips are quite close for b, the vocal 
resonance being entirely within the mouth, though 
if the finger be placed lightly on the lip it will be 
found to tremble. For w the lip is opened, and 
the voice escapes as a buzz. The extremely slight 
motion creates an extremely slight glide, which is, 
however, perceptible, and hence bwaa is not easy. 
Care must be taken to avoid bu'waa. This diffi- 
culty is practically overcome in two ways. One is 
to convert w into So, producing booaa, and perhaps 
this is a common pronunciation of the French 
bois (wood). But perhaps the commonest, as it is 
the neatest pronunciation, is to close the lips for b, 
not in the usual way, but as if the lips when 
rounded for w were drawn up in the middle, just 
like a bag closed by a running string. Then open- 
ing out upon the vowel we have a combined effect 
of b and w pronounced together, thus bw'aa, where 
buf represents this peculiar conformation of the 
lips by which an attempt is made to pronounce 
both b and w at once. This effect is easier to 
produce for dw'aa doit (owes), gw'aatr' goitre 
(glandular swelling of the neck), because the lips 
being perfectly independent of the tongue, they 
can be brought into position at the same time with 
the tongue position for d, g. This is altogether a 
better way of producing the effect. In English 
dwell, dwindle, &c., I think that dw'el, dw'in-dl is 
both easier and commoner than dwel, dwin-dl, and 
I recommend its use especially to singers. Simi- 

Sec. IX. 



larly for gwawnoa; as for buoy bitfoi, the word 
appears to be a mistake. Sailors say boot or booy, 
which agrees with the original Dutch pronuncia- 

Consonant Glide of Vocal to Sonant at the End 
of Words. The final combination of vocals with 
sonants offers no difficulty to an Englishman ; 
thus bulb bulb, barb baar'b, bald bauld, hemmed 
hemd, end end, hanged hangd, jeered jeeur'd. Such 
combinations do not occur in German, or Italian, 
nor, so far as I remember, in French. In fact, 
such forms as end, and, offer great difficulties to a 
Frenchman, in an endeavour to avoid nasalisation, 
as he would naturally say aen'd, ahrid, as in ' Inde, 

Consonant Glides between Buzzes and Sonants, 
and between Sonants and Sonants. Initial com- 
binations of buzzes and sonants do not occur in 
English or German. In Italian, however, z-, zd-, 
zff-, occur, as in sbaglio (a mistake) zbaa-ty'oa, 
sdrajarsi to stretch oneself at length) zdraayaa'r 1 - 
see, sghigno (sneer) zgee'ny'oa. The much more 
difficult form dz-, or rather d'z'-, or perhaps z only } 
also occurs in Italian, as in zelo (zeal) dzae'loa, 
d'z'ae-loa, or z'ae'loa. It is easy enough to say dz 
or d'z ', the difficulty consists in making the glide 
short enough to produce the effect of a single 
consonant on to the following vowel. In French 
also not only zb-, zd-, zg-,zr'-, zv-, occur in adopted 
foreign words, but the more difficult combination 
gz- is used in a few words taken from the Greek, 
as : Xenophon gzainoafoan? , xerasie (a disease of 
the hair) gzairaazee, xiphoi'de (sword-shaped) 
gzeefoa-eed, a word often used as a test of French 
pronunciation. The difficulty does not consist in 
the glide gz in itself, but in making it sufficiently 
short, and not dwelling on the z, but gliding at 
once on to the next vowel. 

In English and Italian the Glossicy is really one 
of this class, being absolutely dy'zh", which very 
complicated form is pronounced by Englishmen 
and Italians with the greatest ease, while French- 
men imitate it badly, and Germans flate it into 

t'sh or fsh'. When final, it follows an I easily, as 
that glides on readily to its dij as in bulge bulj. 
There should be no more difficulty in chai'nj 
(change) than in chai'nd (chained', but many 
speakers do not glide on to the dy' at all, and pro- 
nounce ty 'sh 'ai-nzti ', or chai-nzh, as they hear it. 
Various reasons lead me to prefer chai'nj, which 
seems most natural to English mouths. In 
' changes ' it is not so usual to omit the dy' initial 
element, because there is then naturally only a slur 
and not a glide between the n and the /, thus 
chain-^-Jez. When the permissive trill is used, we 
have also -r'/ in barge baa-r'j never baa-r'zh. 

The final glide of buzz on to sonant is quite 
common in English, owing to the mode of forming 
our past participles, as amazed umai'zd, halved 
haa-vd, breathed bree'dM, judged jujd, bulged 
buljd. There is a tendency in the two last words 
to remit the voice, and end with t, as jujsKt, 
buljsh't, which singers should avoid. No glide of 
this kind occurs in the other three languages. 

Some cases occur of two sonants at the end of a 
word, as grubbed, bagged grubd, bagd. The very 
imperfect resonance of the voice for the sonants 
renders these glides extremely difficult to perform 
audibly, so that there is danger of changing the 
words into grupt , bakt, which is quite inadmis- 
sible ; or into grubdt , bagdt , which is more 
allowed ; or into grub'u'd, bag-u'd, which has an 
archaic (aakai'ikj sound, even if the u 1 take the 
form of the lightest voice K ; or even into grub, 
bag, with total omission of d. Many, therefore, 
say grub'd-K, bag'd-h' , and the singer will find 
this easiest in the pause. The speaker must, how- 
ever, learn to make the glide easily and audibly, 
for to say bag-d-K dhem for bag'd dhem would have 
a foreign effect. These combinations do not occur 
in the other three languages. 

The final glide of sonant to buzz is also common 
in English, owing to the mode of forming our 
plurals, as cabs kabz, beds bedz, bags bagz. Here 
again the singer must guard against -zs, must 
make both the sonant and buzz short, and rely for 
musical length on the vowel. 



Sec. IX. 

Rule for Consonant Glides when one Consonant 
is Voiced and the other Voiceless. In the pre- 
ceding cases of initial and final consonantal glides 
after and before a pause, both consonants were 
voiced, and hence no difficulty occurred in the 
compulsory passage from voice to flatus, or flatus 
to voice. The effect would be similar if both con- 
sonants were flated, or one flated and the other 
mute. But we have already seen the difficulties 
which occur when a hiss or mute precedes or 
follows a vowel, in determining where the voice 
should be taken off or put on (p. 92#). The 
upshot of our considerations was, "That in an 
initial glide voice had to be put on at the moment 
that the mute or hiss position was released, and 
that in a final glide voice had to be shut off at the 
moment the mute or hiss position was assumed" 
The same rule should apply to the voice in con- 
sonants as well as in vowels, in connection with the 
glides to and from mute and hiss positions. 

Initial Consonant Glides from Mute to Vocal, or 
to the Buzzes W, Y., pr'-, pw-, tr'-, tw-, 
kl~, kr'-, kiv- initial the previous observations on 
the sonants in these positions will therefore apply 
with the above restriction. Observe especially 
that the glides are the same as when the initials 
are sonants, as in bl-, br-, bw-, lr'-, dw-, gl-, gr'-, 
0w-,'and that it is only the absence of any length 
of voice at first which makes the difference. As 
in the case dl- for gl-, the tendency to say tl- 
rather than kl- has to be avoided ; and, as in dw - 
for dw-, the tendency to use pw'-, tw'-, kw'- in 
place of pw~, tw-, kw- t has to be cultivated. In 
final -pi, -kl, there is the same syllable formed 
as for -bl, -gl, thus : apple ap-l, cackle kak'l, and 
the singer has to cultivate the use of ap-u'l, 
kak-u'l, in the same manner as before. 

Final Consonant Glides of Vocal on to Mute and 
Hiss. It is only when a vocal glides on to a mute 
that a difficulty has been raised. In -lp, -It, -Ik, 
our rule makes the voice glide all the way from 
the I to the p, or t, or k. but Mr. Melville Bell 

thinks that this makes the voice too long and 
heavy, and writes -Ihp, -Iht, -Ihk, that is, he does 
not permit the voice to pass through the I at all. 
This is opposed to my own observation of what 
actually occurs, and at any rate the rule just given 
is best in practice. But in the case of -It, the 
recoil is necessary to audibility, as felt- or felth. 
I have, however, heard the mistake of saying 
feldt for felt (felt), which then became difficult 
to distinguish from feld (felled). But this is 
guarded against by the rule just given. Similarly 
we must say shelf and not shelvf, which would 
sound like ' shelve.' With the nasals some little 
additional difficulty occurs. In lamp, the nasal m 
continues as long as the nose is open. When it is 
shut, no sound whatever is heard, for there is then 
no exit for the breath ; the flatus which enters the 
mouth is not sufficient to cause even an implosion. 
Hence unless there is a " recoil," the p cannot be 
heard in the pause. There is actually no glide 
from m to p, and we have to say lamp . If voice 
follows, the p becomes evident, at least by a 
si'.ence, cutting off even a slur. Thus lamplighter 
lamplei'ter (using ei and er as in English Glossic) 
is not at all lam-^-pleiter or lam-pleiter, but is 
really lauw-yleiter. The p seems, therefore, to 
replace the sign of clear release. It is, however, a 
j little more than that. On saying lam it will be 
I found difficult to shut .off the voice sharply and 
! cleanly if the nose passage be not suddenly 
I stopped. If we stop the nose without the voice, 
we say lamb (which is no longer pronounced, 
although it is written, in English). If we stop 
the voice only, we say lam?. If we stop both voice 
and nose, we say lamp, and by this means we 
shorten the m considerably, and cut it off with 
quite a clean edge. Mr. Melville Bell writea 
lamhp, which I do not hear. But we must not say 
lambp . Similar difficulties occur with respect to 
hint, thingk, where, without the recoil, only hint, 
thing i can be heard, so that we have to say hint , 
*hingk Q . Precisely as we had lam, lam}, lamb, 
bmp, of which the last ends most cleanly and 
pharply, we have en. enj, end, ent. and ing, ing^ 

Sec. IX. 



ingg, ingk. This sharp, clean ending is very 
evident in speech, but it is more difficult to make 
it evident in singing, where under no circumstances 
would the m, n, ng be sustained. Hence in singing 
before a pause, the recoil may become a full flatus, 
as lamph, hinth, thingkh, sacrificing music to 

In the above cases felt, lamp, hint, thingk, the 
vocal and the mute had the same form of mouth. 
But in ' attempt, winked,' and also in ' length, 
anxious,' the vocal differs in position of the mouth 
from the following sonant or hiss. Hence by 
applying the rule we are able to make a glide up 
to the new position. The nature of this glide is, 
however, complicated, through the opening of the 
nose. We might evidently make it nasal, as 
u'tem-\-nt, wing-\-nt, leng-\-nth, ang-\-nshus. This 
is not done, and if any persons have a habit of 
doing so they should correct it. We might also 
shut off the nose, allowing the corresponding 
sonant to be heard, and then run on to the final 
mute or hiss, thua utemb-\-t, wingg-\-t, lengg-\-th, 
angg-^-shus. But the practice of English speakers 
appears to be to end the nasal with a clear release, 
and then hiss or make the final mute evident by 
recoil or flatus, without any glide preceding it, as 
u'tem}...t, wing^...t,, ang}...shus. This 
clear release is best made by the clean edge given 
by the introduction of the corresponding mute, as 
utemp.. t, wingk...t*,, angk...shus, or, as 
we write in -English Glossic, atemp-t, wingk't, 
lengk-th, angk-shus. Mr. Melville Bell again writes 
atemht, winght, lenghth, anghshus, which I have 
not observed, and find difficult to render evident. 

The case of s final has to be especially noticed. 
In -Is, -ms, -ns, -ngs, there is, of course, a constant 
tendency to say -Us, -mpls, -nts, ngks, in order to 
prevent -Iz, -mz, -nz, -ngz. It so happens that we 
have most of the cases in English, and the speaker 
and singer should learn to distinguish them ; thus 
else, belts, ells els, belts, eh; empts, hems empts, 
hemz, sense, scents, fens sens, sents, fenz, thinks, 
things thinfffcs, thingz. The distinction is simply 
this, that in -Is, -ns the voice glides up to the 

* position, without check ; in -Its, -nts, the voice is 
checked by the mute position, forming a very clean 
edge, and then there is a hiss glide from that 
position to the s, and in -Iz, -nz, the voice is carried 
completely through the * position. In many words 
the distinction -ns, -nts is of importance, as 
presence, presents prez-ens, prevents, accidence, 
accidents ak-sidens, ak-sidents, Sec., and hence it 
should be well understood. 

Initial Consonant Glides of a Hiss on to a Vocal, 
or the Buzzes W, Y. The only cases of a hiss 
gliding on to a vocal in English are sw- (or sw'-), 
si-, sm-, sn-,fl-,fr'-, thr'-, thw- (or thw'-), shr'-, 
and in German there also occur shl-, shm-, shn-, as 
in swim swim (rather than sw'im), slay slai, smooth 
smoo'dh, snort snawt, floor flaou, f risk fr'isk, throw 
thr'oa, thwart thw aw t (rather than thw'au-t), 
shrine shr'ein, and German schleichen (sneak) 
shlaayky'hen, schmolz (melted) shmaotts, schnee 
(snow) shnai. The combination shr'- initial offers 
difficulties to many English and American speakers 
who are apt to say sfein, thus the inhabitants call 
Shrewsbury, Shropshire Sroa'zbur'i, Sr'op'shur. 
The difficulty arises from passing from a hollow 
front of tongue (diagram 26) to an arched front 
(diagram 21), and would be avoided by saying 
either sh t rein or sr'ein, but neither being admis- 
sible in received English, the organs must be 
practised constantly (for many hours in bad cases) 
till they learn to make the transition easily. The 
tongue being arranged for sh, sound that hiss, 
then convert it into sh' by arching the front, and 
then slide the tip along the palate till it requires 
merely releasing to vibrate for the rh, iising flatus 
only. The real sound said seems to me to be 
rather shr'ein than shr'ein, and the whole difficulty 
is surmounted when the sh' position is substituted 
for that of sh. Indeed it is possible to trill the 
tip of the tongue when it is held in the sh' position 
as well as when it is held in the s position (and I 
think that the sh' trill, or rsh' as it may be written^ 
is actually used in Polish, as przez (through) 
prsh'aez). The whole difficulty then resolves 



Sec IX. 

itself into making an sh without hollowing the 
front of the tongue, that is, converting it into sh' . 
The German sh before v\ I, r', m, n may be a true 
sh, but in the common pronunciation of stehen 
(to stand), spielen (to play) and similar words 
beginning with ' st, sp,' throughout the greater 
part of Germany, the sound is really sh'tai-n, 
sh'pee'len, and not shtai-n, shpee'len, which is felt 
by Germans to be broad and vulgar. (This is a 
point on which I have made careful observations, 
and had many discussions with Germans) . In the 
North of Germany, in Hanover (Haan'noa'vur > Ji 
and Hamburg (Haam-buor 1 gy' h) , it was common to 
say stai-n, spee-len, but I have been informed by a 
Saxon resident in Hamburg, that such a pronunci- 
ation is never used on the stage there. I have, 
however, beard it in the pulpit. In Silesia 
(Schlesien Shlai'zeeen} even sv'aar'ts, smaa'l, snaay- 
dur' may be heard for Schwartz, schmal, Schneider, 
shv 1 Harts, shmaa^l, shnaaydur' (black, narrow, 
tailor). Observe that the final -st, -sp should 
aever be pronounced -sht, shp in German, or even 
-sh't, -sh'p (as in August ist aawguosht eesht) 
because this is a well-known and extremely vulgar 
German pronunciation. 

Consonant Glides between S and Mutes. The 
combinations with s before and after mutes are 
very frequent, as spy spei, splay splai, spread 
spr'ed, stand stand, stretch str'ech, sky skei (not 
sky'ei or skyeeei), script, skript , squeeze skw'ee-z, 
/apse laps, helps helps, hats hats, wrists rists (not 
ris'tiz or ris'tisez, both common provincialisms) 
melts melts, hints hints, axe aks, hulks hulks (not 
huolks), casks kaasks. In all these cases there may 
always be a hiss glide made to or from the 
mute. Thus s-\-p...pei, s-\-p...plai, and lap...p-\-s, 
ris-\-t...t-\-s. Practice of this kind, making a 
pause between the two glides of the mute, will 
soon bring out the distinction between this and 
s...pei, s...plai, lap...s, rist...s. Of course, we 
really say -ts\ and not ts when final (p. 7l). 

Treatment of Combinations of Two Mutes, and 
of Initial Mute before M, N, S. Two mutes 

cannot glide on to one another initially or finally, 
and we have even an objection to make a mute 
glide on to m, n, or * initially, hence in many 
words taken from the Greek we simply leave out 
the mute in these cases, and call pneumatic 
neumat'ik, tmesis mee'sis, psalm saa'm, pterodac- 
tyle ter'-oadak'til, and so on. But some purists 
aim at uttering them, by making a recoil aftei 
the mute, thus p-neumat-ik, p Q -ter-oadak-til, 
&c. This is not recommended. But final com- 
binations of two mutes are common in the pause 
as in apt, act apt , akt or apth, akth, as it ther 
becomes necessary to pronounce them, or else tc 
implode, and say ap-d, ak-d, which is no1 
admissible in received pronounciation. (It appears 
however, that a slight implosion actually takes 
place in those districts where the definite article 
becomes t, as in Derbyshire, at t' dur a't d dttur' 
for at the door at dhi daou). In French unde] 
such circumstances an eo is always spoken, as act 
(act of a play) aakteo. In such an English phras( 
as * you must ac towards me, act dutifully,' th< 
final mute, t, is, I think, omitted, and its place 
supplied by a silence. The tongue indeed takes 
the proper position for the t, but there is no recoil 
because the tongue would have to be brought uj 
into the same position for the following t or d, and 
this would be inconvenient, compare akt tao-udz. 
aktdewtifuli. Hence the t is felt by the speaker 
but is merely telegraphed to the listener by t 
moment of silence. The singer has, therefore, nc 
occasion to trouble himself with the mute, but will 
simply omit it in such rare cases. 

Principle of the Division of Syllables. The 
whole nature of syllables or separate groups of 
sound, is contained in the two Sections VI and IX 
on glides. The nucleus fneu'kliusj or centra] 
core or pith of a syllable is a vowel or vocal. A 
buzz or hiss is not sufficient to produce the effect 
unless it stands alone. This by itself will have an 
attack and release, and thus really form a group of 
a vowel and two glottids, but these glottids not 
being generally written (except in the case of the 

Sec. IX. 



aspirate) in European languages (except Greek), 
there is an appearance of a single vowel, say aa for 
jaw at full. But in place of the attack and 
release, another vowel, or some consonant, may 
glide on to it, and this vowel, if initial, will have } 
an attack, but no release, as it simply passes into 
the original aa, as fiaai, and will have a release 
but no attack if final, because it simply continues 
the central vowel, as laauoj, fiaauof. Then other 
vowels and consonants may glide on to this, as laauo, 
plaauolp, or laaw pyaawlp, and this can be continued 
till we come to a mute or sonant. After this only a 
hiss, or buzz, or sonant can properly be placed, on 
to which the former mute or sonant would glide. 
If a mute be added it can only be rendered sensible 
by the recoil in the pause. If any vowel or vocal 
followed we should have the core about which a 
new syllable would be built, and some of the final 
consonants of the preceding syllable, such at least 
as could be used as an initial combination, would 
immediately be attracted away from that syllable, 
and combine to form part of the next. Thus if 
after pyaawlp we added ai, the final p would cease 
to act upon the preceding I, which would at once 
slur up to it, and would form the initial of the 
glide into ai, thus pyaawl-^-pai. "We thus get a 
conception of the mode in which syllables separate, 
but the habits of different languages differ greatly 
as to the preservation or omission of the glide, or 
its conversion into a slur, and it is not necessary 
for the present' purpose to go into the complicated 
details of the subject Much depends upon the 
position of accent. In English a single consonant 
between two vowels, of which the first is accented, 
is medial, that is, glides on to both, as valley 
va-\-l--\-i, polling poa- -\-l-\-ing, matting ma-\-t'- 
\-ing. The syllable divides then in the middle of 
the consonant, that is, between the glides. But in 
"syllabising" (sil-abei-zingj, which is an entirely 
artificial process, intended to bring out the separa- 
tion of the groups distinctly, we separate the 
glides by a pause, thus ' splitting ' the consonants 
(p. 905j and say, roa'l...ling, mat- ...ting ', 
or even math ..ting and thus do not distinguish 

between the three cases of medial, double, and 
split consonants, val-i, val'li, val\, which are 
really distinguished in natural speech. To this 
syllabising we may attribute the frequent doubling 
of consonants in written words, where there is no 
doubling in actual speech. The speller syllabised 
and wrote what he heard during this artificial 
process, and not what he usually pronounced when 
speaking naturally. This doubling occurs chiefly 
after short vowels, because the short vowel re- 
quired a consonant to "stop" or "close" it, and 
allow it to be pronounced distinctly without 
lengthening. But the long vowel not requiring 
it, the speaker syllabised 'rolling, paling,' a? 
roa',..linff, pai-.. ling, and would naturally unit* 
them so with one consonant, although in actua 
speech there is just as much of a glide from the I 
to the preceding vowel as in val-i. 

Special Rules for Dividing Consonants between 
Two Syllables. When several consonants come 
between two vowels, of which the first is accented, 
some of them certainly glide on to that vowel, and 
one may glide both ways, provided it can form an 
easy combination with the preceding consonant, 
but otherwise it is attracted entirely from the first 
vowel to the second, and is at most connected by a 
slur. Thus lapse lap-\~s, but lapsing lap...s-\-ing, 
battle bat--\-l, but battling bat '...ling, because tl is 
not a usual initial combination, and bat-l-^-ling 
would make three syllables, but ask aas-k, 
aas- -\-k-\-ing. 

Where the singer is forced to divide syllables by 
awkward phrases which oblige him to take breath, 
he may follow this rule : " When several con- 
sonants come between two vowels which make an 
easy final or initial combination, they may be 
separated anywhere, and the consonant of separa- 
tion may be repeated," thus aas...sking, aask...king. 
"But where there is the least difficulty as to 
final or initial pronunciation, divide where it 
seems easiest, and do not double the consonant," as 
startling staa-t ..ling, not staa-tl...ling, which is very 
bad, introducing a new syllable, or 8taa\..tling, 



Sec. IX. 

which gives an unusual initial combination, and 

omits a glide. Again, struggling strug-...ling 

rather than strug'...gling, because of the difficulty 
of ff l-, 

" When there are two mutes or sonants, or a 
mute and sonant, between two vowels, taken one 
to one and one to the other," thus acting ak'...tmg> 
not ak-t, which is never said, obdurate 
ob'-~deuret, obtuse ob.. tews. 

"WTien, however, the accent lies on the second 
vowel, or on neither vowel, the single consonant 
(or the whole combination if initial) is taken to the 
following vowel, and the first at most glides up to 
it. Thus happily hap'i-^-li, reprove ri-^-proo-v, but 
restore res-^-stao'u, respond res-^-spon'd, restrict 
res--strifct. The singer, however, may say 
ri ..stao'u, ri...spon-d, ri...strik't, to avoid length- 
ening the hisses. 

The whole of these directions for dividing 
syllables may be comprised in the rule : " Divide 

where it best suits your convenience, but if 
possible avoid losing the glides on to the accented 
vowels, and avoid making them on to preceding 
unaccented vowels." Similar rules will apply in 
German. In Italian, however, the intermediate 
consonants should, when practicable be taken to 
the following vowel, so as to end all syllables with 
a vowel as much as possible. Consonants end 
syllables in Italian only when they also end a 
word, as amor aamoa'r' for amore, or are followed 
by another consonant in the same word, as onda 
oan-daa, or are "energetic" (p. 900), another 
vowel following, as anno aan-noa. In French, 
on the contrary, where there is no really accented 
syllable, the intermediate consonant is always 
medial in actual speech, though theorists always 
separate it from the preceding vowel. This 
happens even between words, and gives a peculiar 
character to the language ; thus in ma femme my 
wife) maafaam, the / is medial, sa grotte (her 
grotto) saag-r-raot. 

('ITCH, FORCE, brio. 




Introduction. Besides the vowels and conson- 
ants, glottids and glides, by which speech sounds 
are generated and formed into words, all languages 
distinguish certain parts of syllables, and certain 
syllables in a word, and certain words in a 
sentence, by alterations of duration of utterance, 
or pitch of the voice, or loudness, or emotional 
quality of tone, or other characters denoting the 
importance attached to them by the speaker, 
including the pauses between words. The full 
consideration .of these belongs to works on elocu- 
tion, and affects the public speaker more than the 
singer. But no singer can deliver his words 
properly without being thoroughly aware of the 
nature of the plans used for giving prominence to 
special words and syllables. In the following brief 
remarks, the result of long study, sufficient is 
given to make an intelligent pupil understand the 
principle on which he has to proceed, and con- 
venient terms and notations are furnished, which 
will enable him to think and write accurately upon 
a subject hitherto treated with great laxity and 

Length of Spoken Sounds, and its Notation. 
A syllable when formed may require more or less 

time to pronounce, arising from the various lengths 
of its vowels, of its glides, and of its consonants, 
separately and jointly, and this total duration is 
called the length of the syllable. This is an 
extremely important consideration to the speaker, 
who relies upon the length of his syllables for 
much important discrimination of meaning. It is 
important to the versifier, because ancient Greek 
and Latin and other rhythms used to depend 
entirely on the comparative lengths of syllables, 
and all rhythms are more or less affected by this 
length. It is important to the musical composer, 
who ought in composing music to given words to 
suit the lengths of his notes to the lengths of the 
syllables to which they are given ; and conversely 
it is important to any poet who adapts words to 
given music. But it is not important to the singer, 
because the time in which he is to pronounce each 
syllable is strictly assigned by the notes before 
him, from which he in general is not allowed to 
deviate in the least degree. The singer has often 
to pronounce a naturally very long syllable in an 
unnaturally short time, or a naturally very short 
syllable in an unnaturally long time, if the com- 
poser has so willed it. If the singer's words 



Sec. X. 

consequently becomes difficult to catch by the 
listener, it is not the fault of the singer but of the 
composer. The singer's business is to make the 
most of the musical character of his vowels, to 
take the utmost care of his glides, and make them 
share the time at his disposal with his vowels, and 
cut the buzzes and hisses down to the shortest 
intelligible duration. He will therefore have to 
practise singing long syllables, as slee-ps, to rapid 
notes, and short syllables, as puot it bale, to very 
long notes, bringing out the glide tightly at the 
end. That is to say, the singer is to act as if he 
knew nothing of naturally long and short syllables, 
but to take the composer's and writer's orders on 
that point and obey them. It is a great misfortune 
that both authors and composer's in general treat, 
and have apparently always treated language as a 
vehicle of music with such little regard to its 
natural laws, as to lay themselves open to the 
imputation of ignorance. 

For the speaker it is convenient to have the 
power of marking three lengths of vowels, as aa 
long, aa medial, aa short. And for English readers 
whenever short vowels are written by two letters 
in Glossic, or long vowels by one letter, it is con- 
venient to use marks of long and short, although 
the medial will not be required. Another way of 
marking these varieties of length in connection 
with force of utterance will be given hereafter. 
But the singer as such has no interest in these 
distinctions, which are so important to the poet 
and orator. 

Pitch, of Spoken Sounds, and its Notation. In 

speaking we alter the pitch of the voice con- 
tinually (although never using strictly musical 
sounds), gliding up and down on the same vowel, 
and varying the intonation of our sentences 
according to their meaning and the association of 
such melody with such meaning, which is gener- 
ally very different in different countries and 
different parts of each country. It is quite 
different in London and Edinburgh, in Germany 
and Italy, and especially France. A foreigner is 

known at once by his ' tune ' or ' accent,' as it is 
often wrongly called. In none of our four 
languages, however, is there any obligation for the 
speaker always to raise or always to lower the 
pitch of his voice upon certain syllables, as there 
was in classical Greece and Rome, and as there 
still is in Norway and Sweden. The composer, 
therefore, is free to do as he likes, and the singer 
has merely to do as he is ordered by the composer. 
Hence it is needless to make any remarks for the 
use of singers on this very difficult subject. For 
the use of speakers, however, it is occasionally 
convenient to use the following notation An 
unmarked vowel, as aa, is to be spoken at a middle 
pitch, such as is used in ordinary speaking ; a 
detached acute accent mark, as aa', indicates a 
higher, and a detached grave accent mark, as aa* , 
indicates a pitch than this middle one. This 
was the meaning of the ancient Greek acute and 
grave accents. The pitch in each case is supposed 
to be sustained during the whole duration of the 
vowel. But aa'* will mean begin at a high and 
glide down to a middle pitch. This was the 
original meaning of the Greek circumflex or 
' down glide.' 

Force of Spoken Sounds, and its Notation. 
On listening to a person speaking at so great a 
distance that his individual words cannot be dis- 
tinguished, he will be felt to utter a broken, un- 
connected series of loud or strong sounds, with 
half heard soft or weaker ones, and silences 
between. A street orator or open-air preacher ia 
an excellent example for the purpose. This shews 
us that the speaker must have made a great 
difference in the loudness of his utterance, and we 
feel that the apparent silences do not arise from 
actual cessation of tone, but only from weaker 
sound, which is not heard at a distance. We thus 
learn to distinguish different degrees of force in 
the utterance of syllables, and to divide syllables 
generally into "weak" and "strong," between 
which lie many degrees, called collectively "mean." 
In English, German, and Italian the whole of 

Sec. X. 



versification depends on the alternation of strong 
with either weak or mean syllables, and neither on 
the length nor pitch of those syllables. In French 
the rhythm (founded on an extinct pronunciation) 
depends rather upon the number and nature of the 
artificial (not natural) syllables in a line, and has 
only a very remote relation to their force. In 
English, German, and Italian, when several 
syllables are invariably spoken together, in order 
to express a " thought," forming a word, one is 
invariably " strong " in comparison with the rest, 
and if the rest are more than two in number, one 
or more will generally be mean and the others 
weak. When several words of one syllable are 
put together to form a phrase, the same rule for 
strong and weak applies to the phrase, with the 
following difference. In a single word of many 
syllables, the strong, mean, and weak syllables 
always retain their relative positions wherever and 
whenever the word is used ; that is, the position of 
strength and weakness is "fixed." But in a phrase 
the strong syllable often varies when the same 
phrase is used in different places under different 
circumstances; that is, the position of strength 
and weakness is " free." The " fixed " syllable, 
which is always strong in every word of more than 
one syllable, is said to be " accented," or to have 
the " accent ;" and if there is also a mean syllable, 
the strong is said to be " primarily accented," or 
to have the '.' primary accent," and the mean to be 
" secondarily accented," or to have the " secondary 
accent" fprei'mer'ili, sek' under 1 ilij. The variable 
syllable in a phrase which becomes strong is said 
to have " emphasis " (em-fusisj, or to be emphatic 
(emfat-ikj . The difference between accent and 
emphasis as applied to syllables, then, may be 
briefly stated as " accent is fixed, emphasis is free." 
But on examining larger phrases or " clauses " 
which contain words of one or more than one 
syllable mixed together, we always find that at 
least one whole word is more prominent than the 
rest, and may be termed a strong word, and that 
there are also other words of mean force. This 
strength of the word, however depends on its 

meaning and the intention of the speaker. It ia 
therefore, " free," and not " fixed." Hence we 
term it the " emphatic " word, and say it has 
"emphasis," while the "mean" words have 
" secondary " emphasis. When the strong word 
has several syllables, all of its syllables are 
stronger than they would have been if the word 
were weak, or had only mean force ; or else the 
strong syllable of a strong word is made remark- 
ably prominent (See "Teacher's Manual," art. 629). 
Hence we require a mark for the strong syllable 
in a word of several syllables, and the strong word 
in a phrase. In Glossic we write (), a turned 
period, called the mark of " accent," or more fully 
of "force accent," and place it after the long 
vowel, or after the consonant or consonants follow- 
ing a short vowel, in a word of more than one 
syllable. The mark thus serves to mark lengths 
as well as force, tlaua fee- liny, fel-iny. If there is a 
mean syllable in the word, it is not usually dis- 
tinguished from the strong in Glossic writing, 
thus aa'ftunoo'n, circumspection ser'kumspek shun, 
insufferability imuf-ur'ubil'iti. If it is thought 
necessary to distinguish medial length, without 
using accented letters like aa, the (:) is placed 
before (instead of over) the vowel, as l:aa-ftu 
laughter, the () still marking the accent. If it is 
desired to distinguish the secondary accent or 
medium syllable, the mark (') may be placed after 
the long vowel, or the consonant following a short 
vowel, as aa''ftunoo m n, insuf''ur'ubil'iti. For the 
strong and mean words the marks () and (') are 
prefixed to the whole word, as : " Shall YOU ride to 
town to-day ? " shul -eu -'reid tu town tudai' ? But 
if the word is of many syllables it retains its accent 
mark as well as its emphasis mark, as : " He is in- 
sufferable, but NECESSARY" hee'z 'insuf-ur'ubl, but 
nes-eser'i. In unemphatic words the position of 
the accent mark will shew the length of the vowel, 
as in hee'z in the last sentence. Vowels unmarked 
are to be taken as short or at most medial in 
length, and weak or at most mean in force. Else 
the long, medial, or short marks are used over 
them, as dog'roaz. 



Sec. X 

The strong syllables are of the utmost importance 
ic English, German, and Italian. If in a word of 
many syllables, the wrong syllable be made strong 
in these languages, the word generally becomes 
unintelligible. In all three of them the alterna- 
tion of strong and weak syllables regulates 
versification, although, of course, rhythm is 
swayed by other considerations also. In English 
especially, the vowels in weak syllables are always 
much obscured (see Section XI., A. III.) although 
they recover a little in mean syllables. The 
weak syllable immediately following a strong 
syllable is most affected. To be intelligible, the 
singer, although lengthening his vowels, must still 
continue to give them this obscure character. 

In German some syllables only are thus obscured. 

In Italian the weak syllables are as bright as 
the strong ones. 

For French all this is different. There is no 
" fixed " force, either on words of one syllable, or 
on words of many syllables, either as accent or 
emphasis. Strong syllables are throughout free 
with this exception that only a very small set of 
syllables (those containing so-called " mute e," or 
" muto-guttural e") are weak, and in speaking such 
syllables are very weak indeed, while the rest bear 
to the first the relation of mean to strong. But 
the actual syllable to which predominance is given 
in a word varies according to the construction of 
the sentence, and it appears to me, after long and 
attentive examination continued for many years, 
that any positive laws laid down respecting isolated 
French words are misleading. The foreigner had 
better endeavour to pronounce each French syllable 
that is not weak with about equal force and length, 
and to hurry over the weak syllables as fast and 
lightly as he can. The pitch of the voice in 
speaking seems frequently to rise at the end of 
clauses, and to be monotonous throughout a clause. 
The whole effect is like a necklace of beads strung 
together by an invisible thread, and the want of 
" fixed " force occasions great difficulty to a 
foreigner in grouping the syllables into words. 
To appreciate French enunciation and declamation 

fully is the work of years. The great mobility 
and lightness of the syllables, and utter freedom 
as regards force (and even length in the present 
pronunciation) gives a great peculiarity to the 
setting of French words to music. This is in- 
creased by the adoption of an older principle 
whereby what are now very weak syllables in 
speaking are allowed in singing to have as much 
strength as any of the others. This peculiarity 
renders the adaptation of English words to French 
music generally very difficult, and nothing can 
generally be worse suited for the intelligibility of 
the words. The effect is almost that of playing 
variations written for a flute on a trombone. 

In the matter of force, although a composer 
lays down the law with tolerable strictness, it is 
not so binding and inevitable as the laws of length 
and pitch. True, the "barring" of music de- 
termines a certain alternation of strong, mean, and 
weak ; and a liberal use of signs for crescendo and 
diminuendo, from forte to fortissimo, and piano to 
pianissimo, with sforzando, staccato, legato, and the 
like, convey tolerably strict orders to the singer, 
which he ought to obey. Yet he is frequently left 
to his own resources to bring out the effect by 
alterations of force. Is he to do so by the same 
use of accent and emphasis which he would employ 
in reading the passage to, a public audience, with 
the best declamation he can command, or learn 
from books ? He cannot do so without sacrificing 
the musical effect which obliges him to take 
another view of the words. The only cases in 
which he has a chance are those of chanting and 
recitative. In both of these the singing voice, 
so utterly different from the speaking voice, bars 
the way. In chanting, the monotone of the reciting 
note is entirely opposed to the habits of speaking. 
The recitative has indeed variety, indeed so great 
a variety of pitch, that no speaking voice would 
naturally produce it. The singer, therefore, has 
in every case to sacrifice the effect of accent and 
emphasis to the need of music, or to learn the 
difficult art of " musical elocution " as distinct 
from " spoken " elocution. It would be useless tc 

Sec. X. 



enter into such a subject here. Each particular 
song requires its own study. No rules have yet 
been laid down, but musical elocutionists exist, 
whose business it is to teach the singer how to 
bring out either the feeling of the composer and 
poet, or at any rate their own views of it. Those 
who cannot have access to them, and whose own 
teachers have not the power to teach musical 
elocution, must trust to their own musical feeling 
and musical sense. But the ordinary rules for 
spoken declamation would utterly fail. We may 
endure and even admire a tragedy when sung as 
an opera, but a player that imitated the singer 
would be deservedly hissed off the stage. 

Quality of Tone in Spoken Sounds, and why it 
is not furnished with a Notation. Force is, how- 
ever not the only free or tolerably free weapon at 
the command of the singer. There is another 
and much more powerful weapon original and 
emotional quality of tone. The power to give 
totally different original qualities of tone to the 
notes of the same pitch, and sung to the same 
vowel (which as we know merely modifies the 
quality of tone originally produced) gives the 
natural human voice its wonderful superiority over 
every artificial instrument. The violin can do 
much in this way by the force and place of 
bowing, by taking the same notes on different 
strings, or as harmonics, and so on. But all its 
power is as' nothing compared to the human voice. 
The consideration of this subject, however, be- 
longs, not to a treatise on pronunciation, but to 
the highest walks of the singer's art It is enough 
to mention that the form given to expression by 
quality of tone varies greatly from nation to 
nation, and that what speaks to the heart in one 
style of music, and to one kind of audience, falls 
dead to another. And finally, that whatever 
singer makes himself into a mere musical instru- 
ment by disguising his words, must utterly fail 
in touching or delighting anyone. For the soul 
speaks by words, and if the words are unheard, the 
soul is dumb. 

Weight of Spoken Sounds. In speaking and in 
singing, there is something different from length, 
pitch, force, or quality of tone, by which the 
speaker or singer conveys the sense of importance, 
although each of these elements, and combinations 
of two or more of them, are of course constantly 
employed for the purpose of giving this expres- 
sion of importance, varying under different 
circumstances. This effect may be called weight, 
and words and syllables may be distinguished in 
this respect as heavy, moderate, and light. The 
effect may be described on the whole as mental, 
depending upon the conceptions conveyed, rather 
than the means of conveying them. Sometimes 
the most important and heaviest v/ord, the utter- 
ance of which conveys an -electrical shock to an 
audience, or which seems to give the whole 
meaning to all that preceded, is uttered in a weak, 
low, and even short, toneless voice ; though at 
other times again in a voice of thunder. These 
are, however, extreme cases of rhetorical effect. 
But generally in English the substantive is heavier 
than its qualifying adjective, though the latter 
may be much stronger and even longer, while it is 
frequently higher. Again the verb is almost 
always heavier than either its subject or object, 
although it is very frequently weaker. These 
differences scarcely affect the singer, except in the 
rendering of verse, which in English depends 
much on weight for its actual rhythm. 

Silence as an Element of Speech, and its Nota- 
tion. The interval between two audible sounds 
has a most important influence on their mental 
effect. We are all familiar with this in instru- 
mental and vocal music, and in all kinds of 
declamation. Silence may be great, medium, or 
small, in respect to duration, and it may be 
absolute or merly apparent in respect to quality. 
For absolute silence, no vocal effort is made, but 
the respiration may go on quietly, or even 
respiration may be suspended, so that the attention 
of the listener is directed towards the forthcoming 
sound, which may come with a burst, or the slightest 



Sec. X. 

possible indication of voice. In apparent silence, 
there is really no suspension of vocal utterance, 
but merely a great diminution of force a length- 
ened slur. The difference to the speaker or singer 
is of course great, because after absolute silence 
there must be an entire re -adjustment of the vocal 
chords, which are kept in action during the 
apparent silence. As an element of rhythm and 
singing, silence may be always considered as 
absolute and in singing should therefore begin 
with a clear release, and end with a clear attack. 
In singing, the composer always sufficiently indi- 
cates the silences and their lengths. In speaking, 

the writer very inadequately represents them by 

punctuation. This may be roughly improved by 

adding ( ), a turned mark of degrees, for a small, 

( 00 ) for a medium, and ( 000 ) for a great silence. 

Mr. Curwen, in the " Teacher's Manual," arts. 

j 637 661, has endeavoured to indicate silences by 

I musical subdivisions. This is very well adapted 

| for simultaneous chanting, where an exact indica- 

i tion of the duration of silences is indispensable, 

I but not for such rhythmical utterance, even in 

j verse, as is usual among public speakers and 

| readers at the present day, when exact rhythmical 

cadence is carefully avoided. 




Introductory Remarks. The object of these 
Exercises is to suggest rather than to give a 
complete method of practising the pupil in all the 
points explained in the previous Sections. The 
teacher must know all that precedes, in order to 
correct any error, and to direct the process of 
study. But the pupil will learn the details inci- 
dentally. The teacher and the advanced student 
who make use of this book, should carefully go 
through the whole exercises themselves, not 
mentally but actually ; for it is only by ascertain- 
ing the effect of such practice on their own vocal 
organs that they can properly direct the pupil and 
insist upon the necessary repetition. 

The Exercises have been separated from the rest 
of the work, because it would have been almost 
impossible, and certainly inexpedient, to have made 
distinct exercises for each point discussed as it 
arose, avoiding all others. The pupil does not 
need such an analytical treatment of the subject. 
He is used to regard sounds as a whole, and he 
must be led to analyse them for himself. The 
presentation of the details in a strictly systematic 
order would confuse him. Such an order is, in 
fact, of no importance at all to the pupil, who can 
begin anywhere. Hence a very few examples have 
been given in the course of the exposition, and 
even for those it was frequently necessary to 
anticipate what followed, and in order to make them 
intelligible a short key to Glossic had to be pre- 
fixed ; but any key or system of writing necessarily 
involves a more or less complete analysis of speech 

A pupil is supposed to be already able to speak 
and read his own language. But he will prottably 
have errors or difficulties of pronunciation to sur- 
mount, and he will always have to be led to a 
knowledge of how to make language intelligible as 
sung. The first care of every teacher must, there- 
fore, be first to ascertain what are the points in which 
the pupil needs assistance, and then to exercise 
him especially in those, leaving the other points, 
on which he needs little or no assistance, to be 
treated incidentally. The first exercises are 
therefore directed to the discovery of these weak 
places. But the exercises range over all such 
possibilities. The teacher will therefore have to 
select those which are necessary in any particular 

The first exercises are general, and relate to all 
the sounds occurring in English strong syllables, 
and especially in the glides, by means of artificial 
combinations, which have no meaning as words in 
actual use. Then follow a series of exercises, in 
which actual words are employed, arranged princi- 
pally to bring out the differences of vowel and 
consonant sounds. In the G-lossic Index in the 
next Section real words are given, shewing the 
actually existing glides of every vowel and 
diphthongal sound in strong syllables on to any 
following consonant, and of every consonant on to 
every other consonant and vowel at the beginning 
of words. This Index consequently forms a 
supplement to this part of the exercises. It will 
also refer the teacher in every case to the page 
where the sounds on which he is exercising the 



Sec. XI, A. I. 

pupil are fully described. Hence it has not been 
thought necessary to add a crowd of such re- 
ferences to every example. The next series relates 
to weak syllables, which have to be differently 
treated in singing and in speech, and these also 
exercise on the slurs, and on the alternation of 
strong and weak syllables. 

After this general treatment of English sounds, 
those who wish to proceed to a study of German, 
Italian, and French sounds, will find a few special 
exercises on their additional or peculiar sounds, 
especially on those points in which they differ 
from English. 

It is intended that these exercises should all be 
either " pointed " from certain charts, or " pat- 
terned" by the teacher. Such a book as the 
present is, of course, unfitted for the young pupil. 
The teacher will himself supply the needful ex- 
planations, to the extent required for each Exercise 
and no more. In this way the apparent difficulties 
will dwindle to nothing, and attention will be 
directed solely to surmounting the real difficulties. 

General Tables of English Sounds. The follow- 
ing lines should be boldly printed on a chart, large 
enough for a whole class to see, and for the teacher 
to point to any letters, or slide his pointer from one 
letter to another, to indicate glides, without the 
chance of confusion by the pupil. 




blak black 


krum crumb 


broun brown 


kwilt quilt 

bwoi (occasionally) buoy 


plai play 


drau draw 


pr'ins prince 

dwau'rr'f dwarf 


sfee'r sphere 

fl W 

/loo flew 


skau-ld scald 


fr'og frog 


skrip-teur scripture 


glee-n glean 


skwee-z squeeze 


graas grass 


sloa slow 

gwaa'noa guano 


smawl small 


kloa-dhz clothes sn- 

snoa snow 

peep tait kaak baub doacl goog 
whif ses shash wov zuz zhuozh 

feif thoith vouv dheudn 
hei hoi hou yheu hai'y hoa'w 
cheech chaich chaach jauj joaj jooj 
ling meng nang lul mom nuon 

r'eerr' r'airr' r'oarr' r'oorr 7 

The above chart is arranged so that the artificial 
words can be sung to the notes of " God save the 
Queen." It also contains all the initial and final 
single consonants which occur in our language, 
but no combinations of consonants. These are 
supplied by the following table of initial and final 
combinations, arranged in alphabetical order for 
ease of reference, the initial combinations being 
placed in the order of the letters from left to right 
(that is, in the order of common dictionaries), and 
the final combinations in the alphabetic order of 
the letters following the vowel and also from left 
to right. The groups ch dh ng sh th zh (called 
chee dhee ing ish ith zhaij are here reckoned as 
single letters, so that the alphabetic order of the 
consonants is taken to be b chddhfghjklmn 
ng p r r s sh t th v w wh y yh z zh. The permissive 
trill implied in r is supposed to be always made, 
and hence rr' is always written before consonants, 
and should be used at least as an exercise. This 
list is especially intended as a guide to the teacher 
in forming exercises as afterwards explainer 


sp- spee-k speak 

Spl- splash splash 

spr'- spring k- 1 sprinkle 

St- stand stand 

Str'- str'ai stray 

yw- swai'r swear 

shr'- shr'ee-k shriek 

tr'- tr'out trout 

tw twein twine 

thr'- thr'oo through 

thw- thwau-rrt thwart 

Sec XI, A. I. 







-Ips helps helps 

-pts adei 




-Is els else 

-pth dept 




-It hilt hilt 

-pths dept 




-Its hilts hilts 

-rr'b baa 




-1th helth health 

-rr'bz baa'rt 




-Iths helths health's 

-rr'ch aa-t 


bree 'dhd 


-lv shelv shelve 

-rr'cht aa-rr' 




-Ivz shelvz shelves 

-rr'd baa") 




-lz elz ells 

-rr'dz berr 




-md hemd hemmed 

-rr'f who 




-mp lamp lamp 





-mps lamps lamps 

-rr'fs wha 




-mpt atemp't attempt 





-mpts atemp-ts attempts 

-rr'j err'. 




-mt atem't occasional for atemp-t 

-rr'k err' 




-mts atem'ts occasional 

-rr'ks sherr 




for atemp-ts 

-rr'l err' 




-H1Z hamz hams 

-rr'lz whe 




-nch fiinch flinch 





-ncht fiincht flinched 

-rr'm w* 




-nd hand hand 

-rr'md wi 




-ndz handz hands 





-ndth thou-zendth thousandth 

-rr'mz ^ a ' r 




-ndths thou'zendths thousandths 

-rr'n lerr 




-nj chai-nj change 

-rr'nd lerr 




-njd chai-njd changed 

-rr'nt lerr 




-ns hens hence 

-rr'nZ lerr' 




-nst minst minced 

-rr'p chet 




-nt hint hint 

-ir'ps eherr 




-nts hints hints 

-rr'pt eherr' 



engulfed - n th tenth tenth 

-rr's fee-* 



twelfth -nths tenths tenths 

-rrs't wer 




-nz henz hens 

-rr'th err' 




-ngd wingd winged 

-n'ths berr 




-ngk thingk think 
-ngks thingks thinks 

-rr'v staa-i 
-rr'vd *err 




-ngkt blingkt blinked 

-rr'vz staa 




-ngkth lengkth length 





-ngkths lengkths lengths 

-rr'z fee-t 




-ngZ wingz wings 

-Sk kern* 




-pS taps taps 

-sks kaa* 




-pt wept wept 

-Sp hasj 


baa- rr'b fbaa-r'bj barb 
baa' rr'bz (baa-r'bz; barbs 
aa-rr'ch (aa'r'chj arch 
aa-rr'cht (aa-r'chtj arched 
baa'rr'd (baa'r'dj barred 
berr'dz (bu'r'dz) birds 
whau'rr'f (whau'r'fj 

wrr'fs (whau'r'fsj 

'j fu-r'jj urge 
err' k (wr'kj irk 
sherr 'ks (shu-r'ksj shirks 

-'I (u-r'lj earl 
wherr'lz (whu-r'lz) 

'rr'm (aa'r'mj arm 
aa-rr'md (aa'r'mdj 

rr'mz (aa'r'mzj arms 
lerr'n (lu-r'n) learn 
lerr'nd (lu-nd) learned 
lerr'nt (lu-nt) learnt 

(lu-r'nzj learns 
eherr'p (chwr'pj chirp 
cherr'ps (chu-r'psj chirps 
''pt fchwr'ptj chirped 
fee-rr's (fevurr'sj fierce 
werr'st (wu-r'stj worst 

(u-r'thj earth 
berr'ths (bu'r'thsj births 
-rr'v (staa'r'vj starve 
'vd fsu'r'vd) served 
staa'rr'vz fstaa'r'vzj 


fee-rr'z (fee'urrzi feara 



Sec XT, A. I. 










































The Mode of Marking Time in the Exercises. 

Between | and | one second elapses. Between 
| and : or : and | , half a second. All groups of 
letters or words written between these limits divide 
the interval of time equally, but ( ) means, con- 
tinue the last vowel for the space of a group, and 
if a consonant follows as -p, glide on to that con- 
sonant at the end of the time thus marked. Also 
(...) means, be silent for the space of a group. 
Thus in | pee | , the word lasts a whole second, in 
| pee ... | it lasts half a second, followed by a 
pause of the same length. In j pee . . . : pee | the 
first pee lasts a quarter of a second, and is followed 
by a pause of the same length, and the second pee 

lasts a half-second. In |pee p pee |, the 

peep lasts three-quarters of a second, finishing with 
the glide on the third quarter, and the following 
pee lasts only one quarter of a second. A word of 
two syllables takes the same time as two single 
syllables. Thus in | peepee | peeppee | each syl- 
lable lasts half a second. The double bars merely 
mark sections of Exercises, which may be con- 
stantly repeated. 

Ex. 1. To Discover any Defects in Pronuncia- 
tion in order to direct future practice The 

teacher reads peep, the first word in the Chart, 
pointing to it, and makes each pupil in the class 
pronounce it after him. He briefly notes any 
defects (on paper if possible) for subsequent use, 
not for present correction. Such a mark as pi 
would imply erroneous introduction of flatus, p + 
imperfect initial glide ; ee=i, incorrect pronuncia- 
tion of vowel; +p, faulty final glide; ph, much 
final flatus. 

Then the teacher takes tait in the same way. 
Note especially if ai has a strong vanish, as ai-y, 
or whether it approaches ei in sound. 

Ultimately the whole list of 38 artificial words 
in the chart must be gone through in this way, 
but as a commencement it will be sufficient to go 
through the first twelve words. 

Then the teacher sings the first line 

| peep | tait | kaak | baub | doad | goog | 
slowly, one second to each word, making the initial 
and final glides clearly, and avoiding all final recoils. 
Each pupil has then to sing them, separately. Notes 
of his performance should be made as before. 

The second line is to be treated in the same way, 
lengthening the vowels, and shortening the hisses 
and buzzes, especially when final. 

This Exercise gives the complete series of long and 
short vowels in English, except ao-, which occurs 
only before r, and is hence left for the last line. 
The teacher will have consequently learned all the 
habitual mispronunciations of vowels and of the 
most important mixed glides. By proceeding to 
the third line -feif, thoith, vouv, dheud he can 
examine for all the usual diphthongs in the same 
way. Each pupil has to be examined separately, 
as each one will have different errors, and when 
several voices are speaking together, such errors 
cannot be sufficiently individualised. Having gone 
through the three first lines, they may be sung in 
chorus and in unison to the first part of " God save 
the Queen." These lines will be quite enough for 
a first lesson. 

The next four lines may be taken at the next 
lesson, as they do not present so many difficulties. 
The aspiration in hei, hoi, hou, will require atten- 
tion, as well as the form of the diphthongs. In 
yheu see whether the initial hiss is sounded ; most 
people are inclined to say yoo. In hai-y hoa'w 
observe the vanish, and contrast with tait, doad. 
In ling, meng, nang, lul, mom, imon, observe whether 

Sec XI, A. I. 



the vowel or the final vocal is lengthened. And 
in the last line reerr\ r'airr', r'oarr', r'oorr\ observe 
whether trilled r' and vocal r are both properly 
brought out and the vowels duly modified. 

Then the whole seven lines may be sung to " God 
save the Queen," for which they are specially 
adapted. But as the words are all monosyllables, 
and have no signification, they may be sung to any 
air, beginning anywhere, and going on as long as 
is necessary, and there is much advantage in alter- 
ing the air and at least the order of the lines or 
words, in order that the different vowels may be 
sung to different pitches. 

This Exercise is entirely for the use of the 
master, to give him the completest information 
respecting the vicious habits of the pupil. 

The following Exercises can all be worked from 
this one Chart by judicious pointing, but are better 
sung from separate copies of the Exercises. 

Ex. 2. The Vowel [ee] and Mixed Glides for 
Mutes. Objects : to get ee pure (and hence an 
appropriate pitch must be chosen and set by 
teacher) ; to get the clear attack without any throat 
glide, or tongue glide, and with the release pure ; to 
make and feel the difference between this effect, 
the initial glide pee, and final glide eep, and between 
both the latter and peep ; to take care that no flatus 
is heard after any mute. Similar for , k. The 
pattern must be set by the teacher and at first 
taken up by the pupils one after the other in a sort 
of running fire, taking the passage between t-vo 
double bars (||). The teacher beaits time, 
ee | pee | ee eep | pee eep | peep |j 
ee | tee | ee eet j tee eet j teet || 
ee | kee | ee eek | kee eek | keek || 
ee ee | pee pee | tee tee | kee kee || 
ee ee | eep eep | eet eet | eek eek || 
pee tee kee j ee ee ee || pee kee tee | ee ee ee || 
|| kee tee pee | kee pee tee | tee kee pee [ tee pee kee || 
|| pee tee kee | peep teet keek | eop eet eek || 
|| pee tee kee : tee kee pee | kee pee tee : pee tee kee || 

|| peep teet keek | teet keek pcsp | keen: peep teet I 

| peep teet keek || 

|| peet teek : keep peet | teek keet : peek keep || 
|| peeteek : keepeet ) teekeet : peekeep | teepeek : 

: keeteep || 

|| pee tee : peet ee | peetee : peettee || 
|| pee kee : peek ee | peekee : peekkee || 
|| kee pee : keep ee | keepee : keeppee || 
|| tee kee : teek ee | teekee : teekkee || 
|| peet ee keep ee | peetee keepee | peettee keeppee || 
|| peet keep : peek teep | keep teek : keet peek || 

Ex. 3. The Vowel [ai] and Mixed Glides for 
Mutes. The vowel ai must have no ? vanish. It 
must continue to be the same sound from begin- 
ning to end in these Exercises. It must never 
approach the sound of ei. Other observations as 

|| ai | pai | ai aip | pai aip | paip || 
II ai | tai | ai ait | tai ait | tait || 
|| ai j kai | ai aik | kai aik | kaik || 
|| ai ai | pai pai j tai tai | kai kai || 
|| ai ai | aip aip | ait ait | aik aik || 
|| pai tai kai | ai ai ai || pai kai tai | ai ai ai || 
|| kai tai pai | kai pai tai | tai kai pai | tai pai kai || 
|| pai tai kai | paip tait kaik | aip ait aik || 
|| pai tai kai : tai kai pai | kai pai tai : pai tai kai || 
|| paip tait kaik | tait kaik paip | kaik paip tait | 

| paip tait kaik || 

i| pait taik : kaip pait | taik kait : paik kaip || 
|| paitaik : kaipait ] taikait : paikaip | taipaik : 

: kaitaip || 

j| pai tai : pait ai | paitai : paittai || 
|| pai kai : paik ai | paikai paikkai || 
|| kai pai : kaip ai [ kaipai : kaippai || 
|| tai kai : taik ai | taikai : taikkai || 
|| pait ai kaip ai | paitai kaipai | paittai kaippai || 
|| pait kaip : paik taip | kaip taik : kait paik |l 



Sec XI, A. I. 

Ex. 4. The Vowel [aa] and Mixed Glides for 
Mutes. No after sound of #, r, r'. 
|| aa | paa | aa aap | paa aap | paap || 
aa | taa | aa aat | taa aat | taat || 
aa | kaa | aa aak | kaa aak | kaak || 
aa aa | paa paa | taa taa | kaa kaa || 
aa aa | aap aap | aat aat | aak aak || 
paa taa kaa | aa aa aa || paa kaa taa | aa aa aa || 
kaa taa paa | kaa paa taa | taa kaa paa | 

| taa paa kaa || 

paa taa kaa | paap taat kaak | aap aat aak || 
paa taa kaa : taa kaa paa | kaa paa taa : 

: paa taa kaa || 
|| paap taat kaak | taat kaak paap | kaak paap taat j 

| paap taat kaak || 

|| paat taak : kaap paat | taak kaat : paak kaap || 
|| paataak : kaapaat | taakaat : paakaap | taapaak : 

: kaataap || 

|| paa taa : paat aa | paataa : paattaa || 
|| paa kaa : paak aa | paakaa : paakkaa || 
|| kaa paa : kaap aa | kaapaa : kaappaa || 
|| taa kaa : taak aa | taakaa : taakkaa || 
|| paat aa kaap aa j paataa kaapaa | paattaa kaappaa || 
|| paat kaap : paak taap | kaap taak : kaat paak || 

Ex. 5. The Vowel [au] and Mixed Glides for 
Mutes. No after sound of w, r, r\ 
|| au | pau | au aup [ pau aup | paup || 
|| au | tau | au aut | tau aut | taut || 
|| au | kau | au auk | kau auk | kauk || 
)| au au | pau pau | tau tau | kau kau || 
au au | aup aup | aut aut j auk auk || 
pau tau kau | au au au |' pau kau tau | au au au || 
kau tau pau | kau pau tau | tau kau pau j 

| tau pau kau || 

pau tau kau | paup taut kauk | aup aut auk || 
pau tau kau : tau kau pau | kau pau tau : 
: pau tau kau || 

paup taut kauk | taut kauk paup | kauk paup tautj 

| paup taut kauk || 

paut tauk : kaup paut | tauk kaut : pauk kaup || 
pautauk : kaupaut | taukaut : paukaup | taupauk : 

: kautaup || 

pau tau : paut au | pautau : pauttau || 
pau kau : pauk au | paukau : paukkau || 
kau pau : kaup au | kaupau : kauppau || 
tau kau : tauk au | taukau : taukkau || 
|| paut au kaup au | pautau kaupau | 

| pauttau kauppau || 
|| paut kaup : pauk taup | kaup tauk : kaut pauk [| 

Ex. 6. The Vowel [oa] and Mixed Glides for 
Mutes. The vowel oa must have no oo vanish. It 
must continue to be the same sound from beginning 
to end. It must never approach the sound of ou. 
|| oa | poa | oa oap | poa oap | poap || 
|| oa | toa | oa oat | toa oat | toat || 
|| oa | koa I oa oak | koa oak | koak || 
|| oa oa | poa poa | toa toa | koa koa || 
|| oa oa | oap oap | oat oat | oak oak || 
|| poa toa koa | oa oa oa || poa koa toa | oa oa oa || 

|| poa toa koa | poap toat koak | oap oat oak || 

|| poa toa koa : toa koa poa | koa poa toa : 

: poa toa koa || 
|| poap toat koak | toat koak poap | koak poap toat | 

| poap toat koak || 

|| poat toak : koap poat | toak koat : poak koap || 
|| poatoak : koapoat | toakoat : poakoap | toapoak : 

: koatoap || 

poa toa : poat oa j poatoa : poattoa || 
poa koa : poak oa | poakoa : poakkoa || 
koa poa : koap oa | koapoa : koappoa || 
toa koa : toak oa | toakoa : toakkoa || 
poat oa koap oa | poatoa koapoa j poattoa koappoa || 
poat koap : poak toap | koap toak : koat poak jj 

Sec. XI, A. I. 


Ex. 7. The Vowel [oo] and Mixed Glides for 
Mutes. To obtain a pure oo the pitch must not be 
high. Be careful that the mouth is properly 
arranged from the first, so that there is no lin 


|| oo | poo | oo oop | poo oop I poop I) 

|| oo I too I oo oot I too oot I toot || 

|| oo J koo I oo ook I koo ook | kook || 

|| oo oo | poo poo | too too I koo koo || 

|| oo oo | oop oop | oot oot I ook ook || 

|| poo too koo I oo oo oo || poo koo too I oo oo oo || 

H koo too poo j koo poo too | too koo poo j too poo koo || 

|| poo too koo I poop toot kook | oop oot ook || 

|| poo too koo : too koo poo | koo poo too : 

: poo too koo || 
|| poop toot kook | toot kook poop | kook poop toot | 

| poop toot kook |J 

|| poot took : koop poot | took koot : pook koop || 
|| pootook : koopoot | tookoot : pookoop | toopook: 

: kootoop || 
|| poo too : poot oo | poot oo : poottoo || 

I poo koo : pook oo | pookoo : pookkoo || 
|| koo poo : koop oo | koopoo : kooppoo || 
|| too koo : took oo | tookoo : tookkoo || 

|| poot oo koop oo|pootoo koopoo | poottoo kooppoo || 

II poot koop : pook toop | koop took : koot pook || 

Ex. 8. Miscellaneous Vowels [ee, ai, aa, au 

oa oo] and Mixed Glides for Mutes, at differed 

-Sing each division between || and || to 

rte, but change the note with each division 

mng up and down a whole octave. 

II pee tai kaa | pau toa koo || peep tait kaak| 

| paup toat kook || 
U pee pai paa | pau 

J aup oap oop || 
ee tai taa | tau toa too | eet ait aat | aut oat oot || 
kni kaa | kau koa koo | eek aik aak I 
J auk oak ook |i 

poa poo | eep aip aap 

II pee tee kee | pai tai kai | paa taa kaa 

| pau tau kau | poa toa koa | poo too koo || 
llpaiteek kaa | ee paitkaa | kaup oattoo | 

| taakkaappaa |l 

Ex. 9. The Vowels [ee, ai, aa, au, oa, oo] and 
Mixed Glides for Sonants. This Exercise consist? 
of Exercises 2 to 8, with sonants substituted for 

Ex. 90. 

II ee | bee | ee eeb | bee eeb | beeb || 
f| ee | dee | ee eed | dee eed | deed || 
II ee | gee | ee eeg | gee eeg | geeg || 
|| ee ee | bee bee | dee dee | gee gee || 
|| ee ee | eeb eeb | eed eed | eeg eeg || 
H bee dee gee | ee ee ee || bee gee dee | ee ee ee || 
|| gee dee bee | gee bee dee | dee gee bee | dee bee gee || 
II bee dee gee | beeb deed geeg | eeb eed eeg || 
|| bee dee gee : dee gee bee | gee bee dee : 

: bee dee gee || 
|| beeb deed geeg| deed geeg beeb | geeg beeb deed | 

| beeb deed geeg || 
I beed deeg : geeb beed | deeg geed : beeg geeb || 

bee dee 

| gee bee 
dee gee 


beed ee | beedee 
beeg ee | beegee 
geeb ee | geebee 

deeg ee | deegee oe _ 

beed ee geeb ee| beedee geebee | beeddee geebbee 
|| beed geeb : beeg deeb | geeb deeg : geed beeg || 

Ex. 9*. 

ai | bai | ai aib | bai aib | baib || 
ai | dai | ai aid | dai aid | daid || 
ai | gai | ai aig | gai aig | gaig || 
| ai ai | bai bai | dai dai | gai gai i| 
ai ai | aib aib | aid aid | aig aig || 
| bai dai gai | ai ai ai || bai gai dai | ai ai ai || 
|| gai dai bai | gai bai dai ! dai gai bai | dai bai gai |j 



Sec X*, A. 1 

|| bai dai gai | baib daid gaig j aib aid aig || 

|| bai dai gai : dai gai bai | gai bai dai : bai dai gai || 

l| baib daid gaig | daid gaig baib | gaig baib daid | 

| baib daid gaig || 

J| baid daig- : gaib baid | daig gaid : baig gaib || 
|| baidaig : gaibaid | daigaid : baigaib | daibaig : 

: gaidaib || 

|| bai dai : baid ai | baidai : baiddai || 
|| bai gai : baig ai | baigai : baiggai || 
|| gai bai : gaib ai | gaibai : gaibbai || 
|| dai gai : daig ai | daigai : daiggai || 
|| baid ai gaib ai | baidai gaibai | baiddai gaibbai || 
|| baid gaib : baig daib | gaib daib : gaid baig || 

Ex. 9c. 

|| aa | baa | aa aab | baa aab | baab || 
|| aa | daa | aa aad | daa aad | daad || 
|| aa | gaa | aa aag | gaa aag | gaag || 
|| aa aa | baa baa | daa daa | gaa gaa || 
|| aa aa | aab aab | aad aad | aag aag || 
|| baa daa gaa | aa aa aa || baa gaa daa | aa aa aa [| 
|| gaa daa baa | gaa baa daa | daa gaa baa | 

| daa baa gaa || 

|| baa daa gaa | baab daad gaag | aab aad aag || 
(I baa daa gaa : daa gaa baa | gaa baa daa : 

baa daa gaa || 
|| baab daad gaag | daad gaag baab | gaag baab daad | 

| baab daad gaag || 

|| baad daag : gaab baad | daag gaad : baag gaab || 
|| baadaag : gaabaad | daagaad : baagaab [ daabaag : 

; gaadaab || 

|| baa daa : baad aa | baadaa : baaddaa || 
|| baa gaa : baag aa | baagaa : baaggaa || 
|| gaa baa : gaab aa | gaabaa : gaabbaa || 
|| daa gaa : daag aa | daagaa : daaggaa || 
|| baad aa gaab aa | baadaa gaabaa | 

| baaddaa gaabbaa || 
|| baad gaab : baag daab | gaab daag : gaad baag || 

Ex. 9d. 

|| an | bau | au aub | bau aub | baub || 

|| au | dau | au aud | dau and | daud l| 

|| au gau | au aug | gau aug | gaug || 

|| au au | bau bau | dau dau | gau gau || 

|| au au | aub aub | aud aud | aug aug || 

|| bau dau gau | au au au || bau gau dau | au au au ! 

|| gau dau ban | gau bau dau | dau gau bau | 

| dau bau gau || 

|| bau dau gau | baub daud gaug | aub aud aug || 
|| bau dau gau : dau gau bau | gau bau dau 

: bau dau gau || 
|| baub daud gaug | daud gaug baub | gaug baub daud 

| baub daud gaug || 

|| baud daug : gaub baud | daug gaud : baug gaud 
|| baudaug : gaubaud | daugaud : baugaub I daubaug 

: gaudaub || 

|| bau dau : baud au | baudau : bauddau |[ 
|| bau gau : baug au | baugau : bauggau || 
|| gau bau : gaub au | gaubau : gaubbau |j 
|| dau gau : daug au | daugau : dauggau || 
|| baud au gaub au | baudau gaubau | 

I bauddau gaubbau || 
|| baud gaub : baug daub | gaub daug : gaud baug 

Ex. 9*. 

|| oa | boa | oa oab | boa oab | boab || 
|| oa | doa | oa oad | doa oad | doad || 
i| oa | goa | oa oag | goa oag | goag || 
|| oa oa | boa boa | doa doa | goa goa || 
|| oa oa | oab oab | oad oad | oag oag || 
|| boa doa goa | oa oa oa || boa goa doa | oa oa oa 
|| goa doa boa | goa boa doa | doa goa boa 

| doa boa goa || 

|| boa doa goa ] boab doad goag | oab oad oag || 
|| boa doa goa : doa goa boa { goa boa doa 

: boa doa goa || 
|| boab doad goag | doad goag boab | goag boab doad 

| boab doad goag || 

Sec. XI, A. I. 



|| boad doag : goab boad \ doag goad : boag goab || 
|| boadoag : goaboad | doagoad : boagoab | 

| doaboag : goadoab || 
| boa doa : boad oa j boadoa : boaddoa || 
|| boa goa : boag oa | boagoa : boaggoa || 
|| goa boa : goab oa | goaboa : goabboa || 
|| doa goa : doag oa | doagoa : doaggoa || 
|| boad oa goab oa | boadoa goaboa | 

| boaddoa goabboa || 
') boad goab : boag doab | goab doag : goad baog || 

Ex. 9/. 

|| oo | boo | oo oob | boo oob | boob || 

|| oo | doo I oo ood | doo ood | dood || 

|| oo | goo | oo oog | goo oog | goog || 

j| oo oo I boo boo | doo doo | goo goo || 

|| oo oo | oob oob | ood ood | oog oog || 

|| boo doo goo | oo oo oo || boo goo doo | oo oo oo || 

|| goo doo boo | goo boo doo | doo goo boo | 

| doo boo goo || 

|| boo doo goo | boob dood goog | oob ood oog || 
|j boo doo goo : doo goo boo | goo boo doo : 

: boo doo goo || 
|| boob dood goog | dood goog boob | goog boob dood| 

| boob dood goog |j 

|| bood doog : goob bood | doog good : boog goob || 
|| boodoog : -goobood j doogood : boogoob | 

| dooboog : goodoob || 
| boo doo : bood oo | boodoo : booddoo || 
| boo goo : boog oo | boogoo : booggoo || 
| goo boo : goob oo | gooboo : goobboo || 
| doo goo : doog oo | doogoo : dooggoo || 
j| bood oo goob oo j boodoo gooboo | booddoo goobboo || 
ll bood goob : boog doob | goob doog : good boog || 

Ex. 10. Mixed Glides for Mutes and Sonants 

pee bee : tee dee | kee gee : pee bee || 
eep eeb : eet eed | eek eeg : eep eeb || 

|| peed teeb : beet deep | teeg keed : keeb peeg || 

|| peet deeb : beed teep | teek geed : keep beeg || 

|| pai bai : tai dai | kai gai : pai bai || 

|| aip aib : ait aid | aik aig : aip aib || 

|| paid taib : bait daip | taig kaid : kaib paig || 

|| pait daib : baid taip | taik gaid : kaip baig || 

|| paa baa : taa daa | kaa gaa : paa baa || 

|| aap aab : aat aad | aak aag : aap aab ft 

|| paad taab : baat daap | taag kaad : kaab paag || 

|| paat daab : baad taap | taak gaad : kaap baag || 

|| pau bau : tau dau | kau gau : pau bau || 

|| aup aub : aut aud | auk aug : aup aub || 

|| paud taub : baut daup | taug kaud : kaub paug || 

|| paut daub : baud taup | tauk gaud : kaup baug || 

|| poa boa : toa doa | koa goa : poa boa || 

|| oap oab : oat oad | oak oag : cap oab || 

|| poad toab : boat doap | toag koad : koab poag || 

|| poat doab : boad toap | toak goad : koap boag || 

|| poo boo : too doo | koo goo : poo boo || 

|| oop oob : oot ood | ook oog : oop oob || 

|| pood toob : boot doop | toog kood : koob poog || 

|| poot doob : bood toop | took good : koop boog || 

Great care is required in speaking or singing such 
combinations as peed teeb, peet deeb. 

Ex. 11. On the Effect of both Pitch and Glide 
on each Long Vowel. Sing each of the following 
lines on each of the different notes of the descend- 
ing scale, ending on the octave below the first. 
Sing first at the rate of one word and then at the 
rate of three words to a second. Vary the d to 
embrace the extreme tones of the voice. 
|| peep teet keek | beeb deed geeg || On d' to d.. 
|| paip tait kaik | baib daid gaig || 

|| paap taat kaak | baab daad gaag || 

|| paup taut kauk | baub daud gaug || 
|| poap toat koak | boab doad goag || 

|| poop toot kook | boob dood goog || 



Sec. XI, A. I 

Ex. 12. On the Short Vowels, lengthened in 
singing. Take Exercises 2 to 10 and in them 
substitute i, e, a, o, u, uo, for ee, ai, aa, au, oa, oo 

Ex. 12. 

|| i | pi | i ip | pi ip | pip || 
|| i | ti | i it | ti it | tit || 
|| i | ki | i ik | ki ik | kik |! 
|| i i | pi pi | ti ti | ki ki || 
|| i i | ip ip | it it | ik ik || 
|| pi ti ki | i i i || pi ki ti I i i i || 
|| ki ti pi | ki pi ti | ti ki pi | ti pi ki || 
|| pi ti ki | pip tit kik | ip it ik || 
I) pi ti ki : ti ki pi | ki pi ti : pi ti ki || 
(I pip tit kik | tit kik pip | kik pip tit | pip tit kik || 
|| pit tik : kip pit | tik kit : pik kip || 
y pitik : kipit | tikit : pikip | tipik : kitip || 
|| pi ti : pit i | piti : pitti || 
|| pi ki : pik i | piki : pikki J| 
|| ki pi : kip i | kipi : kippi || 
H ti ki : tik i | tiki : tikki || 
|| pit i kip i | piti kipi | pitti kippi || 
|| pit kip : pik tip | kip tik : kit pik || 

Ex. 12i. 

|| e | pe | e ep | pe ep | pep || 
|| e | te | e et | te et | tet || 
|| e | ke | e ek | ke ek | kek || 
J e e | pe pe I te te | ke ke || 
H e e | ep ep | et et | ek ek || 
|| pe te ke | e e e || pe ke te | e e e || 
|| ke te pe | ke pe te | te ke pe | te pe ke || 
|| pe te ke | pep tet kek | ep et ek || 
l| pe te ke : te ke pe | ke pe te : pe te ke || 
l| pep tet kek | tet kek pep | kek pep tet | 

| pep tet kek || 

| pet tek : kep pet | tek ket : pek kep |, 
|| petek : kepet | teket : pekep | tepek : ketep || 

pe te : pet e | pete : pette II 

|| pe ke : pek e | peke pekke || 

|| ke pe : kep e | kepe : keppe || 

|| te ke : tek e | teke : tekke | 

j| pet e kep e | pete kepe | pette keppe fo 

|| pet kep : pek tep | kep tek : ket pek |j 

Ex. 12c. 

|| a | pa | a ap | pa ap | pap || 
|| a j ta | a at | ta at | tat || 
|| a | ka | a ak | ka ak | kak || 
|| a a | pa pa | ta ta | ka ka || 
|| a a | ap ap | at at | ak ak || 
|| pa ta ka | a a a || pa ka ta | a a a || 
II ka ta pa | ka pa ta | ta ka pa | ta pa ka [| 
|| pa ta ka | pap tat kak | ap at ak || 
|| pa ta ka : ta ka ka | ka pa ta : pa ta ka || 
|| pap tat kak | tat kak pap | kak pap tat | 

pap tat kak || 

|| pat tak : kap pat | tak kat : pak kap || 
|| patak : kapat | takat : pakap | tapak : katap || 
|| pa ta : pat a | pata : patta || 
[| pa ka : pak a | paka : pakka l| 
|| ka pa : kap a | kapa : kappa j| 
|| ta ka : tak a | taka : takka || 
|| pat a kap a | pata kapa | patta kappa || 
|| pat kap : pak tap | kap tak : kat pak |f 

Ex. 12rf. 

|| o | po | o op | po op | pop || 
|| o | to J o ot j to ot j tot || 
|| o | ko | o ok | ko ok i kok || 
|| o o | po po | to to | ko ko || 
|| o o | op op | ot ot | ok ok || 
|| po to ko | o o o || po ko to | o o o |1 
|| ko to po | ko po to | to ko po | to po ko j| 
|| po to ko | pop tot kok | op ot ok || 
|| po to ko : to ko po | ko po to : po to ko || 
|| pop tot kok | tot kok pop | kok pop tot | 

| pop tot kok || 
|| pot tok : kop pot | tok kot : pok kop || 

Sec. XI, A. I. 



|| potok : kopot \ tokot : pokop | topok : kotop || 

I) po to : pot o | poto : potto : 

|| po ko : pok o | poko : pokko || 

|| ko po : kop o | kopo : koppo || 

|| to ko : tok o | toko : tokko || 

|| pot o kop o | poto kopo | potto koppo || 

|| pot kop : pok tok | kop tok : kot pok || 

Ex. 12*. 

u | pu | u up | pu up | pup || 
u I tu I u ut I tu ut I tut || 
u I ku I u uk I ku uk I kuk || 
u u | pu pu | tu tu | ku ku || 
u u | up up | ut ut | uk uk || 
pu tu ku | u u u || pu ku tu | u u u || 
ku tu pu | ku pu tu | tu ku pu | tu pu ku || 
pu tu ku j pup tut kuk | up ut uk || 
|| pu tu ku : tu ku pu | ku pu tu | pu tu ku || 
|| pup tut kuk | tut kuk pup | kuk pup tut | 

| pup tut kuk || 

put tuk : kup put | tuk kut : puk kup || 
putuk : kuput | tukut : pukup | tupuk : kutup || 
pu tu : put u | putu puttu || 
pu ku : puk u | puku pukku |' 
ku pu : kup u | kupu kuppu || 
tu ku : tuk u | tuku : tukku || 
put u kup u | putu kupu | puttu kuppu || 
|| put kup : puk tup | kup tuk : kut puk || 

Ex. 12/. 

|| uo i puo I uo uop I puo uop I puop || 
|| uo I tuo I uo uot I tuo uot I tuot || 
|| uo I kuo I uo uok I kuo uok | kuok || 
|| uo uo | puo puo I tuo tuo I kuo kuo || 
II uo uo | uop uop I uot uot I uok uok |j 
|| puo tuo kuo | uo uo uo || puo kuo tuo | uo uo uo || 
|| kuo tuo puo | kuo puo tuo | tuo kuo puo | 
1 tuo puo kuo || 

|| puo tuo kuo | puop tuot kuok | uop uot uok || 
|| puo tuo kuo : tuo kuo puo | kuo puo tuo : 

: puo tuo kuo || 
|| puop tuot kuok | tuot kuok puop | kuop puop tuot | 

| puop tuot kuok || 

|| puot tuok : kuop puot | tuok kuot : puok kuop || 
|| puotuok : kuopuot | tuokuot ; puokuop | 

| tuopuok : kuotuop || 
|| puo tuo : puot uo | puotuo : puottuo || 
|| puo kuo : puok uo | puokuo puokkuo || 
|| kuo puo : kuop uo | kuopuo : kuoppuo || 
|| tuo kuo : tuok uo | tuokuo : tuokkuo || 
|| puot uo kuop uo | puotuo kuopuo | 

| puottuo kuoppuo || 
|| puot kuop : puok tuop | kuop tuok : kuot puok || 

Ex. I2ff. 

|| pi te ka | po tu kuo |J pip tet kak | pop tut kuok || 
|| pi pe pa | po pu puo | ip ep ap | op up uop || 
|j ti te ta | to tu tuo | it et at | ot ut uot || 
[| ki ke ka | ko ku kuo | ik ek ak | ok uk uok || 
|| pi ti ki | pe te ke | pa ta ka | pu tu ku | 

| puo tuo kuo || 
U petik ka | e petka | kop utuo | takkappa || 

Ex. 12A. 

|| i | bi | i ib | bi ib | bib || 
|| i | di | i id | di id | did || 

II i I gi I i ig I gi ig I &S II 

|| i i | bi bi | di di | gi gi l| 

|| i i | ib ib | id id | ig ig || 

|| bi di gi | i i i || bi gi di | i i i || 

|| gi di bi | gi bi di | di gi bi | di bi gi || 

|| bi di gi | bib did gig | ib id ig || 

|| bi di gi : di gi bi | gi bi di : bi di gi || 

|| bib did gig | did gig bib | gig bib did | 

| bib did gig || 

|| bid dig : gib bid | dig gid : big gib || 
|j bidig : gibid | digid : bigib | dibig : gidib |j 



Sec. XI, A. I 

|| bi di : bid i | bidi : biddi || 

|| bi gi : big i | bigi : biggi || 

|| gi bi : gib i | gibi : gibbi || 

(I di gi dig i | digi : diggi || 

|| bid i gib i | bidi gibi | biddi gibbi || 

|| bid gib : big dib | gib dig : gid big || 

Ex. 12*. 

|| e | be | e eb | be eb | beb || 

|i e | de | e ed | de ed | ded || 

|| e | ge | e eg | ge eg | geg || 

|| e e | be be i de de i ge ge || 

|| e e | eb eb | ed ed | eg eg || 

|| ge de ge | e e e || be ge de | e e e || 

|| ge de be | ge be de | de ge be | de be ge || 

|| be de ge | beb ded geg j eb ed eg || 

|| be de ge : de ge be | ge be de : be de ge |) 

|| feeb ded geg | ded geg beb | geg beb ded 

| beb ded geg || 

|| bed deg : keb bed | deg ged : beg geb || 
|| bedeg : gebed | deged : begeb | debeg : gedeb |j 
|| be de : bed e | bede : bedde || 
|| be ge : beg e | bege begge || 
|| ge be : geb e | gebe : gebbe || 
|| de ge : deg e | dege : degge || 
|| bed e geb e | bede gebe | bedde gebbe || 
|| bed geb : beg deb | geb deb : ged beg || 

Ex. 12;. 

|| a | ba | a ab | ba ab | bab || 
a | da | a ad | da ad | dad || 
a | ga | a ag | ga ag | gag || 
a a | ba ba | da da | ga ga || 
a a | ab ab | ad ad | ag ag || 
ba da ga | a a a || ba ga da | a a a || 
ga da ba | ga ba da | da ga ba | da ba ga || 
ba da ga | bab dad gag | ab ad ag || 
ba da ga : da ga ba | ga ba da : ba da ga || 

|| bab dad gag | dad gag bab | gag bab dad 

| bab dad gag| 

|| bad dag : gab bad | dag gad : bag gab || 
|| badag : gabad | dagad : bagab | dabag : gadab |] 
|| ba da : bad a | bada : badda || 
(I ba ga : bag a | baga : bagga || 
|| ga ba : gab a | gaba : gabba j| 
|| da ga : dag a | daga : dagga || 
|| bad a gab a | bada gaba | badda gabba || 
|| bad gab : bag dab | gab dag : gad bag || 

Ex. 12k. 

|| o | bo | o ob | bo ob | bob || 

|| o | do | o od | do od | dod || 

|| o | go | o og | go og | gog || 
o o | bo bo | do do | go go || 
o o | ob ob | od od | og og || 
bo do go | o o o || bo go do | o o o || 
go do bo | go bo do | do go bo | do bo go j| 
bo do go | bob dod gog | ob od og [| 
bo do go : do go bo | go bo do : bo do go || 
bob dod gog | dod gog bob | gog bob dod 
| bob dod gog || 

|| bod dog : gob bod | dog. god : bog gob |j 

|| bodog : gobod | dogod : bogob | dobog : godob 

|| bo do : bod o | bodo : boddo || 

|| bo go : bog o | bogo : boggo || 

|| go bo : gob o | gobo : gobbo || 

|| do go : dog o | dogo : doggo || 

|| bod o gob o | bodo gobo | boddo gobbo || 

|| bod gob : bog dob | gob dog : god bog || 

Ex. 12^. 

|| u | bu | u ub | bu ub | bub || 
|| u | du | u ud | du nd | dud || 
|| u gu | u ug | gu ug | gug || 
|| u u | bu bu | du du | gu gu || 
|| u u | ub ub | ud ud | ug ug || 
|| bu du gu | u u u || bu gu du | u u u || 
|| gu du bu | gu bu du | du gu bu | du bu gu U 

XT, A. I. 



|| bu du gu | bub dud gug | ub ud ug || 

|| bu du gu : du gu bu | gu bu du : bu du gu || 

j| bub dud gug | dud gug bub | gug bub dud I 

| bub dud gug || 

|| bud dug : gub bud | dug gud : bug gub || 
|| budug : gubud | dugud : bugub j dubug : gudub || 
|| bu du : bud u | budu : buddu || 
|| bu gu : bug u | bugu : buggu || 
|| gu bu : gub u | gubu : gubbu || 
i| du gu : dug u | dugu : duggu || 
l| bud u gub u | budu gubu | buddu gubbu || 
|| bud gub : bug dub | gub dug : gud bug || 

Ex. 12m. 

|| uo | buo | uo uob | buo uob | buob || 
j| uo I duo | uo uod | duo uod | duod || 
|| uo I guo I uo uog I guo uog I guog || 
|| uo uo I buo buo | duo duo | guo guo || 
|| uo uo | uob uob | uod uod | uog uog || 
j| buo duo guo | uo uo uo || buo guo duo I uo uo uo || 
|| guo duo buo | guo buo duo | duo guo buo | 

I duo buo guo || 

|| buo duo guo | buob duod guog | uob uod uog || 
)| buo duo guo : duo guo buo | guo buo duo : 

: buo duo guo || 
|| buob duod guog | duod guog buob | guog buob duod | 

| buob duod guog || 

|| buod duog : guob buod | duog guod : buog guob || 
U buoduog : guobuod | duoguod : buoguob | 

| duobuog : guoduob || 
|| buo duo : buod uo | buoduo : buodduo || 
|| buo guo : buog uo | buoguo : buogguo || 
|| guo buo : guob uo | guobuo : guobbuo || 
|| duo guo : duog uo | duoguo : duogguo || 
|| bnod uo guob uo | buoduo guobuo | 

j buodduo guobbuo || 
|| buod guob : buog duob | guob duog : guod buog l| 

Ex. 12. 

|| pi bi : ti di | ki gi : pi bi H 
|| ip ib : it id | ik ig : ip ib'|| 
|| pid tib : bit dip | tig kid : kib pig || 
|| pit dib : bid tip | tik gid : kip big |j 
|| pe be : te de | ke ge : pe be || 
|| ep eb : et ed | ek eg : ep eb || 
|| ped teb : bet dep | teg ked : keb peg |j 
|| pet deb : bed tep | tek ged : kep beg || 
|| pa ba : ta da | ka ga : pa ba || 
|| ap ab : at ad | ak ag : ap ab || 
|| pad tab : bat dap | tag kad : kab pag || 
|| pat dab : dad tap | tak gad : kap bag || 
|| po bo : to do | ko go : po bo || 
|| op ob : ot od | ok og : op ob || 
|| pod tob : bot dop I tog kod : kob pog || 
|| pot dob : bod top | tok god : kop bog || 
H pu bu : tu du j ku gu : pu bu || 
|| up ub : ut ud | uk ug : up ub || 
|| pud tub : but dup | tug kud : kub pug || 
|| put dub : bud tup | tuk gud : kup bug || 
|| puo buo : tuo duo | kuo guo : puo buo || 
|| uop uob : uot uod | uok uog : uop uob || 
|| puod tuob : buot duop | tuog kuod : kuob puog || 
|| puot duob : buod tuop | tuok guod : kuop buog || 

Ex. 13. On the Hisses. Care has to be taken 
to make the Hisses short and distinct, and the 
Glides tight. The following are mere specimens 
of what can be formed from the Chart. 
|| fee fai faa | f au foa f oo | eef aif aaf | auf oaf oof |J 
|| f i fe fa | fo fu fuo | if ef af | of uf uof || 
|| thee thai thaa | thau thoa thoo | eeth aith aath | 

| auth oath ooth || 

|| see sai saa | sau soa soo | ees ais aas | aus oas oos l| 
|| si se sa | so su suo | is es as | os us uos || 
|| shee shai shaa | shau shoa shoo | eesh aish aash | 

| aush oash oosh || 

|| whee whai whaa | whau whoa whoo I 
whi whe wha who whu whuo || 



Sec. XI, A. I. 

|| peep whif | tait sea \ kaak shash | paup whof | 

| toat sus | kook shuof || 
il wheefai pauth | whaif i poth | whot eep aatli | 

| paisee shaa || 
|| shees seesh sis | thauf thoath sooth | 

| faash saash shaas || 

Ex. 14. On the Buzzes as contrasted with 
Hisses, Mutes, and Sonants. Care must be taken 
to make the Buzzes distinct, not to begin with 
flatus, as szee, and especially not to end with flatus, 
as eezs. Great difficulty will be felt in this respect 
when Buzzes follow Hisses, as in iz shee, or when 
Hisses precede Buzzes, as ees zee. When any 
Buzzes end one group and begin the next, as in 
zuz zhuozh, rapid utterance becomes even more 
difficult than for Hisses as sus shuosh, or Sonants as 
bub guoff, or Mutes as pup kuok. Hence the neces- 
sity for constant repetition. The Exercise which 
follows, long as it may appear, gives no more than 
a hint of what is required. 
|| wee wai waa | vee vai vaa || wau woa woo | 

| vau voa voo || 
|| whee wee : fee vee | whai wai : fai vai | 

| whau wau : fau vau || 

|| see sai saa : sau soa soo | zee zai zaa : zau zoa zoo || 

I) see zee zee see : zai sai sai zai | see zau zee sau : 

: soa soa zoa zoa | zoo see zee soo : 

: zaa zaa saa zaa || 

|| is zi dhoa : dhi?: is aaz | whee fee thee : 

: wai vai dhai || 

|| iz ez az : oz uz uoz | izh ezh azh : ozh uzh uozh || 
|| ith ef adh ov : idh ev ath of | ith idh if iv : 

: ish is izh iz || 

|| thith theth thath | thauth thoath thooth | 
I dhidh dhedh dhadh | dhaudh dhoadh dhoodh || 
|| thith dheedh : theth dhaidh | thath dhaadh : 
: thauth dhaudh | thoath dhoadh : thooth dhoodh || 
sheesh zhizh : shaish zhezh | shaash zhazh : 
: shaush zhozh | shoash zhuzh : shoosh zhuozh || 

whithi whothi | vifi vofi : 

|| wishi woshi 
fidhi fodhi || 

|| dhizi dhoa ... : thasi thau ... | sathi safi : 
zadhi zavi || 

|| dhaazhai thaishaa : shaizhaa dhaazai || 

|| shithi shiththi : zidhi zidhdhi | sozaa sozzaa : 
: shozhaa shozhzhaa | fa voa f avvoa : vaf oa vaffoa || 

|| pee bee whee wee fee vee | pai bai whai wai fai vai [ 
paa baa whaa waa faa vaa | pau bau whau 
wau fau vau | poa boa whoa woa foa voa | 
| poo boo whoo woo foo voo || 

|| tee see thee : dee zee dhee | tai sai thai : dai zai dhai | 
| taa saa thaa : daa zaa dhaa | tau sau thau : 
: dau zau dhau [ toa soa thoa : doa zoa dhoa I 
| too soo thoo : doo zoo dhoo || 

|| kee gee shee zhee : kai gai shai zhai ' 
| kaa gaa shaa zhaa : kau gau shau zhau | 
| koa goa shoa zhoa : koo goo shoo zhoo || 

|| pip bib fif viv | pep beb f ef vev | pap bab faf vav | 
pop bob fof vov | pup bub fuf vuv | 
j puop buob fuof vuov |j 

|| tit sis thith : did ziz dhidh | tet ses theth : 
: ded zez dhedh | tat sas thath : dad zaz dhadh | 
| tot sos thoth : dod zoz dhodh | tut sus thuth : 
: dud zuz dhudh | tuot suos thuoth : 
: duod zuoz dhuodh || 

|| kik gig shish zhizh : kek geg shesh zhezh | 
| kak gag shash zhazh : kok gog shosh zhozh | 
| kuk gug shush zhuzh: kuok guog shuo shzhuozh|| 

Endless examples of this kind can be constructed 
from the first three lines of the Chart, by taking 
the same vowel throughout the lines, omitting first 
final and then initial consonant, and transposing 
the order. The object is to contrast Glides, Hisses, 
Buzzes, Mutes, and Sonants, and to bring any 
one next to any other, that all may be taken 
easily at all pitches, and that no more flatus, hiss or 
buzz, be allowed to escape than is necessary for 
understanding the differences of the sounds. 

Sec XI, A. I. 



Ex. 15. On the Diphthongs [ei, oi, on euj. 
The object is to see that these diphthongs are 
pronounced and sung correctly. Take care that, 
in speaking, ei never becomes broader than aay, and 
try to keep it to a'y or uy, with the first element 
very short, and the glide distinct and tight, and 
the last element prolonged if necessary. But in 
singing, the first element must be lengthened and 
the dipiithongal effect shewn by the tight glide at 
the end, the last element being i and always short. 
The singer may use ah, aa, or a' for his first 
element, and even vary them during singing, as may 
be convenient for the pitch. The last element may 
also be i or ee, as may be convenient for the pitch. 

The diphthong ou in speaking should never be 
broader than aaw : endeavour to keep it to a'w or uw. 
The first element should be short, glide tight, and the 
last element uo, and long if required. In singing, 
use ah, aa, a 1 for first and uo or oo for last element, 
as convenience of pitch may require. But never 
use oa, ao, au, or even uu, and still less ai, e, ae, a, for 
the first element. The first element is to be treated 
as that oi ei. 

The diphthong oi may always be sung as auy. 
The first element is often inordinately lengthened 
in music. But care must be taken to make the 
glide tight at the end, so as to avoid any appear- 
ance of two syllables ; that is, sing rijau-is (rejoice) 
with the au as long as you please, but not rifau'-is 
without the glide, which will assuredly be said if 
breath is taken j ust at is. 

The diphthong eu has to be spoken and sung as 
a real diphthong wo or luo after consonants, and is 
better so sung at the beginning of words, but it is 
then spoken as yoo, yuo, and sometimes ywo, yiuo. 

Attend to all these points. 

Sing the three first lines of the Chart with ei, oi, 
ou, eu, in place of the vowels written, and practise 
very slow and very fast. Thus 

|| pei | p | tei | t | kei | t || &c. 
sung as | paa | ip | or | pa' | ip | &c., or with 
pitch rising from very low to high | pah : aa | 
ja, : Tp | &c., and similarly for the rest. 
Then sing very quickly as |pei tei kei : bei del gei| 

&c., | eip eit eik : eib eid eig | , and lastly try 
i peip teit keik : beib deid geig | and so on. Thus 

|| pei | p | tei | t | kei | t | bei | b | 

| deid I d|gei|-g|| 
|| whei | f | sei | s | shei | sh | wei | v I 

|zei | z | zhei | zh || 

II f ei j f | thei | th | vei | v | dhei | dh || 
|| pei tei kei : bei dei gei | whei sei shei : 

: wei zei zhei | fei fei thei : vei vei dhei || 
|| eip eit eik : eib eid eig | eif eis eish :.eiv eiz eizhj 

| eif eith eith : eiv eidh eidh || 
|j peip teit keik : beib deid geig | wheif seis sheish : 

: weiv zeiz zheizh | feif theith theith : 

: veiv dheidh dheidh || 
|| poi | p | toi | t | koi | _ t | boi | b | 

| doi | d | goi | g || 
|| whoi | f | soi | s | shoi | sh | woi | V| 

| zoi | z | zhoi | zh (i 

|| f oi | f | thoi | th | voi | v | dhoi | dh |] 
|| poi toi koi: boi doi goi | whoi soi shoi: woi zoi zhoi| 

| f oi f oi thoi : voi voi dhoi || 
|| oip oit oik : oib oid oig j oif ois oish : oiv oiz oizh| 

| oif oith oith : oiv oidh oidh J 
|| poip toit koik : boib doid goig | whoif sois shoish : 

: woiv zoiz zhoizh | foif thoith thoith : 

: voiv dhoidh dhoidh || 
|| pou | p | tou | t | kou | t | bou | b 1 

| dou | d | gou | g || 
|| whou | f | sou | s | shou | sh j wou | v | 

I zou | z | zhou | zh || 

|| f ou | f | thou | th | vou { v | dhou | dh || 
|| pou tou kou : bou dou gou | whou sou shou : 

: wou zou zhou I fou fou thou : vou vou dhou || 
|| oup out ouk : oub oud oug | ouf ous oush : 

: ouv ouz ouzh | ouf outh outh : ouv oudh oudh || 
|| poup tout kouk : boub doud goug | whouf soua 

shoush : wouv zouz zhouzh | fouf thouth thouth 

: vouv dhoudh dhoudh || 



Sec. XI, A. L 

|| peu | p | teu | t | keu | t | beu | b | 

| deu | d | geu ] g |j 
|| wheu | f | seu | s | sheu | ah \ wen \ v | 

| zeu | z | zheu | zh || 

H feu | f | theu | th | veu | v | dheu dh || 
|| peu teu keu : beu deu geu | wheu seu sheu : 

: weu zeu zheu ] feu feu theu : veu veu dheu || 
|| eup eut euk : eub eud eug | euf eus eush : 

: euv euz euzh | euf euth euth : euv eudh eudh || 
|| peup teut keuk : beub deud geug | wheuf seus 

sheush : weuv zeuz zheuzh | feuf theuth theuth : 

: veuv dheudh dheudh || 

Ex. 16. On the Aspirate. Use the jerked clear 
attack only in singing ; in speaking either the 
jerked clear or jerked gradual attack may be used. 

Speak and sing the first three lines of the Chart 
(except the last word) with the aspirate substituted 
for the initial consonant, and first with the final con- 
sonant omitted, and secondly with it added. The 
rate may be always rapid, as the effect of the jerk 
is almost instantaneous. Thus 
|| hee hai haa : hau hoa hoo | hi he ha : ho hu huo | 

| hei hoi hou : hei hoi hou || 
|| heep hait haak : haub hoad hood | hif hes hash : 

: huv huz huozh | heif hoith houth : 

: heiv hoidh houdh || 

The aspirate before eu is easy when eu is taken 
as wo, thus Kioo ; but if eu is taken as yoo, ywo, 
then the aspiration generates the hiss yh. And 
this yheu, meaning yhoo or yJiioo, must be practised 
with all the consonants following, as 
|| yheup yheut yheuk | yheub yheud yheug I 

[yheuf yheus yheush | yheuv yheuz yheuzh || 

Ex. 17. On the Vanishes [ai-y, oa-w]. The 
object is to contrast these with the pure vowels 
ai, oa. In taking the pure vowels ai, oa, there 
should be no tendency to end with * or uo, and in 
taking the vanishes ai-y, oa'w, there should be no 
tendency to fall into diphthongs like ei, ou, either 
in speaking or singing. This exercise is intended 
to guard the singer against taking the vanishes. 

They should never be used in singing actual words. 
The singer may take e, ao for ai, oa, not only for 
convenience of pitch but as a safeguard against 
the vanishes. Take the three first lines of the 
Chart, and substitute alternately ai, ai-y, and then 
alternately oa-, oa-w for the vowels, first omitting 
and then retaining the final or initial consonants, 
and then taking both, as 

|| par pai-y | tar tary I kar kary | bar bary | 
| dai- dai-y | gar gai-y | whar whary | shar shary | 
| war wary | zai zai'y | zhar zhary | far fary j 
| thai' thai-y | var vary | dhar dhary || 
|| ai g p ai-yp | art aryt | ark aryk | arb ai'yb | 
|ai'd ai-yd | ai'g ai-yg | ai'f ai-yf | ar& ai-ys | 
(ai'sh ai-yshjai'v ai'yv (ai'z ai'yz | ai'zh aryzh | 
| ai-th ai-yth | ai'dh arydh. 

|| pai'p paryp | tart taryt | kai'k kai'yk | 
| barb bai'yb | dai'd daryd | gai-g gai'yg | 
j wharf whai-yf | sai-s sai'ys | shai'sh shai-ysh | 
| whai'v whaiyv | zai'z zai'yz | zhai'zh zhai'yzh j 
|fai'f faryf | thai'th thai'yth | varv vai-yv | 

|| poa' poa'w | toa- toa'w | koa' koa'w | boa 4 boa*w | 
|doa- doa*w | goa' goa'w | whoa' whoa'w | 
|shoa' shoa'w | woa - woa*w | zoa- zoa*w | 
|zhoa - zhoa'w | foa* foa-w | thoa* thoa'w | 
|voa' voa'w | dhoa* dhoa'w || 
|| oa - p oa'wp | oa't oa-wt | oa-koa'wk [ oa - b oa*wb | 
|oa'd oa-wd | oa'g oa*wg | oa-f oa-wf j oa's oa-ws I 
|oa*sh oa'wsh | oa'v oa-wv | oa-z oa'wz | 
|oa-zh oa-wzh | oa'th oa-wth | oa'dh oa-wdh || 
|| poa-p poa-wp | toa-t toa'wt ! koa'k koa'wk | 
|boa - b boa-wb | doa'd doa'wd | goa'g goa'wg | 
| whoa'f whoa- wf | soa's soa - ws | shoa sh shoa-wsh | 
| whoa' v whoa' wv | zoa*zzoa'wz | zhoa'zhzhoa-wzh j 
jfoa'f foa-wf | thoa'th thoa'wth \ voa-v voa'wv | 
| dhoa-dh dhoa-wdh || 

Conclude by singing over the first four lines of the 
Chart many times to various airs. 

Sec. XI. A. I. 



Ex. 18. On the Compound Hisses and Buzzes 

j- c h, j. ]_ These are generally pronounced easily. 
The only difficulties arise from rapidity, and the 
necessity of shortening the final hiss or buzz in 
singing. In the first three lines of the Chart use 
first ch and then.;' in place of the initial, and then 
in place of the final consonant, first omitting and 
then inserting the other consonant. Thus 

|| chee chai chaa : chau choa choo } chi che cha : 

: cho chu chuo | chei choi chou : cheu cheu cheu || 

|| eech aich aach : auch oach ooch | ich ech ach : 

och uch uoch | eich oich ouch : euch euch euch || 

|| cheep chait chaak : chaub choad choog | 

(chif ches chash : chov chuz chuozh | cheif 

choith chouv : cheudh cheudh cheudh || 
|| peech taich kaach : bauch doach gooch | 

| which sech shach : woch zuch zhuoch | 

| f eich thoich vouch : dheuch dheuch dheuch || 
|| jee jai jaa : jau joa joo | ji je ja : jo ju juo | 

| jei joi jou : jeu jeu jeu || 
|| eej aij aaj : auj oaj ooj | ij ej aj : oj uj uoj | 

|eij oij ouj : euj euj euj || 
|| jeep jait jaak : jaub joad joog | jif jes jash : 

: jov juz juozh | jeif joith jouv : jeudh jeudh 

jeudh || 
|| peej taij kaaj : bauj doaj gooj | whij sej shaj : 

: woj zuj 'zhuoj | feij thoij vouj : dheuj dheuj 

dheuj || 

Sing over the first five lines of the Chart to various 

Ex. 19. On the Vocals [1, m, n, ng.] As ng 
is only used final, and only after short vowels (in 
English and German), it may be taken separately 
and first. Take care that no g or k creeps in after 
ng, and that the nasal sound itself is never pro- 

|| ing eng ang : ong ung uong || ping peng pang : 
: pong pung puong | bing beng bang : 

bong bung buong || ting teng tang 
tong tung tuong | ding deng dang 
dong dung duong || king keng kang 
kong kung kuong | ging geng gang 
gong gung guong || fing feng fang 
fong fung fuong | ving veng vang 
vong vung vuong || sing seng sang 
song sung suong | zing zeng zang 
zong zung zuong |] shing sheng shang 
shong shung shuong | zhing zheng zhang 
zhong zhung zhuong || thing theng thang 
thong thunf thuong | dhing dheng dhang 
dhong dhung dhuong || ping j tang | kong | sung || 

The same Exercise may then be taken with 
I, m or n in place of ng ; and then with the substi- 
tution of ee, ai, aa, au, oa, oo, for i, e, a, o, u, uo ; 
and then with the substitution of I, m or n for the 
initial consonants. This gives the following series 
of Exercises : 

|| il el al : ol ul uol || pil pel pal : pol pul puol [ 
| bil bel bal : bol bul buol || til tel tal : tol tul tuol | 
|dil del dal : dol dul duol || kil kel kal : 
: kol kul kuol | gil gel gal : gol gul guol || 
||fil fel fal : fol ful fuol | vil vel val : 
: vol vul vuol || sil sel sal : sol sul suol | 
| zil zel zal : zol zul zuol || shil shel shal : 
: shol shul shuol | zhil zhel zhal : zhol zhul zhuol || 
|| thil thel thai : thol thul thuol | dhil dhel dhal : 
: dhol dhul dhuol || pil | tal | kol | sul || 

|| eel ail aal : aul oal ool || peel pail paal : 
: paul poal pool j beel bail baal : haul boal bool ||, 
|| teel tail taal : taul toal tool | deel dail daal : 
: daul doal dool || keel kail kaal : kaul koal kool | 
| geel gail gaal : gaul goal gool || feel fail faal : 
: faul foal fool | veel vail vaal : vaul voal vool || 
|| seel sail saal : saul soal sool | zeel zail zaal r 
:zaul zoal zool j| sheel shail shaal : shaul shoal shool | 
| zheel zhail zhaal : zhaul zhoal zhool $ 



Sec. XI, A. I. 

|| theel thail thaal : thaul 

thoal thool | 

| dheel dhail dhaal : dhaul 

dhoal dhool || 

|| peel | taal | kaul | soal || 

|J im em am : om um uom | 

pirn pern pam : 

: pom pum puom | bim bem bam : 


|| tim tern tarn : torn turn tuom 

| dim dem dam : 

: dom dum duom|| kim kem kam: 

kom kum kuom | 

| gim gem gam : gom gum guom || fim fem fam : 

: f om f um f uom | vim vem vam : 

vom vum vuom || 

|| sim sem sam : som sum suom 

| zim zem zam : 

: zom zum zuom |] shim shem sham : shorn shum 

shuom | zhim zhem zham : zhotn zhum zhuom || 

|| thim them tham : thorn 

thum thuom | 

|| dhim dhem dham : dhom 

dhum dhuom || 

|| pirn | tarn | kom | sum || 

11 eem aim aam : aum oam oom || p 

eem paim paam 

. paum poam poom | beem 

bairn baam 

baum boam boom || teem 

taim taam 

taum toani toom | deem 

daim daam 

daum doam doom || keem 

kaim kaam 

kaum koam koom | geem 

gaim gaam 

gaum goam goom || feem 

faim faam 

faum foam foom | veem 

vaim vaam 

vauin voam voom || seem 

saim saam 

saum soam soom | zeem 

xjiini zaam 

zaum zoam zoom || sheem 

shaim shaam 

shaum shoam shoom | zheem zhaim zhaam 

zhaum zhoam zhoom || theem 

thaim thaam 

thaum thoam thoom | dheem 

dhaim dhaam 

dhaum dhoam dhoom || peem 

| taam | kaum | 

(j in en an : on un uon || pin pen pan : pon pun puon j 
j bin ben ban : bon bun buon || tin ten tan : 
: ton tun tuon | din den dan : don dun duon || 
|| kin ken kan : kon kun kuon | gin gen gan : 
: gon gun guon || fin fen fan : fon fun fuon | 
} vin ven van : von vun vuon l| sin sen sail : 

: son sun suon | zin zen zan : z.on zun zuon || 
|| shin shen shan : shon shun shuon | 
| zhin zhen zhan : zhon zhun zhuoo || 
|| thin then than : thon thun thuon | 
| dhin dhen dhan : dhon dhun dhuon || 
|| pin | tan | kon | sun || 
|| een ain aan : aun oan oon || peen pain paan : 
: paun poan poon | been bain baan : 
: baun boan boon || teen tain taan : taun toan toon 
| deen dain daan : daun doan doon 
|| keen kain kaan : kaun koan koon 
| geen gain gaan : gaun goan goon 
|| f een fain f aan : faun f oan f oon | veen vain vaan 
: vaun voan voon || seen sain saan : saun soan 
soon | zeen zain zaan : zaun zoan zoon 
|| sheen shain shaan : shaun shoan shoon 
| zheen zhain zhaan : zhaun zhoan zhoon 
|| theen thain thaan : thaun thoan thoon 
| dheen dhain dhaan : dhaun dhoan dhoon 
|| peen | taan | kaun | soan || 

|| lil lei lal : lol lul luol || leel lail laal : laul loal lool|| 
|| mil mel mal : mol mul muol || meel mail maal : 
: maul moal mool || nil nel nal : nol nul nuol j| 
|| neel nail naal : naul noal nool || lin len laa : 
: Ion lun luon || leen lain laan : laun loan loon j| 
|| min men man : mon mun muon || 
|| meen main maan : maun moan moon || 
|| nin nen nan : non nun nuon || neen nain naan : 
: naun noan noon || 
|| ling leng lang : long lung luong || 
|| ming meng mang : mong mung muong || 
|| ning neng nang : nong nung nuong || 

Sing the first six lines of the Chart many times 
over to various airs. 

Ex. 20. On the Irill [r'] and Vocal [r]. The 
trilled r 1 at the beginning of words is easy to most 
speakers. It must be kept very light. The tip of 
the tongue must not move far up and down. The 

Sec. XI, A. I. 



vibrations must not be very fast, and must not 
last a long time. The effect is to be a ripple rather 
than a beat. The trilled r' at the end of words or 
before consonants is almost an impossibility to 
many speakers in the South of England, especially 
when following a short vowel. It need not be 
practised after a short vowel, when no other vowel 
follows, for English, but it is absolutely necessary 
to do so for German, Italian, and French. The 
final trill after a vocal r is always allowable. It 
must be practised, and then the singer can after- 
wards take it or not at pleasure. First as an initial, 
take the three first lines of the Chart with initial 
r', and first without and then with the consonant, 
|| r'ee r'ai r'aa : r'au r'oa r'oo | r'i r'e r'a : 

: r'o r'u r'uo | r'ei r'oi : r'ou r'eu || 
(| r'eep r'ait r'aak : r'aub r'oad r'ood | r'if r'es r'ash: 

: r'ov r'uz r'uozh | r'eif r'oith : r'ouv r'eudh || 

Then sing the last line of the Chart carefully, first 
singing ecr, air, oar, oor as i'u, e'u, ao'ii, uo'u with- 
out the trilled r', and then adding r' first before 
only, then after only, and then before and after : 

|| eer air | oar oor || r'eer r'air | r'oar r'oor || 
|| eerr' airr' | oarr' oorr' || 
y r'eerr' r'airr' | r'oarr' r'oorr' || 
Then increase .the rapidity. 

Finally sing over the whole Chart many times 
to various airs and at very different rates. 

Ex. 21. On Initial Combinations of Consonants. 
From the Table of Initial Combinations select 
any seven, one for each line of the Chart, and 
substitute one for the initial consonant in that 
line, and thus sing the whole Chart. Thus taking 
the first seven, bl-, br'-, bw-, dr'-, dw-,fl,fr, sing 
to '' God save the Queen" or any air. The initial 
combinations to be used should be written on a 

bleep blait blaak blaub bload bloog 
br'if br'es br'ash br'ov br'uz br'uozh 

bweif bwoith bwouv bweudh 
dr'ei dr'oi dr'ou dr'eu dr'ai'y dr'oa'w 
dweech dwaich dwaach dwauj dwoaj dwooj 
fling fleng flang flul flom fluon 

fr'eerr' fr'airr' fr'oarr' fr'oorr' 

Then begin each line with the second of these 
initial combinations, and end with the last com- 
bination, making the new order, br'-, bw-, dr\ dw, 
fl-,fr'-, bl-, thus br'eep br'ait, &c., bivifbwait, &c., 
dr'eifdr'oith, &c., dwei dwoi, &c., fleech Jlaich, &c., 
fr'ingfr'eng, &c., bleerr' blairr', &c. 

Then begin with the third and end with the 
second, and so on, making seven different modes of 

Then take another set of seven initial combina- 
tions in the same way, till all are exhausted. This 
Exercise may, of course, be materially abridged if 
no difficulty is felt. Some of the combinations, 
however, create difficulties, as when w, I or r' 
precedes eu, as in bweudh, bleudh, br'eudh. In 
received pronunciation no such combinations occur. 
Hence they need not be dwelled on. 

Ex. 22. On Final Combinations of Consonants. 
From the Table of Final Combinations, select 
any seven, and use them in place of the final con- 
sonants of the Chart. Thus selecting the first 
seven, -bd, -bz, -cht, -dth, -dths, -dz, -dhd, and 
writing them on the blackboard, sing 
peebd taibd kaabd baubd doabd goobd 
whibz sebz shabz wobz zubz zhuobz 

feicht thoicht voucht dheucht 
heidth hoidth houdth yheudth harydth hoa'wdth 
cheedths chaidths chaadths jaudths joadths joodths 
lidz medz nadz ludz modz nuodz 

r'eedhd r'aidhd r'oadhd r'oodhd 
Then take another set of seven in the same way, 
till the list is exhausted. Where difficulties are 
felt, repeat the combination frequently. 



XI, A. II. 

Ex. 23. On both Initial and Final Combina- 
tions of Consonants at once. Select any seven 
compound initials and any seven compound finals, 
and write them on the blackboard thus 
ql Ib, Jew If, skr j md, sp nd, thr' nj, 

sn ts, kl sk 

Then fill up the blank space by the vowels and 

diphthongs in the three first lines of the Chart for 

each, and sing them. There will be no occasion to 

write the vowels. The result is 

gleelb glailb glaalb glaulb gloalb gloolb 

glilb glelb glalb glolb glulb gluolb 

gleilb gloilb gloulb gleulb 
kweelf kwailf kwaalf kwaulf kwoalf kwoolf 
kwilf kwelf kwalf kwolf kwulf kwuolf 

kweilf kwoilf kwoulf kweulf 
akr'eemd skr'aimd skr'aamd skr'aumd skr'oamd 

skr'imd skr'emd skr'amd skr'omd skr'umd 


skr'eimd skr'aimd skr'oumd skr'eumd 
speend spaind spaand spaund spoand spoond 
spind spend spand spond spund spuond 

speind spoind spound speund 
thr'eenj thr'ainj thr'aanj thr'aunj thr'oanj 


thr' in j thr' en j thr' an j thr' on j thr'unj thr'uonj 
thr'einj thr'oinj thr'ounj thr'eunj 
























and so on for another set of seven. The rate of 
singing should be varied, and the airs should also 

be greatly varied. Some of these combination! 
will be found excessively difficult to produce wit] 
accuracy, lightness, and rapidity^ at which practio 
should aim. 


Ex. 24. Contrast of [ee and i]. To be sai< 
with the hand feeling the action of the throat. T< 
be sung at different pitches to contrast the singinj 
effect of the two, and shew the advantage of no 
distinguishing them in singing. In the first word 
the final syllable in i is naturally very short am 
weak, it must be here uttered as if it were lonj 
and strong. The words are in both spellings, th 
Glossic being in italics. The consonants glidin 
on to and off from the vowels are the same in th 
contrasted cases. 

a. On open ee and i. 

A shabby bee 

Let baby be 

A palfry free 

With ugly glee 

A tiny knee 

The glassy sea 

Thy mercy see 

Make worthy thee 

A wintry tree 

Thy enemy me 

An ashy she 

Best city tea 

Of a verity 'tis very tea 

Cried gruffly flee 

A bulky key 

A trusty trustee 

A shab-i bee 

Let bai'bi bee 

A pau'lfr'ifree 

Widh ug'li glee 

A tei'ni nee 

Dili glaa-si see 

Dhei met" si see 

Mai'k wet"dhi dhee 

A win'tr'i tr'ee 

Dhei en'emi mee 

An ash-i shee 

Best sit'i tee 

Ov (i ver'-iti tiz ver'"i tee 

Kr'eid gruf'lijftee 

A bul'ki kt-e 

A tr'us-ti tr'ustee' 

b. On closed ee and i. 

Although ee is always long and i always short i 
speech, the singer must practise making both lonj 
and both short. Hence the length is not marke< 
But part of the length and shortness of the vow* 
must be marked by the looseness and tightness ( 
the glides. 

Sec. XI, A. II. 



eel, ill eel, il 

e. On short weak i to be distinguished from w' or ee 

eat, it eet, it 

possible pos-ibl ' ability abil'iti 

peat, pit peet, pit 

article aa'rtikl aspirate as-piret 

peach, pitch peech, pick 

latitude lat'iteud surplice ser-plis 

peak, pick peek, pik 

agility ajil'iti precipice pres-ipis 

peel, pill peel, pil 

beat, bit beet, bit 

Ex. 25. Contrast of [ai, e, a]. The ai is alwaya 

bead, bid beed, bid 

long. It may be sung as e, but may not be sung 

beach, bitch beech, bich 

as ai-y with the vanish, still less must it approach 

breaches, breeches br'eechez, br'ichez 

the diphthong ei. The e, a are always short in 

beaker, bicker beeker, biker 

speech, but must be lengthened in singing. The 

bean, bin been, bin 

e may be taken as ae. The a may, and in singing 

teat, tit teet, tit 

should be taken as #' ; it should never be spoken 

teach, stitch teech, stich 

or sung as ae or e. Thus ai, e, a may be 

teak, tick teek, tik 

sung as e, ae, a\ In the Exercises the proper 

teal, till teel, til 

spoken sounds are written. The contrasted vowels 

team, Tim teem, tim * 

are between the same consonants, in order that 

between, twin bitween, twin 

they may have the same mixed glides before and 

deep, dip deep, dip 

after them, which so much modify their effect. 

deed, did deed, did 

As real words had to be selected the contrast is not 

deal, dill deel, dil 

always complete. 

deem, dim deem, dim 

ai e a ai e a 

dean, din deen, din 

pate pet pat pai't pet pat 

keel, kill keel, kill 

paid pad pai'd pad 

keen, kin keen, kin 

peck pack pek pak 

feet, fit feet, fit 

bate bet bat bai't bet bat 

fief, fifty feef, fifti 

obeyed bed bad oabai-d bed bad 

feel, fill feel,fil 

bake beck back bai-k bek bak 

these, this dheez, dhis 

beg bag beg bag 

seat, sit . seet, sit 

bale bell ballot bai'l bel bal'ut 

seek, sick seek, sik 

bane Ben ban bai-n Ben ban 

seen, sin seen, sin 

tape tap tai-p tap 

sheep, ship sheep, ship 

take tack tai'k tak 

gleam, limb gleem, lim 

tale tell tallow tai-l tell tal-oa 

wheat, whit wheet, whit 

tame temper tamper tai'm tem-per tam-per 

c. On open ee followed by i. 

ten tan ten tan 

reiterate r' ee-it'ur' ait deify dee'ifei 

date debt dai't det 

reimburse r'ee-imbet-s theism thee'izm 

dead dad ded dad 

reinstate r'ee-instai't atheistai'thee-ist(ai-thiist) 

deck dactyle dek dak- til 
deaf daft dcf daft 

d. On long i before vocal r. 

dale dell dally dai'l del dal-i 

beer bi-u (beer) j sheer shi-u (sheer) 

A A J '. J 

o.ame dam ctat m ctam 

deer di'u (deer) veer vi-u (veer) 

deign den Dan dai'n den Dan 

ji'ii deer) career /nt-r'i'u (karee'rj cape cap kai-p kap 




Sec. XI, A. II. 

ai e a, ai e a 

Ex. 26. Contrast of [au, o]. Au is always 

Kate cat Kai't kat 

long, and o is always short in received pronuncia- 

1 r\4-s\\\ -r\ rtr-<-rtV\ Z^>/>^4//M Z*//>7i 

tion, but both will have to be sung lon and botl: 

KGuCnilp C'dbCil fC&O/tf WJJ rvttrO/tr 

case kestrel cassock kai's kes-trel kas~uk 

also short. The speaker should be especially 

cane kennel can kai-n ken-el kan 

exercised in uttering au short and o long, to mak( 


him feel the difference of quality, which is simila] 

gape gap gaip gup 

gate get gat gavt get gat 

to that of ee, i. The singer may take either au 0] 

game gambit gavm gam-bit 

o as suits his pitch. 

fate fetter fat favt fet-er fat 

face fester fascinate fai's fes'ter fas-inait 

au o au o 

fail feU fallow fai-l fel fal-oa 

awed odd au-d od 

fain fen fan fai-n fen fan 

pawed pod pau-d pod 

sate set sat savt set sat 

pawned pond pau-nd pond 

said said sad sai'd sed sad 

sawed sod sawd sod 

sale sell SaU savl sel Sal 

hawed hod hawd hod 

same seamstress Sam savm sem-stres Sam 

haul holiday hau-l hol'idai 

shade shed shadow shavd shed shad'oa 

maul Moll mau-l Mol 

shale shell shall shai-l shel shal 

stalk stock stawk stok 

shame sham shai'm sham 

awful office au-fuol of'is 

late let lattice lai-t let lat'is 

wall wallow wau-l wol'oa 

leg lag leg lag 

auricle oracle au'r'ikl or^'ukl 

laoe less lacerate lavs Us las-ur'ait 

awn on au-n on 

lake lack lai-k lak 

yawn yon yawn yon 

lame lemon lamh lavm lem'en lam 

gnawed nod nau'd nod 

lane lend land lavn lend land 

fawned fond fau-nd fond 

mate met mat mai't met mat 

gaud God gawd God 

made meadow mad mavd med'oa mad 

pall pollard pawl pol-erd 

make Macclesfield mai-k Mak'lzfeeld 

wrought rot r'au't r'ot 

mace mess macerate mavs mes mas-ur'ait 

hawk hocky hawk hok'i 

male mellow mallet mai-l mel-oa mal-et 

taught totter tawt tot-er 

maim member mammal mai'm mem'ber mawel 

salt solid saw It sol-id. 

nape Neptune nap nai-p Nep-teunnap 

Weak au. 

neb nab neb nab 

net gnat net nat 

audacious audai-shus August (s.) au-gust 

snake neck knack snavk nek nak 

authority author' -iti augment fv.j augmen-t 

navy nephew navvy nai-vi neveu navi 

austere austee-r augment fs.j au-gment. 

nail knell nai'l nel 

august fad.) mtgus-t 

Remembering that air means e~u, and aver means 

ai u in two syllables, compare also 

Ex. 27. Contrast of [au, oa, o, u]. The oa 

lair, layer farr, laver 

must be quite pure, with no after-sound of oo, and 

player -plaver ; slayer slaver 

never approaching to ou. The singer may take oa 

prayer, pray-er prai'r, praver 

or ao as suits convenience of pitch ; but he must 

o bear, obey-er oa bai-r, oabaver 

then keep his ao quite distinct from au. The au 

wear, we -er wai . waver and o should be distinguished, as in Ex. 26. When 

Sec. XI, A. II. 



oa is taken short, there is a risk of confusing it 

final, as an u or u\ and treating it before a vowel 

with uu ; thus boat short, is apt to sound like buut. 

as if it were er ; that is, as if there were a per- 

This must be guarded against. The u may be 

missive trill after it. This has to be particularly 

pronounced ag uu according to convenience of 



Pronounce. Not. 

ati oa o u au oa o u 

window win'doa win'du win'der 

bought boat bott butt bau't boa't bot but 

tallow tal'oa tal'u tal'er 

caught coat cot cut kau't koa't kot cut 

yellow yel'oa yal'u yal'er 

groat Grote grot gr'au't Gr'oa't gr'ot 
abroad road rod rudder abr'au'd r'oa'd r'od r'udder 

fellow fel-oa fel'u fel'er 
mellow mel'oa mel'u mel'er 

flawed flowed Flodden.fiood.Jlau'djloa'd Flod-njlud 

tobacco toabak'oa tubak-u terbak'er 

sawed sowed sod sud sau'd soa'd sod sud 

potatoe poatai'toa putai'tu pertai'ter 

gnawed node nod nau~d noa'd nod 
nought note not nut nau't noa't not nut 

tornado taunai'doa taunai'du taunai'det 
lumbago lumbai'goa lumbai'gu himbai'gei 

sought creosote sot sutler sau't kr'eeoasoa't sot sut'ler 

( veirai'goa ) . ~ . . 
virago > veirai-gu veirai'ger 
( v^ra^ goa ) 

Ex. 28. Contrast of [oa-er, oar, au.] When 
oar is written, aou or aour is pronounced. This 
forms one syllable. But Londoners are apt to say 
auu or simply au. Guard carefully against au; 
but allow auu when convenient. An older sound 
still heard from elderly people, is oau or even oa-u' 
in two syllables, which is written oa-er or oa'er. 

sago sai'goa sai'gu i-avger 
cargo kaa'goa kaa'gu kaa-ger 
echo ek'oa ek'u ek'er 
halo hai'loa hai'lu hal'ler 
buffalo bufuloa buf-ulu buf'erler 
volcano volkai'noa volkai'nu volkai'ner 
hero hee'rr'oa hee'rru hee'rr'er 

oa-er oar au oa-er oa-r au 

Ex. 30. Contrast of [oa] and [oo]. 

blow-er Blore law bloa-er bloa'r lau 

oa oo oa oo 

ow-er ore awe oa'er oa~r au 

grove groove gr'oa-v gr'oo'v 

tow-er tore taw toa~er toa'r tau 

coat coot koa't koo-t 

go-er gore goa'er goa'r 

dome dome doa'm doo-m 

row-er roar raw r oa'er r'oa'r rau 

roam room r'oa'm r'oo'm 

ho-er hoar 4 haw hoa'er hoa'r hau 

toll tool toa-l too-l 

shew-er shore shaw shoa'er shoa'r shau 

gloaming gloomy gloa-ming gloo-mi 

low-er lore law loa'er loa'r lau 

bone boon boa'n boo'n 

sow-er sore saw soa'er soa'r saw 

noee noose noa-z noo-z 

mow-er more maw moa'er moa'r mau 

stole stool sloa'l stoo-l 

tit ow-er store stoa'er stoa'r stau 

home whom hoa-m hoo'm 

And compare 

hope hoop hoa'p hoo-p 

draw, drawer dr'au, dr'au'er (one who draws), or 

loaf aloof loa-f aloo-f 

dr'au'r (box which is drawn) ; saw, sawer sau, 

pope poop poa'p poo-p 

sau'er (one who saws) ; taw, tawer tau, tau'er (one 
who taws leatherj . 

Ex. 31. On [ooj. There is a danger of not 
beginning to say oo with the mouth sufficiently 

Ex. 29. Contrast of weak [oa] and [or.] There 

closed. This leads to oo having a sound at one 

is a habit of pronouncing words having a weak oa 

time approaching ou and at another approaching 



Sec. XI, A. II. 

eu. In all the provinces there is a habit of using 
a sound approaching eu, where the sound is written 
'u' after r These errors should be carefully 

boot boo't 

booth boo-dh 

coop koo'p 

droop dr'oo-p 

goose goo's 

hoof hoo-f 

hoot hoo't 

hoop hoo-p 

poop jt?00'j9 

roof roo'/ 

shoot shoo't 

sooth so0-A 

soothe soo'dh 








recruit rikr'oo't 

rule r'oo'J 

scruple skr'oo'pl 

truth fr'oo-^ 

truce tr'oo-s 

shrewd shr'oo'd 

rheum r'oo'm 

rue r'oo 

soup soo'p rude r'oo^d 

yOUth 2/00'^ ^M^ Generally. Occasionally. 

do doo fluke floo'k flewk 

two 00 flute floo't flewt 

move moo'V lute /oo - lewt 

lose ?o0* lieu /oo leu 

loose /oo' illumine illoo^min illeu'min 

After , ^, w, and s keep ew, when indicated, as 
tulip teu'lip tune teu'n 

tunic teu-nik Teutonic Teutorrik 

multitude mul'titeud dupe rfewjo 

durable dewrr'ubl deuce rf^ws 

dew deu neuter neu'ter 

neutral neu'tr'el new neu (not woo) 

newt neu't neucleus neu'klius 

nuisance neu'sens 

supreme seupr'ee-m (not soo, nor shoo) 
suit sewt (not *oo', nor shoo-t) 

sue *ew (not *oo, nor *Aoo) 

Susan Seu-zen (that is, Sioo f zu'n, not See'dozu'n, 

nor Soo'zu'n) 

Ex. 32. Contrast of [oo, uo, u]. 

pool, poo-l pull, puo'l (not pool, which is Fr. poule) 
fool, foo'l full, fuo'l (not fool, which is Fr. foule) 
room, r'00-m (not r'uom, as often incorrectly said) 

soon, soo-n (not suon, as often incorrectly said) 

cool, koo-l wool, wuol 

cooed, koo'd could, kuod (not koo'ld] 

wooed, woo'd would, wuod (not woo'ld] 

book, buok (not boo-k, nor book) 

brook, br'uok (not br'oo'k, nor br'ook] 

cook, ^woA; (not koo'k. nor 7coo^) 

crook, kr'uok (not kr'oo-k, nor krook) 

hook, Mo# (not Aoo-A;, nor 7ioo/c) 

nook, WMO& (not ?>oo-^, nor nook] 

good, ywod hood, huod 

wood, wuod (not wwc?, nor uod, nor oo'rf) 

foot,fuot (notfut) 

should, shuod (not *Aw^, nor shoo'ld) 

wool, wwo? (not oo- 1, nor -oo) 

cushion, kuosh'en (not kush-in) 

push, puosh (not push) 


put, J9W02 (notjow^) 
bull, *o? (not bul] 
bullet, buol-et buUy, *wo/- 

pull, ^?M0/ (not J3M?) 

pulpit, puol-pit (not pul'pit) 
bulwark, buol'werk 
bulk, *wM; (not 

Ex. 33. On long [u] or vocal [er]. Mr. 
Melville Bell distinguishes the vowel sounds in 
each of the following pairs as having e\ t r and uuj 
respectively. I recommend both vowels in each 
pair to be pronounced with u long, when strong, 
and u or u 1 short when weak. In the first set uu 
long (from which uu- tf r differs almost imperceptibly) 
would be disagreeable, in the second set it is 
endurable ; but u long sounds well in both sets. 
The context will always prevent ambiguity. In 
some provinces aer\ uur\ ae^r, uu t r are used. 

both as that is 

kernel colonel kernel ku-nu'l 

pearl purl perl pu'l 

pertinence purtenance per-tinens pwtinu'ns 

pervade purveyed pervai-d pu'vai'd 

circle surcle ser-kl su'kl 

Sec. XI, A. II. 


















Ex. 34. On the Diphthong [ei.] Except in the 
word aye, which must have aay or aa-y, all English 
ei diphthongs have the sound of uy or tfy, but 
may have aay. In the provinces, two forms are 
distinguished, the first or ey class, varying as uy, 
u-i/, uu-y, ey, aey, and the second or aay class, 
varying as aay, aa-y, ahy. Be careful that only 
one sound is used. See Ex. 15. 

Ei diphthongs of the ey class in Mid Lothian, 


pipe peip, type teip, tripe tr'eip, wipe weip 
bribe br'eib, gibejeib, kibe keib, tribe tr'eib 
bite belt, kite keit, sight seit, right r'eit 
wide weid, bide beid, bride br'eid, chide cheid, 

guide geid, hide heid, ride reiu, side seid 
dike deik, like leik, pikepeik, tike fei& 
fife /a/, life fet/, knife /, wife weif 
to wive 00 weiv, two lives 00* feivz 
blithe bleidh, lithe fei^A, scythe m^A 
dice dels, lice few, mice meis, nice m, price .pros, 

rice r'eis, trice fr'm, twice tweis, thrice *Ar'm, 

spice *pt, vice veis, wise tmz (but in Mid 

Lothian Scotch, weys) 
pile peil, tile *J, guile geil, file //, mile wtf, 

Nile Neil, vile mJ, while wheil, mild 0tt&, 

wild wriW, piled peild, filed /, tiled teild, 

beguiled biff ei' Id 

Ei diphthongs of the aay class in Scotland. 

(ay in Edinburgh.) 

cried kreid, died deid, fried /rW, lied leid, sighed 
wtrf (*yrf, when not seky'ht], spied *prf, tied 
teid, pie&peid, denied tftneu? 
size seiz, prize jt?r'az, guise geiz, otherwise udh'er- 

weiz, rise reiz 

pies j^tz, ties few, fries freiz, dries ^ms, dies deiz, 
spies piz, Ues foiz, denies dinei-z, sighs seiz, 


;, when not seky'hz], Guys Oeiz, buys beiz, 

shies sheiz 

trial trei-el, dial dei'el, vial vei-el, denial dinei-el 
buyer &?r<?r, dyer &**, fire/m*, tire feir, sire mr, 

desire dizei-r, shire sAm-, lyre fotr, liar lei-er 
And generally when <?i is final, or when ei precedes 
a vowel. This rule does not hold for English 
dialects. In aU these cases the received English 
sound is uy or a'y, and no distinction whatever is 
made. Avoid especially any approach to oi. 

Ex. 35. On the Contrast of [ai] and [ei.] In 

the East and South East of England and in 
London, the habit of pronouncing ai long, as ai'y, 
that is, ai'i with the vanish, has led to forming it 
into a diphthong of the ey class, as aiy, ey, aey, ay 
up to aay occasionally, and hence to a confusion of 
the ai and ei words. Generally those who make 
ai a diphthong of the ey class, put a diphthong of 
the aay class in all the words in Ex. 34, and hence 
prevent the confusion, which, however, is very 
conspicuous and unpleasant to the ears of those 
who do not use the vanish at all, or use it very 
slightly, keeping the ai perceptibly longer and 
slurring with a loose glide on to t. Hence the 
following distinctions must be clearly made and care- 
fuly practised by inhabitants of the East and South 
East of England and of London. At first, use e long 
for ai long for greater security against the vanish. 
The vanish ai-y is most generally used (1) at the 
end of a word, when no consonant follows, or the 
word does not join on closely to the next con- 
sonant ; thus : Will you pay ? Wil eu pai'y ? 
Will you pay me ? Wil eu pai-mi ? The in- 
flexional z, d does not take off the vanish he pays, 
he pays me, hee pai-yz, hee pai-zme ; is it weighed, 
he weighed it iz it wai-yd, hee wai'd it. (2) Be- 
fore the consonants t, d, I, n, as in fate fai-yt, 
made mai-yd, rain rai-yn. 

The vanish is generally absent when a weak 
syllable follows, as mated mai-ted, rated rai-ted, 
railed in with rails rai'ld in widh rai-ylz. 

The singer should never use the vanish. 



Sec. XI. A. II. 

ai ei ai ei 

but now ei has become extremely vulgar, and mus 

tape type tai'p teip 

therefore be studiously avoided. 

gaby gibe gai'bi jeib 

anoint pronounce as anoi'nt, not anevnt 

rate write r'ai't r'eit 

ointment oi-ntment, not ei'ntment 

played plied plai-d pleid 

oil oil, not eil 

lake like lai'k leik 

boil boil, not beil 

waif wife wai-f weif 

broil broil, not m 

wave wive wai'v weiv 

coil &oi, not keil 

lathe lithe lai'dh leidh 

foil /otJ, not feil 

mace mice mat's meis 

foist /ot*, not ./few* 

raise rise rai-z reiz 

froise froiz, not /reiz 

tail tile tai'l teil 

groin groin, not ^mw 

male mile mai'l meil 

hoise Aoiz, not heiz 

tame time tai-m teim 

hoist Aois#, not heist 

lame lime lai'm leim 

join /o*, not y^i 

pain pine pa'rn pein 

joint joint, not /(?** 

Dane dine Dai'n dein 

joist joist, not ym* (and not jeis) 

pay pie pai pel 

loin /oiw, not foiw 

bay buy bai bei 

moil moil, not wa/ 

day die dai dei 

point point, not jem< 

gay Guy ga^ gei 

poise ^?oiz, not peiz 

whey why whai whei 

poison poi'zn, not pei'zn 

way Wye wai JTei 

soil *oi/, not *ei^ 

fay fie fai fei 

spoil spoil, not */?/ 

they thy dhai dhei 

say sigh sai sei 

The following are often vulgarly mispronounced 

lay lie lai lei 

destroy destroi-, not destrei-' 

may my mai mei 

decoy dikoi', not dikei' 

nay nigh nai nei 

loyal fci'^/, not lei" el 

ray rye r'ai r'ei 

royal roi'el, not rei'el 

eh ! I ai ! ei 

voyage vor^/, not wr<?;' (nor voi-j, veij) 

Ex. 36. On the Diphthong [oi]. Generally this 
is more like au-y when final, or before a vowel, or 
voiced consonant, and more like oy before a mute 

The word " oilet " is now spelled " eyelet " from 
mistaken etymology, and is still called ei'let. Th 
word " tortoise " is generally taur-tus, but may b 

or hiss. The singer always uses au-y when it is 

tau'tus, tau'tis, tau'tiz. 

more convenient. 

sepoy see-pau'y 

Ex. 37. On the Diphthong [ou] The provin 

boy bau-y, buoy bau'y, bwawy (or boo'i], buoyed 

cial habits must be avoided. The literary sound 

bau-yd, bwau-yd (or boo-id] 

are uw, cfw, but uuw, aaw are accepted, and aht 

toy tau-y, toyed tau-yd, quoit koyt 

may be used in singing deep notes. Avoid the e\ 

coin koyn, cawing kau'ing 

class of ew (London and North Kent), aw or ai 

In the following words ei was used universally 

(both in Norfolk and Suffolk, and in South Lanca 

in place of oi from one to two hundred years ago, shire). Avoid the oaw class of oaw, aow, auu 

Sec. XI, A. II. 



uuw (more or less general in the provinces). Of 
course, avoid the provincialisms of long aa, long a, 
long oo in place of ou. Avoid using the ou diph- 
thong in place of the simple vowels au, oa. 

Provincial oo is frequent in 

down doun, town toun, crown kroun, tower tour, 
now nou, trowsers trou'zerz, how hou, flower flour, 
power pour, drown drown, cow koo, a sow a sou, 
to how too bou. 

plough plou, round round, sound sound, mound 
mound, hound hound, doubt dout, thou dhou, 
ahout abou-t, count kount, out out, a house a hous^ 
to house too houz, sour sour, flour flour, our our, 
found found, hound bound, ground gr'ound. 

Provincial ou is frequent in 
brought brau't, sought sau f t, fought fau-t, hought 

bau-t, ought au~t. nought nau't, soul soa'l, four 

focrr, pour poa-r. 
old oa-ld, cold koa'ld, sold soa-ld, told toa'ld, fold 

foa'ld, stroll stroa'l, toll tocfl, roll rocrl. 

Ex. 38. Contrast of [oa] and [ou]. Londoners 
constantly pervert the vanish oa'w into a diphthong 
of the oaw class, as oaw, uuw. This occasions no 
confusion to the speakers as they also use ew for ou. 
Hence the necessity of correcting hoth errors at 
once. The vowel in the oa column helow is to he 
called oa without any vanish, and even ao rather 
than oa-w. The ou column is to he pure uw, a'w, 
or uuw, aaw, without a shadow of rounding of the 
first element, and without a trace of the ew, aew 


ou oa 


bow (..) 

sow (v.) 
mow (v.) 

bough boa 
sow (s.) soa 
mow (s.) moa 



now noa 



row (noise) r'oa 
pouch poa'ch 
bout boa't 




bowed boa-d 



bower boa-r 



towse toa'z 


















kondoa-n doun 

koa'ch Jcouch 
koa'l koul 
goa'l goul 

foal fowl foa'l foul 

load loud loa'd loud 

The vanish is most generally used when oa is 
strong and final, not followed by a weak syllable, 
and before p, b, f, v, m, and I, but is not otherwise 
very common. Thus low loa'w, know, no noa-w, 
shew shoa-w, bowl boa-wl ; pope poa'wp, robe 
r'oa'wb, loaf loa~wf, loaves loa'wvz, roam roa-wm, 
foam foa'wm, old oa-wld, soul soa'wl. 

Ex. 39. On the Diphthong [eu]. Eu may always 
be sung wo, see Ex. 15. 

eu is yoo in 

you eu (yooj, youth eu-th (yoo'thj 
eu is ywo- in 

yew eu (ywoj, ewe eu, use eus euz, unite eunei't, 
union ewnieu. 

eu is loo' in 

pew peu (pwoj, imbue imbeu-, tune teun, dew deu, 
cue queue keu, gewgaw geu'gau, few feu, view, veu, 
thew theu, sue seu (not soo, shoo], news' ueuz, 
nuisance neu'sens, newt neu-t, and occasionally in 
lieu leu or loo, lute loo't or leu~t, illumine illoo'mw 
or illeu'min. 

eu is wo or yoo according as the preceding con- 
sonant is medial, or final, but never i, in 
monument moweument (mon'womentotmon-yooment y 

never mon'imentj, document dok-eument, regular 

reg'euler, popular pop f euler, &c. 

Ex. 40. On Murmur Diphthongs and Triph- 
thongs, or Vocal E and Trilled R'. The words 
and the classes are chiefly selected from Mr. 
Melville BeU's "Visible Speech," pp. 113116, 
but the present arrangement and treatment are in 



Sec. XI, A. II. 

accordance with the previous explanations. 
Throughout the examples strong er is meant for 
u', with permission to insert r' after it, and weak 
er is u or u, with the same permission to insert r. 
The combinations eer, air, oar, oor stand as usual 
for i-u, e'u, ao-u, uo-u, with permission to add r'. 
In the case of aar, aur, the r indicates either u or 
ur\ but may be, and frequently is, entirely omitted, 
that is, aar, aur, is aa m u, aa'ur'; awu, awur' , or even 
aa-, aw simply This orthography, therefore, is 
designedly as ambiguous as the received customs 
of pronunciation, which is still in a transitional 
state. The only important point to remember is 
that r' is not usually inserted except before a vowel, 
and, when pronounced, is very light in the extent, 
duration, and rapidity of vibration. 

1. Er, which may be uur ; that is, w, which may 

be uw. 
word werd, journey jerni, furnish fernish, spurn 


There is a tendency to pronounce these words with 
aa, as spaa'n or spaa-un for spern. This should be 

2. Er which may be e'r but not uur ; that is, 

w which may be e' m but not uw. 
myrrh met; guerdon gerdn. 

The tendency to use aa or aa-u for er in these words 
is not so strong as for No. 1, but should be avoided 
except in a few words, where it is received, as 
clerk klaa-k, Derby Daa'bi. 

3. Err', with er as in No. 1. 

recurring riker-r'ing, spurring sperr'ing, purring 
perr'ing, blurring bler-r'ing, slurring slerr'ing, 
demurring Aimer- r' ing. 

These words have occasionally only ur', as rikur'-ing, 
spurring, purging, blur'-ing, slurping, dimur''ing. 
This pronunciation is general in current kur''ent, 
recurrent rikur'-ent, occurrent okur''ent. 

4. Err , with er as in No. 2. 
preferring priferr'ing, conferring konferr'ing, 
referring riferr'ing, erring err' ing, deterring 

These words have occasionally only er' as pr if erring, 
konf erring, rif erring, er'-ing. This pronunciation 
is general in errant er''ent, errand er'-end, deterrent 
diter' -ent. 

5. Ee'r, that is, i f u, or rur' with light r. No 

Englishman says ee-r', no foreigner says eer. 

near nee-r, beer bee m r, here hee~r, we're wee-r, 
pier peer. 

6. Ee'rr', that is, i-ur . No Englishman says err', 
which is a Scotch and American and foreign 
usage ; no foreigner says ee-rr'. 

eyry ee'rr'i, era ee'rr'u, weary wee'rr'i, peeress 
pee m rr'es. Never ee'r'i, ee'r'u, wee-r'i, pee'r'es. 

7. Ai-r, that is, e'ii or e'ur* with light r' the pro- 
nunciation ai'u is provincial or vulgar, foreigners 
use e'r' not e'ur'. 

care kai'r, pair pai'r, air ai'r, prayer prai-r, there 
their dhai'r, bear bai'r, mare mayor, vnai'r (not 
mai'r', mai'er). 

8. Ai'rr' that is, e-ur ; never ai'r', which is pro- 
vincial or vulgar in England, but is heard in 
Scotland and America ; foreigners say both ai'r' 
and e'r', never e'ur'. 

canary kunai'rr'i, fairy fai'rr'i, therein dhai'rr'in, 
bearing bai-rr'ing. 

9. Oa'r, that is, ao'u or ao'ur' with light r ; to sa> 
oa-u is provincial or antiquated ; to say oa-er is a 
mistake (Ex. 28) ; to say au is bad, but au-u is 
sometimes used; oar', aor' is foreign. 

boar boa'r, o'er oa'r, door doa-r, floor jloa-r, borne 
boa'rn (but born is bawrn or bawn], torn toa-rn, 
sore soa-r, corps koa~r, pour poa'r, towards 
toa-rdz (also to^-wawdz). 

Sec. XI, A. II. 


10. Oa-rr' that is, ao-ur' ; never say oa~r\ ao-r' 
which is Scotch, American, or foreign ; no 
foreigner uses oa-rr' ; avoid awr\ 

glory gloa-rr'i (not gloa-r'i, much used by older 
clergymen and ministers), soaring soa-rr'ing, 
pouring poa-rring. 

11. Oo-r, that is, uo'ii or uo-ur" with light r 1 ; never 
oo'u or oo'ur ', which is provincial, antiquated, or 
vulgar ; no foreigner says uo'ur* , hut only oo'r'. 

poor poo- r, moor MOOT, tour foo'r, sure shoo'r (or 
shewr], lure foo'r (or lewr], allure afoo-r (or 

12. Oo'rr', that is, wo-eV ; never ooV, which is 

Scotch or American. 

poorer poo'rr'er, surer shoo'rr'er (or sheu'rr'er), 
assuring ashoo-rring (or ashewrr'ing), tourist 

13. ^wr, that is, when following consonants iuo-u 
or twur', with faint r' ; and when initial yuo-u, 
yuo-ur'', yiuo'u, or yiuo'ur' 1 ; never WOT', which is 

cure kewr, pure pewr, endure endewr, immure 
immewr, your ewr (ywu), ewer ewr (yiuo'u in 
one syllable). 

14. Ewrr' , that is, after consonants 'iuo'ur', 

never ewr'. 

iwcyfewrr'i, purer peu-rr'er, enduring endetrrr'ing, 
immuring immeu'rr' ing. 

15. Aa-r, that is, permissively aa-u or aa'ur' with 
light r\ but more generally <r, and very rarely 
aa-r' ; never aar\ which is Scotch, provincial, or 

hard haa'd (or haa-rd), clerk klawk (or klaaTk]y 
some say ^^rA; (especially in America), heart 
haa't (or haa'rt), guard gaa'd (or gaa-rd}. 

16. Aa-rr\ that is, permissively ea-^r' with light 
r', but more generally aa-r, never aar', which is 
foreign or provincial. 

starry staa-r'i (or staa'rr'i), tarry (covered with 
tar) taa-ri (or taa'rr'i, the verb tarry is tar'-i}. 


17. ^iwr, that is, permissively au-u or au-ur\ 
but more generally w, and very rarely au m r' ; 
never awr', or, dor 1 ; before a vowel, r' is com- 

war wau (or wau-r ; but " the "War Office " dhi 
Wawr 1 Of -is}, ward wau'd (or wawrd}, swaim 
swau-m (or swau-rm), dwarf dwau-f (or ^M r/^/, 
extraordinary ek straw diner* i (or ekstr aw r diner' i], 
G-eorge /awy ior Jau-rjJ, order au-der (or 
auTder), born iww (or bawrn, not boa-rn. See 
No. 9.) 

18. Au'rr' , that is, permissively wwr', but. 

generally awr'. 

warring wau'r'ing (or wau'rring, some say 
wording], abhorring ab-hau'r 'ing ^or ab-hau-rr'ing^ 
many say ab-hor'iny, all say ab-hor'-enf). 

19. .Sir, that is, ^zw or (?iw/ with light r' ; never 
0ir', which is foreign ; avoid ei'er. 

Grefeir (in one syllable, not J 'ei'er in two syllables), 
lyre lelr (not lever, which is "liar"), quire, 
choir kweir (not kwei'er, the pronunciations 
kawyer, koa'er, koi'er, are modern and ortho- 
graphical; chorister kor^'ister used to be quir- 
ister kwir''ister], hire heir (but higher hever). 

20. Ei m rr', that is, ei-ur' ', or erwr' ; never eV, 
which is Scotch or American. 

wiry, wiery werrr'i, vxwei'ur'i (not wei'r'i), fiery 
fei-rr'i, orfei'ur'i (not /err' i). 

21. Owr, that is, owu or ou'ur* with light r' ; never 

owr', which is foreign ; avoid ou-er. 
hour our (not ower], power pour or power], 

ourselves oursel'vz, ours owrz, flour ,/fowr, flower 


22. Owrr' that is, owur', or owu ; never owr\ 
dowry dowrr'i (not dowur'i nor dowr'i), flowery 
flowrr'i (or flowur'i, not flowr'i], showery 
showrr'i (or sAowwr'i, 



Sec. XI, A. III. 

Weak Syllables. 

23. J2r, that is, u or ', with an r only when a 
vowel follows ; to use an r' in other cases has a 
pedantic or foreign effect ; even in the provinces 
when r' is used it is very light indeed ; but in 
place of u or u 1 some speakers use aa, especially 
when the writing is ' ar.' When this is not 
orthographical (and therefore pedantic) it is 
very vulgar ; any attempt to discriminate the 
vowels according to the orthography is contrary 
to the present stage of development of the 
language, those who do so, ought to trill their r' 
final and make a new pronunciation altogether. 

paper pai-per, circuitous serkeu-itus, answer aa'nser, 
martyr maa-ter, altar, alter awlter, grammar 
gram'er, particular pdatik-euler (pertik'euler, 
pertik'ler are both vulgar), peculiar pikeu'lier ; 
spectator spektai'ter, tailor tavler, razor rai'zer, 
orator or''uter ; azure azh'er (or ai-zher, azh-eur, 
ai'zheur), fissure Jish'er (or Jish'eur, Jis-eur), 
measure mez'her, nature nqi'teur (or nai'cher, 
nai'cheur, but not nai'ter, which, formerlv correct, 
is now vulgar), feature fee-teur (or fee'cher, 
fee'cheur, notfee'ter'), stature stat'eur (or stach'er, 
stach'eur, not stat-er), figure fig'er (oijig-eur). 

24. eur, that is, iuoii or twowr', rarely used. See 

last Examples to No. 23. 

25. aa, written "ar," has entirely lost the r' in 
weak syllables, but has not sunk to er when pre- 
ceding the strong syllable. 

barbarian baabai'rr'ien, particular paatifreuler 
partake paatai'k, marquee maakee-. 

26. au, written " or," has entirely lost the r' in 
weak syllables, but has not sunk to er when pre- 
ceding the strong syllable. 

ornate aunai-t, ordain audai'n, organic augan'ik 
orthography authog-rufi, orthoepy authoa'ipi. 

Ex. 41. On words of Two Syllables apt to be 
Pronounced as words of One Syllable. When a long 
vowel or diphthong is followed by a short weak or 

' and a consonant, there is a tendency first to speak 
it with the long vowel or diphthong as a murmur 
diphthong or triphthong, and then to omit it 
altogether, thus quiet kwei-et becomes kwei'ut and 
then kweit, and real ree-el becomes ree-ul and then 
ree-L The following contrasts should be studied. 

dyad dei'ed 
dryad dr'ei'ed 
triad tr 'ei'ed 
Dyak Dei'ek 
Troad Tr'oa-ed 
dial dei'el 
vial vei'el 
denial dinei'el 
trial tr'ei'el 
real r'ee'el 
really r'ee-eli 
diet dei'et 
quiet kwei-et 
riot r'ei'et 
bias bei'es fbevus) 

died deid 

dried dr'eid 

tried tr'eid 

dyke deik 

trowed tr'oa-d 

crocodile krok-oadeil 

vile veil 

the Nile dhi Neil 

rile r'eil 

reel r'ee'l 

reeling See' ling 

indict indei-t 

quite kweit 

rite r'eit 

bice beis 

diamond dei-umend (not dei-meri) dime deim 

Ex. 42. On the Mixed and Consonant Glides. 
This Exercise is to be formed from the G-lossic 
Index, Section XII. Every English vowel is there 
found in connection with every English consonant 
which glides to or from. it. Examples of all the 
consonant glides are also given in the preceding 
lists of Initial and Final Combinations. 


The following Exercises 43 to 46 are taken 
from the examples on pp. 11611167 of my 
"Early English Pronunciation," where I have 
entered on the subject at greater length than is 
here necessary. 

Ex. 43. On Terminations involving E, L, M, 

N. What is the precise vowel really uttered io 
the indistinct weak syllables el, em, en, er, has not 
been satisfactorily determined. But u, u', e' may 
be used, and as w is now the strong sound of er, it 
is most convenient for the singer to take w, which 

Sec. XI, A. III. 



must only slur, that is glide loosely, not tightly, on 
to the following consonant. This is expressed in 
English Glossic by writing the sound with e. If a 
real e sound is distinctly heard, there will he a 
slight strengthening, which will be written by 
putting () after the following consonant. When 
any other vowel is written (as u) it is supposed to 
glide on tightly to the following consonant. Hence 
if men-shun (mention) were written, the shun would 
be as distinct as in men shun (men shun), but 
wen's hen would have the indistinct sound. 
-and. Husband huz-bend, brigand brig-end, head- 
land hed'lend, midland mid- lend. 
-end. Dividend dividend (or dividend], legend 

lej-end (or lee" j end j. 

-Ond. Diamond dei-umend, almond aa'mend. 
lind. Rubicund roo-bikund, jocund jok-und. 
-aid. Haggard hag-erd, niggard nig-erd, sluggard 
slug-erd, renard ren'erd, leopard lep-erd, or more 
nearly hag-ed (not hayed-), &c., never hag-ard, &c. 
-erd. Halberd hal-berd, shepherd shep-erd (not 

shep-herd], or more nearly hal'bed, shep-ed. 
ance. Guidance gei'dens, dependance dipen'dens, 
abundance abun-dens, clearance klee'rr'ens, tem- 
perance tem-pur'ens, ignorance ig-nur'ens (we 
might write tem-perr'ens, ig-nerr'ens, meaning the 
same), resistance rizis'tens ; never use ans. 
ence. Licence lei-sens, confidence kon-fidens, 
dependence dipen'dens, patience pai-shens ; never 
use ins. 

-SOme. Meddlesome med'lsem, irksome erksem, 

quarrelsome kwor'-elsem ; sum is sometimes used. 

Slire. Pleasure plezh'er, measure mezh-er, leisure 

lezh'er, (or lee-zherj, closure kloa'zher, fissure 

fish-er (mfish-eur,jis-eur}. See p. 138, No. 23. 

tlire. Creature kree'teur (or kree-cher), vulture 

vul-teur (orvul-cher), venture ven-teur (orven-cher, 

not ven-ter], furniture fer-niteur (or fer-nicher, 

not fer'niter) , verdure ver-deur and verger ver-jer 

are usually both ver-jer. 

al. Cymbal sim-bel, radical radi'kel, logical loj-ikel, 
cynical sin'ikel, metrical met-rikel, poetical 
poaet-ikel, medial mee-diel, lineal lin-iel, victuals 
vifelz (or vit'lz] ; the distinction between el and I 

in these words may be pedantic, but the singer 
chooses u'l in all cases. 

-el. Camel kam-el, pannel pan-el (or pan-el-}, 
apparel apar'-el (or apar'-el-}. 

am. Madam mad-em (mad-am- is coming into use 
among shop assistants), quondam kwon-dem, 
Clapham Klap-em. 

Om. Freedom free-dem (emphatically yr^'^ww or 
free'dom], seldom sel'dem, fathom fadh-em, venom 

an. Suburban suber-ben, logician loajish-en, his- 
torian histoa-rr'ien, Christian Kris-tyen (or 
Kris-chen\ metropolitan met-roapol'iten, woman 
wuom-en (never wuom-an, see -en), watchman 
woch-men (or woch-man, watchmen is often, not 
always, wotch'men-}, countryman kun-trimen 
(sometimes -man, and sometimes plural kun'tri- 

-en. Garden gaa'dn, children chil'drin, linen 
lin-in, woollen wuol-in, women wim-in or wim-en ; 
great variety of usage in this termination, 
speakers who are not readers use n only ; singers 
should use u'n except when in is imperative. 

-On. Deacon dee-kn, pardon paa-dn, fashion/s^-ew, 
minion min'yen, occasion okai'zhen, passion 
pash-en, vocation voakai-shen, question kwest-yen 
(kwes-chen, not kwes-shen, kwesh-enj, felon fel-un. 

-ern. Eastern ee-stern, cavern kavern; no r', not 
different from ee-sten, kaven. 

-ar. Vicar vik-er, cedar see'der, vinegar vin'iger, 
scholar skol-er, secular sek-euler. 

er. Robber rob-er, chamber chai-mber, member 
mem'ber, render ren'der. 

Or. Splendor splen-der, superior seupee-rr'ier, 
tenor ten-er, error er'-er, actor ak-ter, victor 

OUr. Labour lai'ber, neighbour nai'ber, colour 
kul-er, favour/rv^r. 

-ant. Pendant pen-dent, infant in'fent, quadrant 
kwod-rent, truant troo-ent. 

ent. Innocent in-oasent (not in-ersent, in-usent , 
quiescent kweies-^nt, president prez'ident. 

-ancy. Infancy in-fensi, tenancy ten'ensi, con- 
stancy kowstensi. 



Sec. XI. A. 

ency. Decency dee-sensi, currency kur'-ensi, 
tendency ten'densi. 

-ary. Beggary beg-ur'i, summary sumur'i, gran- 
ary gran-ur'i, notary noa-turi, literary lit'ur'er'i 
(or lit'ur'ur'i); we might write beg-err'i, &c., 
meaning the same. 

-ery Robbery rob-ur'i, bribery brei'bur'i, gunnery 
gun-uri ; we might as before write rob-err'i, 
meaning the same. 

Ory. Priory prei' ur' i (prei'oari and prei'ori are 
pedantic, especially the last), cursory ker-suri, 
victory vik'tur'i (vik'toar'i is very pedantic), 
history his-tu'ri (his-toar'i arid his- tori are inven- 
tions), oratory or'-utur'i (or or'-utor'i], prepara- 
tory pripar'-utur'i (or -tori). 

-ury. Usury eu-zhur'i, luxury luk-shur'i (luk-seur'i 
is more heard than ett'feur'i), 

Ual. Usual eu-zheuel, manual man'euel (sometimes 
?, man'i/elj. 

Ex. 44. On other Weak Endings. 

-a. Sofa soa-fa, idea eidee-a, sirrah sir' -a. Here 
-a is written in English Grlossic, although -er is 
commonly said, because no subsequent r' is at all 
permissible, and because the pronunciation a' is 
not only permissible, but not unfrequent, as 
soa-fa', eidee'a', sir' 'a', and esteemed elegant, but 
not pedantic. See p. 54. 

-OW -OUgh.. Hero hee'rr'oa, stucco stuk'oa, 
Tpot&koepoatai-toa, tobacco tubak-oa, widow wid'oa, 
yellow yeloa, fellow / 'el- oa, sorrow soroa, sparrow 
apar'-oa, borough bur'-oa, (or most commonly 
bur'-uj ; in the other words -er or -u is inadmis- 
sible, and -err before vowels is extremely vulgar. 

-lie, -6W. Value val-eu (not val'i), nephew neveu 
not (nevi~). 

-iff, -OCk. Sheriff sher''if, bannock ban-uk, haddock 
had-uk, paddock pad'uk; never -M, as in Scotland. 

-ach -ac- Stomach stum'ukj lilach lei'luk (lai'luk 
is old), maniac mai-niak. 

acy, icy. Prelacy prel-usi, policy pol'isi (not 
pol'usij , obstinacy ob'stinesi, 

-ate. (1) I n nouns. Laureate lau-r'iet, frigate 
frig-et (often frig-it), figurate Jig-euret (2) In 

verbs, when the principal accent is not on the 
next preceding syllable, as demonstrate dew- 
enstrait, illustrate il-ustrait ; those who place 
the principal accent on the next preceding 
syllable say dimon-stret, ilus-tret ; custom is un- 
fixed ; the latter is beginning to prevail. 

-age. Village vil-ej (or vil-ij), image im-ej ( or 
im'ij], manage man-ej (or man'ijj , cabbage kab.ej 
(or kab-ifj, marriage mar'-ij, carriage kar'-ij. 

-Cge. Privilege privilij (not privulijj, college 

-ain, -in. Certain sertin (some say sertri), Latin 
Lat'in (some say Ijat'n), captain kap'tin^ (kap'ten t 
not kap'n, kap'ting}. 

-ing. Singing sing- ing (not sing-gingg), being 
bee'ing (not bee'ingg} ; any use of -ir>, or -ing;/, or 
-ingk, is provincial or vulgar now. 

-fill. Mouthful mou-thfuol, sorrowful sor''oafuol 
(not -fel], cheerful chee-rfuol (often cherfel). 

-fy. -ize Terrify ter'-ifei, signify sig-nifei civilize 
sivileiz, baptize baptei-z ; the ei is quite clear. 

-it, -id, -ive, -ish. Pulpit puol-pit, rabbit rab'it, 
rabid rab'id, restive res'liv, parish par'- is h; the 
i is quite clear. 

-il. Evil ee-vl, devil dew I ; the pronunciation 
ee-vil, devil is orthographical, and contrary to 
general modern and ancient usage. 

y, ~ly, -ty, Mercy m^r'K, truly tr'oo-li, pity pit'i; 
the i is unobscured, and not i' in general speech ; 
tr'oo-lei should be avoided. 

-mony. Harmony haa-muni, matrimony mat-ri- 
muni (or -moani, -moni], testimony tes-titmtni (or 
-moani, -moni). 

-most. Hindmost hei'ndmust, utmost tit-must^ 
bettermost bet-umu*t, foremost foa-rmust ; in con- 
scious utterance -moast is often used. 

-ness. Sweetness swee-tnes, rather than swee'tnis, 
the * generally saves the vowel. 

-teous. Righteous, piteous, plenteous, are pro- 
nounced by me rei'tyus, pit'yus, plen-tyus, but 
perhaps this is pedantic, and I hear generally 
rerchus,pich-us orpich-ius, plen-chus or plen-chius. 

-ioilS. Precious presh'us, prodigious proadij-us. 

Sec. XI, A. III. 



ial, -ialty, -iality. Official ofish-el, partial 
paa-shel, partiality paa'shial'iti, special spesh'el 
(not spee'sheT), specialty spesh-elti, speciality 
spesh-ial'iti. All the -ial- are orthograpical. 

-Ward. Forward faw werd (not for' -ud) , backward 
bak'werd (not bak'udj, awkward au'kwerd not 
au-kudj, upward up- werd, downward dou'nwerd, 
froward froa-erd, toward toa'erd, towards toa'rdz 
(or toowau'dz). 

wise. Likewise lei-kweiz, sidewise sei'dweiz. 

Wife . Midwife mid- if, housewife huz'if, goodwif e 
guod'i ; mid'weif, hou'sweif, guod'weif are ortho- 
graphical ; huz-i is also used for a needlecase or 

-wich. Greenwich Grin- if, Woolwich Wuol'ij, 
Norwich Nor' -if, Ipswich Ip-sij (locally, Ip-swich 
orthographically ) . 

eth. Speaketh spii'keth ; this termination being 
obsolete, the pronunciation is orthographical. 

ed, -ied. Pitted pit-ed, pitied pit' id, added ad-ed ; 
-ed, -id, -i'd are all heard. 

CS, -*S, -S. Princes, prince's prin'sez (or -iz, -i'z), 
churches, church's cher'chez (or -iz, -i'z}, paths 
paa-dhz, path's paa'dhs, cloth's, cloths Moths, 
clothes Jcloa'dhz (as a verb), kloa-z (generally, as 
a substantive) 
Ex. 45. On Weak Beginnings. 

a-. (1) When two pronounced consonants follow, 
accept aksep't, advance advaa'ns, admire admei'r, 
alcove alkoa'v ; a clear a. (2) When only one 
pronounced consonant follows, generally very in- 
distinct u or u'-, as among u-mung", alas u-laa-s^ 
adapt u-dap-t ; but great variety of pronuncia- 
tion prevails, a, a, being also used as amung-, 
alaa's, adap-t, the following consonant being 
often taken as medial ; hence in English Grlossic 
a is used ; ai must never be said. 

6-, be-, de~, re-, when only one pronounced 
consonant follows, is generally i, rarely ee ; 
decent dee' sent, descent disen't or deesewt, dissent 
disen't or dissen't ; emerge imer'j or eemer-j 
immerge imer-j or immer'j; elope iloa'p or eeloa-p, 
event iven't or eeven-t ; the initial e, de, re, be is 
either i or ee, not e, except before s and another 

consonant, as despair despai-r, respond respon'd , 

eclipse eklip's, or i-klip-s. 
bi-. bei- or bi-, usage varies in the same word, 

all such words being classical, bicycle bei-seikl, 

di-. dei- or di-, usage varies in the same word, 

as direct deirek't, direk't, divide divei'd always, 

diversity deiver-siti, diversiti. The dei is always 

0-. pro-, &o. Oblige, obliged oablei'j, oablei'jd 

(oablee-j, oablee'cht are old), occasion okai'zhen, 

oppose opoa-z, promote proamoa't produce (v.) 

proadeu's, propose proapoa'z, but use varies in 

to-. To-morrow toomor''oa (or tu-mor''oa, not 

termor'-erj, together toogedh'er. 
for-, fore-. Forbid faubid', forgive faugiv, forego 

foar'goa, foretell foartel', but the two last have 

also frequently fau-. 

Ex. 46. On Weak Words. The order is that of 
the frequency of the commonest English words 
given in Mr. D. Nasmith's "Practical Linguist, 
English," 1871. The clear sound is given first and 
the obscure ones afterwards, u being used for the 
obscure vowel ; a dash ( ) separates the two. The 
indistinctness of our weak monosyllables is not 
confined to colloquial pronunciations. It pervades 
the most solemn declamations of the pulpit, and is 
as a rule most conspicuous where the strong 
syllables are most forcible. But for the mere 
singer this is of no consequence. He has to sing 
the words in their clear pronunciation, or the usual 
singing substitutes for it. In ordinary Glossic 
only the clear pronunciation is written. The 
Examples under ' to ' and ' that ' will shew the 
effect of writing indistinct monosyllables, as is 
always necessary where it is wished to convey a 
conception of the actual treatment of sentences by 
a speaker, as for example, in writing dialects. The 
clear pronunciation is a literary artificiality, which 
the reader has to learn how to overcome, but which 
conveys the sense better when the words are taken 
separately (as in a baby's lesson book), and hence 



Sec. XI, A. III. 

is better suited to the wants of the singer, who 

cannot possibly join his words together as a speaker 


and. And und, un, n, nh, scarcely heard at all. 

the. Dheedhl, dhi', dhy-, dh-, dhe, dhu. In 

singing, use dhi before a vowel, and either dhi 

or dhu before a consonant. 
I. El does not change, but becomes extremely 

yOU. Yoo yoo, yuo, yu ; following t, d it often 

changes them more or less completely into ch,j. 
he. See hee, hi, ee, i ; the aspirate is constantly 

lost when ' he ' is enclitic. 
she. 8 hee shee, shi, sh. 
it. It does not vary. 
We. Wee wee, wi, the w is never lost. 
tkey. Dhal'y dJiai, dhe, but not dhu. 

have. Sav huv, uv, v. 

Will. Wilwul, wl, I. 

Shall. Shalshl, shlh. 

CUB. Wun wun obscure, the form un is common, 
but not received. 

to. Too too, tuo, tu; never too, (as often in 
America) ; Ex., I gave two things to two men; 
and he gave two, too, to two, too, 'El gai'v -too 
thlngz tu-too' men, un 'hee gai'v too' too''tu-too' 
too-', where (') represents a secondary accent. 

be. Bee bee, bi, bu. 

there. Dhai'r dhu, and before vowels dhai'rr', 
dfierr' , dher', dhur'. 

a. Ai'y Hi, a", u, generally u. Before a vowel 
an un. Before h beginning a weak syllable an, 
as a history, an historical account, an harangue, 
u his'tur'i, an'htstor' 'ikel akou'nt, an'hur'ang, in 
which case be very careful not to omit the h. 

my, Mel ml. 

frig. Sizs, hiz hiz, iz. \ 

OTir. On r this is unchanged. 

your. Yoo ' ryu, yer, yerr' . 

her. Her u, er. 

their. 2) hair dhu, before vowels dhai'rr', dherr\ 
dher', dhur'. 

of. Ov uv,u, some old speakers use of. 

WOUld. Wuod wd, d. 

should. Shuod slid. 

Or. Au, aur, or' au, aur', u, ur', the r' only 
before a vowel, the au most frequent Similarly 
for ' nor.' 

for. Fau, faur', for' fatt, faur', fu, fur, the r' 
only before a vowel. 

that. JDhat dhut, dht ; the demontrative pro- 
noun is always distinct, the conjunction and 
relative almost always obscure, as : I know that, 
that that that that man said is not that that that 
one told me, El-noa- that, dht -that- dht-dhat man'' 
sed iz'nt 'dhat dht-dhat' wun toa'ld-mi. 

On. On always clear. 

do. D doo, duo, uo. 

which. Which, wlch ivhch, wch ; in London, 
wich wch are most common, but which whch 
are considered more ' correct.' 

who. Hoo hoo, huo, uo. 

by. Bei generally kept pure, but becomes very 

them. JDhem dhm ; also m or em from the old 
' hem,' but thought ' inelegant ' by those who are 
unacquainted with ' hem.' 

me. Mee mee, ml, mu, but mu is perhaps an 
Irishism, as in, to me, from me, with me, too'mu, 
from'mu, wldh-mu. 

Were. Wal-r, wai-rr', wer' wer, wu. 

with. Wldh, with wl, generally kept pure, with 
is heard from older speakers. 

into. In' too, intoo' in' too, In'tu. 

Can. Kan kn. 

cannot. Kan-ot, kaa-nt not changed. 

from. Fromfrum. 

as. Azs, az uz, z. 

US. Us us. 

sir. Sersu. 

madam. Mad-am mam, mem, mlm, mum, m--?n, 
m. Here m-^-m is a slur, m being continued with 
a slight reduction of force, as noa-m--m,yes'm-~m. 

Ex. 47. On Alternations of Strong and Weak 
Syllables. This is properly rather for the speaker 
than the singer, who is at the mercy of the com- 
poser. This Exercise is confined to the 28 typical 

Sec. XI, A. III. 



words of rnore than one syllable in Mr. Melville 
Bell's " New Elucidation of tlie Principles of 
Speech," 1849, p. 227, a work full of most useful 
Exercises, but they are treated in a somewhat 
different way. The laws of force accent, the 
change of position of the strong syllable in course 
of time, the differences between the English and 
foreign systems of accentuation are not considered. 
The words are written in common English Glossic, 
the lengths of the vowels (not of the syllables) are 
distinguished by the long, medial, and short marks. 
The slurs are written, but the accent-marks are 
omitted. After the word is placed a series of 
numbers, giving the relative force of the syllables 
according to a scale of nine grades, of which, how- 
ever, only five are retained, which may be named 
and compared with musical terms thus : 

faint weak mean strong violent 

pp P mf f ff 

In several cases different varieties of force are 
given, showing different modes of reading. 

2 syllables in a word. 

wayward wdiwerd 7 3 

away u~wdi 3 7 

3 syllables in a word. 

temperate tempu--r'et 715 

remember r'l-^nembu 171 

recommend r'ekw-$-mend 517 

or, r'ekommend 757 

4 syllables in a word. 

temporary tempH^~r J er^ 7151 

or, tempu-7-r'ii-r*'i 7111 

contemporal kontempu-^el 3711 

or, kiintempu-^-rel 1711 

or, kontempoa-^-r'el 3731 

contemplation kontempldishen 3171 or 3371 

misunderstand misundu-^-stdnd 3317 

or with mis emphatic 7315 or 7317 

superintend seupti+r'tntend 5137 or 7135 

5 syllables in a word. 

necessariness neseseri-r-nes 73313 

inveterately invetu-^-r'etli 17131 

sometimes 37131 

anatomical dnu-^-tomi-^-kel 31711 

subordination subdudl-^-ndishen 15171, or 17150 
or 3 3 1 7 1, or 3 1 1 7 1, or 7 1 1 5 1 
never su-^-bdu, better sub-^-du. 

epigrammatic epi-^-grvr^-mat'ik 51173, or 71153 

or, ept~(jfram-~atik 
6 syllables in a word, 
unnecessarily unneseser 1-^- 



or 7 5 3 3 

disingenuously dtsin-~feneu-$~iisPi 5373 

or 7 3 5 3 

superabundantly seupu-~r'u~bundentli 5117 

extemporaneous ekstempoa-^-r'dinius 3537 

or 7 3 3 5 

personification pu-^-soni-^-fi-^-kdishen 15117 
or, p\ 

antipestilential anti-^-pest1-~lenshel 

7 syllables in a word, 
inconsiderableness ? 


or, mkon-r- 6571113 

invalitudinary mvali-r-teudi-i-ner'i 3517131 

or 3 5 1 7 1 1 1 1, or 5 1 1 7 1 1 1 

impracticability tmpr -akti-^-ku-^-bili-^-ti 3511711 

or 5 5 1 1 7 1 1 

indestructibility mdestrukti+bin+ti 5351711 
intercolumniation \ntu-^-ki^-lumni^-dishen 


8 syllables in a word, 
incommunicability * 

or, inkommeu 
incomprehensibility tn-j-kompi 



9 syllables in a word, 


It is thus seen that long words are practically 
divided into several short words by subordinate 
degrees of force, and that it is very rare to have 
more than two faint or pp syllables together. 



Sec. XI, B. 


Ex. 48. On the Elementary German Speech- 
sounds. The following words contain all the 
German sounds, excluding the implodents, which are 
considered a provincialism, and the post-aspirated 
forms of the mutes, which are not acknowledged. 
The learner should hear the following words 
pronounced frequently by Germans, and then 
endeavour to imitate their pronunciation with 
the assistance of the explanations already given. 


ee. Lieb lee'p, ihn ee-n, mir mee'r 1 (not mee-rr'), 
lilie lee-lee-u, hin hee-n. 

di. Ewig ai'v'eeky'h, gegen gai'gy'hen (or gai'geri], 
dem dai-m. No trace of any vanish ai'y. 

ae. Seele zae-lu, wer v'ae'r', thrane trae-nu, leben 
lae-ben. In the middle of Germany all these 
words are pronounced with ai', and the English 
speaker is advised not to attempt to use ae' long 
in any word, but before r' he may use his 
visual e\ 

da. Wahr v'aa'r', sah zaa', schaf shaa'f, hahn 
haa'n, name naa'mu. This vowel is very com- 
monly pronounced ah', but as aa- is theoretically 
assumed and always admissible, it may be 
exclusively used by Englishmen. 

da. Schoos shoa's, ohne oa'nu, sog zoa'gh, rose 
roa-zu. No trace of any vanish oa'w must be 
heard, and even ao- may be used for oa. 

do. Schuh shoo-, fuss foo's, nur noo'r' (not noo' rr'), 
ruthe roo-tu, muth moo't, thun too'n, gut goo-t. 

ue. Miihe mueu, luge lue-gy'hu (or lue-gu], siihne 
zue-nu, giite gue-tu, triibe tr'-ue-bu. Often 
vulgarly pronounced as ee\ 

to. Goethe Geo'tu, ohl eo'l, hofe heo'fu, hohe heo'u, 
hohnen heo'nen, hoflich heo-fieeky' 'h. Often 
vulgarly pronounced as ai'. 


ie. Ich eeky'h, mit meet, bitte beet'u, sitz zeets. 
This is often pronounced i in the North of 
Germany, and hence Englishmen may use i, aa 
more convenient to their organs. 

e. Halten haal-ten, schaufel shaawfel. Occurs only 
in such syllables, and even there is frequently 
lost, or spoken as u\ as which it should be sung. 

ae. Netz naets, senf zdet/f, bellen bdel-en, wasche 
v&esh'u, hemd hdemt, strenge sh'traeng-u. This 
may, however, always be pronounced e without 
danger of ambiguity and without offence. No 
sueh distinction as di, ae is now made. 

da. Kalt Malt, flachs fldaTcs, mann mdan, f&ssfdas, 
anfall da'nfdal or aa-nfdal. This is often pro- 
nounced dh, but da is the theoretical pronuncia- 
tion, and easiest for Englishmen. 

do. Holtz, hdolts, voUfdol, von fdon, kopf /cdo^f, 
schloss shldos In the North of Germany the 
vowel is o, which may be always used by 

ii. Hiite hwtu, alles dal-us, wasser v'das-ur', and 
all similar unaccented final syllables, but some 
Germans use pure di or e. 

uo. Und uont, hund huont, jung yuong, nuss nuos, 
busch buosh. Some Germans say oo. 

ue. Fiille fuel-u, kiisse kues-u, hiitte huet'u, riicken 
ruek'en, miinz muents. In many parts of 
Germany this sound is confused with ee or i. 

oe. Bocke boek-u, holle hoel'u, rockchen roek-ky'hen, 
kopfe koepf-u, In many parts of Germany this 
sound is confused with ae or e. 


aay. Eile aaylu, eis aays, weise v'aayzu, hain 
haayn, klein klaayn. In some parts of Germany 
a distinction is made, and "ei" is pronounced 
aey, or ey, but " ai " is pronounced aay ; 

Sec. XI, B. 



but this is not usual. The theoretical pronuncia- 
tion is always aay, which should be used, but ahy 
is very common ; the English uy, a'y may be used. 

oy. Eule oylu, freund froynd, leute loytu. This 
is the pronunciation of many parts of Germany, 
and the one generally used on the stage, but one 
theoretical sound is aaue, which I cannot re- 
collect to have heard, and another aoue, which 
has equally escaped my notice. The greater 
number of German speakers, however (all those 
who use ai, ee for oe, ue], say ahy, which is not 
recommended . 

aaw. Aue aawu, grausam graawzdam, haus haaws, 
for which sound the English uw, a'w (but not 
daw, uuw, and never ew, aew) may be used; 
many Germans say ahw. 


h. Hand hdant, is always the jerked gradual 
glottid or hi, and is never omitted even by the 
commonest speakers. 


p. Pack paak, pacht paakht, papst paa-pst. 
Almost all German words beginning with p are 
of foreign origin, the proper initial is pf ^a 
descendant of p-fy, still said, as p-hjdak}, or b. 

b. Band bdant, bald b&alt, bild beelt. For this and 
for p in middle Germany the implodent b is 
used ; no Englishman should imitate this error. 

t (or rather f , but Englishmen need not trouble 
themselves to make the difference, as no 
ambiguity can arise from using t), tadel taa-del, 
tand tdant, taugeu taawghen (or taawgeri], thier 
tee-r' (not tee-rr"), theil taayl, theuer toyr' (not 
toyrr'J, thor toa'r' (not toa-rr*}, trotz trdots ; the 
custom of using t-hj, which should not be imi- 
tated, has generated ts (or rather fs* , but the 
difference is unimportant) which is a very 
frequent initial, as zu tsoo, ziel tsee'l, zaun tsaawn, 
zorn tsaor'n. 

t (or rather a", see ), du doo, die dee, ding deeng, 
durch duor'ky'h, durst diior'st; the implodent d, 

common in middle Germany for both t and d, 
should not be imitated. 

ch. Deutsch doych, puntzsch puonch, patzsche 
pdach'u, klatschen Jcl&ach'en ; uncommon, and 
seldom used except at the end of words ; j does 
not occur. 

k. Kamm Jcaam, kase kai'ztt (or kwzit), kehren 
kai-r'en (not Jcai'rr'en}, klappen kldap-en, knabe 
knaa'bu, knopf knaopf, knie knee (a difficult 
initial combination for Englishmen, to be care- 
fully studied) ; the common post-aspirated form 
Jc-hj before vowels should be avoided. 

g. Gonnen goen-en, geben gai'ben (or gae-ben} y 
gnaden gnaa'den (a common word,, in which the 
difficult initial combination requires careful 
study) ; the implodent g is not used. 

f (This only occurs in the combination pf which 
is now often pronounced pf; the letter " v " is 
sometimes pronounced /' but the general custom 
is to call it/), pfropf jo/V'oj5/",tapfer taapf'ur\ 

v\ Wie v'ee, weh v'ai, was v'aas, wollen v'aol'tn, 
wulst tfuolst; in the North of Germany it is 
said to become v, but I have never heard it. 
Englishmen may, however, use v, and must never 
use w or vw. 

f. Fein&faaynt, f&nLfaawl, fest faest; very com- 
mon, but v is unknown. 

*. Nichts neeky'hts, reissen raaysen, fliisse flws'u 
schmutz shmuots ; fluss or flusz fluos ; only used 
at the end of words, or in the middle (when 
written ss or sz) , never at the beginning. 

z. Sie zee, sass zaa-s, sieben zee-ben, weise v'aay'ze ; 
only used at the beginning of words, where it is 
frequently changed to sz, and in the middle" of 
words, where it remains pure. 

sh. Schiessen shee'sen, scherzen shder'-tsen, schale 
shaa-lu, schwimm. shtfeem, schluss shluos, 
schmausen shmaawzen, schnee shna'f, schroff 
shr'aof; the voiced form zh is unknown. 

sh' (which need not be anxiously separated from 
sh], stab stitaa'b, stoss sh'toa-s, spiel s/t'pee'l, 
spass sh'paa-s, spur sh'poo-r 1 ; in the North of 
Germany st-, sp- used to be said, but not on the 
stage ; and now full sht-, shp- are used in con- 



Sec. XI, B. 

versation even in Hanover; the final -sh't or -slit 
is considered very vulgar, as in ist eesh't, furst 
fuer' sh't, and must be carefully avoided. 

y. Ja yaa, jagd yaakht, je yai, just yuost, jiingst 
yuengst ; in ja yaa, the y often changed uncon- 
sciously to yh, as yhaa- or yhyaa-. 

ky'h. Mich meeky'h^ fechten faeky'frten, machte 
maeJcy^h'tu, mochte moeky'h-tu, kirche keer'-ky'hu, 
milch meelky'h, manch maanky'h. Only used 
after ee, ae, oe, aay, oy, r' I, m, n, and in the final 
-chen -ky'hen, as madchen mai'dky'hen, mai't- 

gy'h. Tilge ieefrgy'hu, folge faol-gy'hu, betriigen 
betrue-gy'hen ; and. according to some writers, in 
the prefix ' ge,' a,agerecln.tffy'he-raeky'ht', ge-ehrt 
gy'he-avr't, but I generally heard g used in that 
position ; in general gyti 'aener' 'aa-l, regierung 
r'egy'hee-r'uong, &c., it is used or not at pleasure ; 
g may always be said, as it is still in North 
Germany, at the beginning and in the middle of 

Jch. Ach aa'kh, macht maakht, focht fdoJcht ; and 
generally after aa, ao, oa; also according to 
most writers, after 00, uo, aaw, where I hear 
kw'h, as buch boo-Jcw'h, bucht buokw'ht, auch 
aawkw'h, but this need not be attended to, so 
that the simple boo'Jch, buokht, aawkh may be 

gh. Tage taa-ghu, gezogen ge-tsoa'ghen ; only used 
between vowels, replaced by kh when final, as 

betrog betroa'kh, betrogen betroa-ghen. In 
North Germany g is used initially and medially, 
and k finally. 

I. Lamm laarn, lasst laest, elle ael'u. 

m. Marz maer'ts, menge maeng-u, kamme kdem-u. 

n. Nun noo-n, niemand nee-maant, henne hden'u. 

ng. Singer zeeng-ur\ finger feeng-ur' ; some Ger- 
mans say ngg and others ngk at the end of words 
from which u has not been elided, as lang Idangg 
or laangk, but lang' (for lange) Idang ; the 
Englishman is recommended to use his easy ng 

r\ Reise r'aayzu, schier shee'r' (not shee-rr"), 
schaar shaa'r 1 (not shaa'rr") commonly r'rh 
when final, and very commonly ( r initial and 
medial, and l r l rh final, none of which usages 
need be imitated. The vocal English r does not 
occur, or, at least, is not acknowledged. 

The Examples in the Alphabetical Key to Ger- 
man Pronunciation in Section XIV, and the 
German songs, of which the pronunciation is given 
in Glossic, in Section XV, will form sufficient addi 
tional exercises for the purpose of learning to sing 
German well enough to be intelligible, and not to 
be annoying to educated ears. To speak or read 
German properly requires much time and attention, 
many teachers, and, if possible, residence in the 

Sec. XI, C 




Ex. 49. On the Elementary Italian Speech- 
sounds. The following words contain all the 
Italian sounds, and the learner should hear them 
often pronounced by Italians, if possible, from 
from Tuscany or Rome. The Alphabetical Key 
to Italian Pronunciation in Section XIV, and the 
Italian songs written in Glossic in Section XV will 
suffice for additional exercises to acquire the power 
of pronouncing Italian, with sufficient correctness 
not to be offensive in singing. For accurate pro- 
nunciation much study is required. 


The Italian vowels when long are not so long as 
the English, and when short not so short, they 
are properly always medial. But Englishmen may 
treat them as long when ending a strong syllable, 
and as short otherwise. The accent marks in the 
Examples are placed in accordance with this 
ee. I ee, lirico lee-r 1 'eekoa, spiri spee-ree ; fisso 

fees'soa, ninfa neen'faa, dimmi deem-mee. 
ai. E ai, fede fai'dai, sete sai'tai, avere 
aavai'r'ai ; alimento aalewnain'toa, burlesco 
boor'lais-koa, capretto kaapr' ait'toa ; this sound 
is quite pure, and without the least vestige of a 
following ee or vanish. 

ae. E ae, regola r'ae-goalaa, predica prae'deekaa, 
straniere sfr' aanee-ae'rai ; bella bael'laa, dente 
daen-tai ; Englishmen may use e, e, but the 
sound in Italian is very much broader and more 

aa. Fato faa-toa, raro r'aa'r'oa, bavaro baa-vaa- 
r'oa; fatto faat-toa, cassa kaas-saa, tanto taan-toa, 
fiamma fyaam-maa. 

ao. Oro ao'r'oa, poco pao-koa, cosa kao'zaa, dopo 
dao-poa ; sciolto shaol'toa gloria glao-r 1 ee-aa, 
biscotto beeskaot'toa, torto taor'-toa ; Englishmen 
may use au, o for this sound without danger of 

oz. Amore aamoa-r'ai (this oa-r', not oa-rr', nor 
wr' must be especially noticed by Englishmen) ; 

geloso jailoa-soa, filatojo feelaatoa-yoa ; the real 
Italian sound is somewhat more like 00, having 
probably the same position of tongue as oa, but 
the lips in the position of oo ; but Englishmen 
may be quite satisfied with oa. 
oo. Cura koo-r'aa, scudo skoo-doa, ignudo eeny'oo'- 
doa ; tutto too'toa, giunchi joong'kee ; the oo 
does not become uo when shortened, but no 
ambiguity will arise from using uo. 

There are no diphthongs with tight glides as in 

English and German, but only properly speaking 

with slurs ; whenever two vowels come together 

the Italians are apt to reckon and feel them as one 

syllable when the second vowel has not the stress. 

Examples of all cases in which the first vowel is 

strong are here given according to Valentini. 

Short marks will be used to indicate the weak 

vowel in the slurred combination. 

aaai. Traere traa'air'ai, aere aa'aXr'ai, sufficiently 
written traa'air'na^ aa'air'ai. 

aaee. Daino daa-eenoa, musaico moozaa'eekoa, 
sufficiently written daaynoa, moozaa'eekoa. 

aaoa. Paolo Paa-oaloa, sufficiently writtenPacroaloa. 

aaoo. Laura JLaa'oor'aa, fraude fr'aa'oodai, pausa 
paa-oozaa, sufficiently written Laawr'aa,fr \uw- 
dai, paawzaa. 

aeaa. Beano bae-aanoa, oceano oachae-aanoa, suffi- 
ciently written bae'aanoa, oachae-aanoa. 

aeoa. Eolo Ae-oaloa, laureola laaoor 'ae-oaloa, suffi- 
ciently written Ae'oaloa, laawr'ae'oaloa. 

aeee. Teseide Taisae-eedai, Eneide Ainae-eedai, 
sufficiently written Taisae-eedai, Ainae-eedai. 

aeoo. Neutro nae'ootr'oa, feudo fae-oodoa, suffi- 
ciently written naewtroa^faewdoa. 

aoaa. Oasi ao'aasee, Roano JRao'aanoa, sufficiently 
written ao'aasee, Roa'aanoa. 

aoee. Eroico air' ao-eekoa, loico lao-eekoa, sufficiently 
written air'oo-eekoa, lao-eekoa. 

aoaa. Induano eendoo-aanoa, sufficiently written. 



Sec. XI, C. 

000?. Influere eenfloo'ai'rai, puero poo-airoa, suffi- 
ciently written eenjloo'air'ai, poo'air'oa. 

ooee. Fluido floo-eedoa, Druido Dr'oo-eedoa, suffi- 
ciently written jloo-eedoa, Dr'oo-eedoa. 

coda. Influono eenfloo-oanoa, suo soo-oa, sufficiently 
written eenjloo'aanoa, soo'oa. 

eedd. Maniaco maanee-adkoa, diaci dee-ddchee, suffi- 
ciently written maanee'aakoa, dee'aachee. 

eeai,. Dieno dee-amoa, sieno, see-dmoa y sufficiently 
written dee-ainoa, see-ainoa. 

eeoa. Periodo pair' ee-oddoa, sufficiently written 

The second method of writing best conveys the 

effect of the sounds to English ears, with perhaps 

the exception of naewtr'oa, faewdoa, for which 

nae-ootr'oa, fae'oodoa might be better, because of 

the looseness of the connecting glide. 


p. Parto paar'-toa, -paiH&paal-laa, lampo laam'poa. 

b. Bardo baar''doa, ballo baal-loa, bruno br'oo-noa. 

t (or rather t\ but the distinction may be neglected). 
Tirato teer'aa'toa, tanto taan-toa, tutore tootoa-rai 
(not tootao'rr'ai or tootawr'ai). 

d (or rather d', but the distinction may be neglected) . 
Detto dait'toa, debito dai'beetoa, addicere aaddee-- 

eh (this is the English sound, which may always 
be used, but sA', not sA, is also used in Italian, as 
in face faa-sh'ai, facce faty'-sh'ai, which may be 
pronounced as:) Face faa'chai, facce faat-chai; 
duce doo-chai, bucce boot-chai ; bracia braa'chaa, 
braccia braat'chaa. 

j (this is the English sound, which is perhaps 
always used, although z h' may occur). Gesto 
jaes'toa, giudice joo f deechai, gia jaa, Giacomo 

k. Caro kaa-roo, cheto kai'toa, chiave kyaa-vai. 
(In Tuscany there is a habit of using h in 
in place of k, before the letter a, as haa-roa, 
haa'mairaa, hao'za for kaa'roa, kaa'tneraa, 
kao-zaa, caro, camera, cosa ; this fault must 
be carefully avoided; Tuscans are also apt to 
introduce h before every o, as confronto 

k-hoanfr'-hoan-t-hoa, Livorno Leev-haor'-noa^ 
whence possibly the sailor's name Leghorn 
Leg-hau-n ; in other respects, even the Tuscan 
peasant speaks pure Tuscan, which is the literary 
dialect of Italian}. 

g. Gara gaa-r'aa, angusto anggoo-stoa, piaghe 

w (as a real consonant -this does not exist in the 
language, but Englishmen may use it for 00, 
as uovo ooao'voa or wao'voa), hence uomo 
wao-moa, quale kwaa-lai, quindi kweewdee, guida 

f. Fasti faas-tee, differire deef-fair'ee-r'ai. 

v. Vasti vaas'tee^ vece vai'chai, avvi aavvee. 

s. Sano saa-no, scala skaa'laa, verso vaer' m soa, 
curioso kooT'ee-oa-soa (not koo'rr'ee-oa-soa). 

z. Sbaglio zbaa-ly'oa, smorto zmaor'-toa, esatto 
aizaat'toa, esito ae'zeetoa. 

ts (or t's' or even *', but ts suffices). Zio tsee-oa, 
balza baal'tsaa, Venezia Yainae'tsee-aa, bellezza 
baillaet-tsaa, pozzo poat'tsoa. 

dz (or d'z' or even z', but dz suffices). Zero dzae-r'oa, 
zona dzoa'naa, zanzara dzaan~dzaa-r'aa, mezzo 
maed'dzoa, gazza gaad'dzaa. 

sh. Scemo shai-moa, fasci faash-ee, pesci paish-ee, 
cresciuto kraishoo'toa, sciolto shaol'toa. 

y (as a real consonant is not in the language, but 
Englishmen may use it for ~ee, as jeri eeai'ree or 
yai'ree, hence) ajo aa-eeyoa, sufficiently written 
aa'yyoa, piano pyaa'noa, fioco fyao'koa, piti pyoo. 

1. La laa, augelli aaoojael-lee, altro aal'tr'oa. 

ly\ Gli h/ee, &g\iefee'ly'ai, scogli skoa-ly'ee. 

n. Niuno nyoo'noa, no nao, non noan, mensa 
maen'saa, anno aan'noa. 

ntf' Ognuno oany'oo-noa, segni sainy'ee, ghigno 
gee'ny'oa, bisogno beezao'ny'oa. 

ng. Lungo loong-goa, vengo vaing-goa, anco aang'koa. 

r\ Karo r'aa-r'oa, terra taer'r'aa, carne kaar'-nai ; 
the trill of the tip of the tongue is always very 
strong, the extent of vibration being considerable, 
and the rapidity and duration of vibration 
being also much more than in English ; it is 
never omitted, and never made by the uvula. 

Sec. XI, D. 




Ex. 50. On the Elementary French Speech- 
sounds. The following words, chiefly from Theriat, 
who is responsible for the marks of length over the 
vowels, contain all the elementary sounds in the 
French language. They must be heard very often, 
and practised much, to be well understood. After- 
wards the examples in the Alphabetical Key, 
Section XIV, and the French songs which are 
given below, will serve as exercises. But it will 
be always difficult for any Englishman to sing a 
French song in a way which would be even 
tolerable to French ears. There is no force accent 
in French. 


ee. titre teetreo, partie paartee, il prie eel pree, 
epitre aipeetreo, synonyme seenaoneem. 

ai. ete aitai, pays pai-ee, aiguille aigueee, je sais 
zheo sai, esprit aispree. 

ae. -procespraosde, complete koon'plaet, reve rdevai, 
ils aimaient eelzaimde, meme mdem, peche pdeth, 
reine rden. 

aa. papa paapaa, fat faat, femme faam; this 
sound is now more generally called a' in Paris. 

ah. gras grdh, pas pah, casser kdhsai ; some 
ortheopists, as Theriat, consider that there is 
only one aa sound, and that the difference is 
merely one of length, so that they would write 
grda, pda, Masai. 

ao. motif maoteef, hotte aot ; some ortheopists, as 
Theriat, do not distinguish ao and oa except in 

oa. mots maux moa, beau boa, agneau aany'oa, 
hote oat. 

eo. fou/oo, toute toot, bou boo, voute voot. 

ue. muse muez, vous eutes voozuet, hutte uet. 

eo. je zheo, deux deo, ienfeo, neveu neoveo. 

oe. peur poer, seul soel, neuf noef, peuple poepleo, 
oeuf oef, boeuf boef. Some orthoepists do not dis- 
tinguish eo oe, and many assign oe ioj'e, me, le, &c. 


aeri . pin, pain paeri ', temoin taimwaerf , faim, fin 
faen', timbre taen'breo, dessein daisaen' , bientot 
byaen'toa; Englishmen may use an'. 

ahn'. dans dahn', tampon tahn'poan', Jean Zhahn', 
trembleur trahn' bloer' , encre ahri'kr'eo; English- 
men may use on'. 

oan'. non noan', long loan', nom noan', compte 
Jcoan't, umble oan' bled (Feline gives oen'bleo) 
lumbago loan'baagao ; the English reader must be 
very careful not to confuse oan with ahn', as it 
is a common English fault to make them both on'. 

oen'. brun br'oen', a jeun aazhoen' , parfum paar'- 
foen', humble oen'bleo (also pronounced with oan\ 
see above) ; Englishmen may use un'. * 

aaee (these diphthongs arise only from the conver- 
sion of ty' into ee or eey, or from medial ee}, 
gouvernail goovaer'naaee, faillir faaeeyeer' (or 
faayyeer', y being doubled), medaille maidaaee, 
Versailles Vaer'saaee. 

aeee. reveil r'aivaeee, reveiller raivaeeeyai (or 
raivaeyyai, taking y as double), Marseilles 

oeee. oeil oeee, recueil reokoeee, accueillir aakoeeeyeer' 
(or akoeyyeer' with double y}. 

ueee. lui lueee, ruisseau r'ueeesoa, ennui ahn'nueee, 
y>\\n.Q plueee, appuyer aapueeeyai, tuyau tueeeyoa. 
See p. 49i. 

ueaen'. Juin Zhueaen', quinquagesime kueaen'- 


p. papa paapaa, cap kaap, nappe naap, appareil 
dapaar'aeee ; English p; instead of the recoil 
p-h, the French often use^o. 

b. baton bdhtoan', lobe laob, bombe boan'b ; Eng- 
lish b, the recoil is bed. 

t' (always dental, but the English may use theii 
usual t without hesitation), titre teetreo, the tai t 
un grand home oen' g^ahn't aom. 



Sec. XI. D. 

d' (always dental, but Englishmen may use their 
d without hesitation), donner daonai, raide raed, 
reddition raeddeeseeoan' (or raedeesyoan'). 

ktf (some French writers, but not all, recognise 
this sound before the sounds of ii, ai, eo, oe, ue ; 
as qui ky'ee. queue ky'eo, but Englishmen are not 
recommended to try it). 

gtf (those who admit ky' also admit gy' in similar 
situations, as gueux gy'eo, but Englishmen are 
not recommended to try it.) 

k. carte kaar't, crainte kr'aen't, un rang eminent 
oen' rahn'k aimeenahn', quatre tcaatr'eo, coq kaok, 
etiquette aiteekaet, quoique kwaak. 

ft. garqon gaar' soan' , gueule goel, second seogoan', 
Eclogue aiglaog, exister aigzeestai. 

w (properly oo forming an initial oo diphthong with 
the following vowel) , joaillier zhwaayyai, moelle 
mwdal, poelier pwdalyai, coeffer kwaafai, soie 
swaa, bois bwaa, voir vwaar" ; ouais woe, fouet 
fwde, foene fwaen, il temoigne eel taimwaeny' ; 
oui wee, embabouiner an' baabweenai ; employer 
ihn'plwaayyai, royaume rwaayyoam. Bedouin 
Baidwaen', soin swaen\ point pwaen' . 

/. carafe kaar'aaf, boeuf boef, phrase fraaz. 

v. vivre veevree, veuve voev, neuf ecus noev aikue. 

i. son soan\ abces aabsae, i&qon faasoan' , ambition 
Chn' beesyoan' , soixante swaasahn't. 

z. zele zdel, rose r'aoz, il vous aime eel vooz dem, 
sixieme seezyaem, deux enfants deoz ahn'faJin'. 

sh. cheval sheovaal, chercher shaer'shai, achat 
aashaa, schisme sheezmeo. 

zh. je zheo, jardin zhaar'daen', jujube zhuezhueb, 

y (properly ee forming an initial ee diphthong with 
the following vowel) , diable dyaableo, ciel syael, 
pitie peetyai, reliure r'eolyuer', nous agreions 
nooz aagr" aiyyoan' , vous aidier vooz aidyai, nous 
priions noo pree'eeyoan', que vous priiez keo voo 
pree-eeyai ; ai'eux aayyeo (or aaeeyeo), pai'en 
paayyaen' (or paaeeyaen') ; les yeux laez yeo, 
rayon raiyyoan', payer paiyyai, nous payons 
noa paiyyoan', nous payions noo paiyyeeoarf nous 
appuyons nooz appueeeyyoan' , nous appuyions 
nooz appueeeyeeoan' . 

I. le leo, eleve ailaev, ft. feel, syllabe seellaab. 

tn. me tneo, meme maem, ame dam, pomme paom. 

n. ne neo, navet naavae, annote aannaotai, inne 
eennai, ennemi aenmee. 

ny 1 . agneau atny'oa, ignoble eenyaobleo, vigne 
veeny' ', Boulogne Boolaony'. 

i f . or aor\ notre naotreo, le notre leo noatreo, amer 
aamder', art dar* , arranger aar'ahn'zhai. The 
greater number of Frenchmen in the North 
" grasseyent" fgr" 'asaeeej , that is, use the uvular 
l r in place of the trilled r'. -This is not allowed 
on the stage, and should be carefully avoided. 



Explanation of the Arrangement. The inten- 
tion of this index is to refer to every sound 
explained and described in the preceding pages, to 
shew in which of the four languages it occurs, and 
to give specimens of all the glides with which it 
is found in English. For German, Italian, and 
French, examples are given in Exs. 48, 49, and 50 
of Section XI. (pp. 144-150), and the incidental 
sounds were illustrated when first described. 

For the vowels and diphthongs the examples are 
arranged in the alphabetical order of the Glossic 
spelling from the vowel or diphthong forwards, so 
that all the final combinations are found in the 
order of the table on p. Ill, with the introduction 
of the single consonants. Only one or two ex- 
amples are given of each final combination. This 
list of words will form a complete series of key 
words for English, and also a complete series of 
exercises on the glides from vowels to consonants. 
The singer should practise them as such, singing 
them at first to long and then to very short notes, 
repeating the same word many times in succession, 
and making the glides quite distinct, if any 
difficulty is felt, the word must be dissected and 
practised in part, thus chainjd, ai, ain, ainj, ainjd, 
chainjd ; ai, chai, ain t chain, ainj, chainj, ainjd, 

For the consonants, they are first given as 
initials, and as parts of initial combinations, in the 
order of the Table on p. 110, before all the vowels 
and diphthongs with which they are found, and 
then some (not all) cases of the medial and double, 
and one or two final combinations are given. Final 
combinations proper are found in abundance with 
the vowels. 

The Glossic spelling of the English words agrees 
with that in the Short Key, Section III., pp. 12 
and 13. 

The letters e. g. t. /. after an initial Glossic 
letter or combination, shew that it occurs in the 
English, German, Italian, and French languages 
respectively, and the absence of any of these letters 
shews that it does not occur in the corresponding 

The initial combination is in thick capital letters, 
when it is one of the sounds recognised in the 
Short Key, when it is incidental it is printed in 
Italic capitals, but any letters with marks of 
length over them are printed small. 

After the number of a page a means first, and 
b second column. 



Sec. XII. 


A, e, pp. 315, 32a ; its rounded form, p. 325 ; 
may be sung as a', p. 340. Strong and short: 
abb ab, scab skab, slab stab; scabbed skabd, 
blabbed 5/050*, stabbed stabd ; dabs dabz, crabs 
kr'abz ; hatch, hack, match mack ; snatched snacht, 
scratched skr'acht ; add ad, plaid plad, sh&d.shad; 
lads ladz, dad's dadz ; baffle bafl, snaffle snaf-l ; 
bag bag, fag ; wagged wagd, lagged lagd ; brags 
br'agz, swags swagz ; badge baj, Madge Maj ; 
badged bajd ; crack krak, whack whak ; axe aks, 
wax waks, whacks whaks, thwacks thwaks, waxed 
wakst, act akt, fact fakt, whacked whakt, cracked 
krakt; shall shal ; acts akts, facts fakts, pacts 
pakts ; Alp Alp ; Alps Alps ; am am, jam jam, 
cram kr'am; shammed shamd, rammed ramd ; 
lamp lamp, cramp kr'amp ; cramps kr'amps ; 
cramped kr'ampt ; shams shamz, flams Jlamz ; an 
an, plan plan, tan tan ; hand hand, planned pland, 
tanned tand ; lands landz, strands str'andz ; manse 
mans; banter ban'ter, cant kant ; cants kants, 
recants rikan-ts ; man's manz, fans fanz; hang 
hang, sprang spr'ang, sang sang ; hanged hangd ; 
sank sangk, hank hangk ; hanks hangks ; thanked 
thangkt ; pangs pangz ; map w0ji?, taps taps, arrow 
0r'-o0, carry &0r'i, narrow nar'-oa ; gas ^0s, wassail 
was-el ; asp 0sp ; ash ash, crash kr'ash, clash klash, 
smashed smasht, thrashed thr'asht ; pat j?0, that 
dhat, sprat spr'at ; rats r0te, cats &ffs ; hath A0A ; 
have A0v, has 70z. Weak and short in open 
syllables, so written in Grlossic to shew either u or 
a final may be used at pleasure, p. 535 and 540, 
pica pei-ka, idea eidee'a, area ai-rr'ia, sofa soa-fa, 
acacia akai'shia, drama draa-ma. Long and strong, 
provincial, p. 320. Ex. pp. 1180, 1195, 1295. 

A\ e. i. f. Pp. 320, 335, 340, 360; may be used 
for a, p. 31a. Often used long or short in the 
following and similar words, where also aa long or 
short may be used, and where a long and short 
should not be used, p. 340 ; may be always used in 
singing for a. Chaff cha'f chaaf, half ha'f haaf, 
calf '&0'/ kaaf, laugh la'f laaf, laughed la' ft laaft, 
craft kr'a'ft kr'aaft, shaft sha'ft, shaaft quaffed 

kwa'ft kwaaft ; aft a! ft aaft ; shafts sha'fts shaafts, 
crafts kr'a'fts kr'aafts ; ass as aas, pass pa's paas, 
grass gr'a's gr'aas, mass ma's maas ; ask a'sk aask, 
bask ba'sk baask, casks ka'sks kaasks, masks ma'sks 
maasks ; rasp r'a'sp raasp, grasps gr'a'sps gr'aasps ; 
passed pa'st paast, mast ma'st maast ; path pa'th 
paath, bath ba'th baath, wrath r'a'th raath ; path's 
pa'ths paaths, paths pa'dhz paadhz ; halve ka'v 
haav, calve ka'v kaav ; halved ha'vd haavd ; calves 
ka'vz kaavz; command koma'n-d komaan'd, plant 
pla'ntplaant (sometimes plant}, haunt ha'nt haant 
(and haunt}. 

A' i, spoken e. form of ei, p. 440, d-\ is a good 
singing form, p. 445. 

A'uo, a good form of ou, p. 47. 

A'y, a form of a't, p. 46a. 

AA, e. g. f. i., p. 335, 360. May be used for ' 
or ah, p. 39a. Strong and long : ah ! aa ! paths 
paa-dhz, half haa'f, laugh laa'f, calm kaa~ m, palm 
paa-m, balm baa-m; calmed kaa-md ; jaunts 
j'aa'nts, haunts haa-nts; haunch haa'nch; command 
komaa'nd, demand dimaa'nd ; demands dimaa-ndz ; 
chance chaa-ns, prance pr'aa'ns, plant plaa'nt, can't 
kaa'nt, sha'nt shaa-nt ; plants plaa'nts, ass aa's, 
class klaa's, grass gr'aa-s; cask kaa'sk, bask baa'sk; 
casks kaa-sks, hasp haa'sp (often hasp], clasps 
klaa'sps ; mast maa-st, cast kaa-st ; masts maa^sts ; 
path paa-th, bath baa f th, wrath raa'th ; path's* 
paa'ths ; halve haa'v, halved haa'vd, calves kaa'vz. 
In all these cases the vowel is scarcely more than 
medial, and may be taken short, or a' (which see) 
may be used long or short, and some speakers use 
a long and short. If we include those cases in 
which aar (which see) is pronounced as aa simply, 
the list would be much increased. Strong and 
short aa does not occur except as a variety in the 
above words. Weak and medial rather than short 
aa, occurs only before these letters, or as a reduc- 
tion of aar in weak syllables, as steadfast sted-faast, 
partake paatai'k, particular paatik'euler, Carthusian 
Kaatheu-zhien. Ex. pp. 1140, 116. 

Sec. XII. 



AA, flatus driven through the position for aa, 
p. 560. 

A A, slightly nasalised 00, as in America and 
South Germany, p. 440. 

AAai or AA-ai, i. slurred diphthong, pp. 450, 

MAO, a lip glide, p. 555. 

AAee, g. i. f., a form of ei, p. 445, 450 and 5, or 
aa-ee, slurred in Italian, p. 450 ; aa-ee- i. even 
diphthong, p. 450. 

AAee, g. nasalised form of ei, p. 440. 

AAl, g. and also an e. form of ei, just admissible 
in speech, p. 440, 00-* is the proper form for 
singers, p. 445. Not to be tolerated for oi, p. 455. 

AAi, e. nasal form of ei. Not to be tolerated, 
p. 440. 

AAod, i. slurred diphthong, pp. 450, 1475. 

AAoo, i. slurred diphthong, pp. 475, 1475. 

AAuo, general g., admissible e. form of ou, 
p. 470, 5. 

AA-R, e. murmur diphthong aa-u, with a per- 
missive trill r 1 ; the u and trill r' are generally 
omitted, and the simple vowel aa used, so that 
aar signifies the permission to say aa, aa-u, or 
aa-ur* , the first being most common, p. 505. 
Always long and strong. Are 00T, garb gaa-rb, 
barbs baa-rbz, arch aa-rch, starch staa'rch, starched 
staa'rcht, bard, barred baa-rd, guards aaa-rdz, scarf 
slcaa-rf, scarf's sJcaa'rfs, large laa'rj, enlarged 
enlaa'rjd, stark staa-rk, arks aa'rJcs, marl maa-rl, 
snarls snaa-rlz, barm baa'rm (when the ur' are not 
pronounced, barm, balm are both baa-m), charms 
chaa-rmz, barn baa-rn, tarns taa-rnz, sharp shaa-rp, 
carps Jeaa-rps, sparse spaa-rs, swarth swaa-rth, 
(some say swau-rth], starve staa'rv, scarves skaa-rvz, 
bars baa-rz. When a word beginning with a vowel 
follows, aa-rr' ar aa-r' is always used. See aa-rr\ 

AA-RR', e, p. 1370. This may be either 00V or 
aa-ur 1 , and is most usually 00V ; it occurs only in 
strong syllables and before a vowel. Barring 
hn-a-rr" ing , starry staa'rr'i, sparring spaa'rr'ing. 
"When a word beginning with a vowel follows 00r, 
r' is always inserted ; don't jar it doa-nt jaa-rr'-it, 
far off/00-n-'-o/. Hence numerous errors p. 515. 

AA-u, e. murmur diphthong, p. 505, used for 
00r (\vhich see) ; sometimes aa with a vanish, to be 
avoided as it is mistaken for aar' . 

AAue, g., theoretical pronunciation of g. ' eu ' 
in eule aaue'lu (generally oi'lu), pp. 445 and 455, 

AAuo, e. form of ou, p. 470. 

AAW, e. g. f. i. common representative for 
either 0000, 00^0, as forms of ou, p. 475. 

AA-W, representative of 00-00 or 00^0 as forms 
of OM, p. 475. 

A A Y, e. g. f. i. common representative for 
either aaee or 002 as forms of ei, p. 460, as 00'^ is 
of aa-ee or aa'i. 

,AAY, nasalised form of AAY, -= t aaee or 
4 00T, p. 440, 5. 

AA-Y, representative of aa-ee or aa-i as forma 
of ei, p. 460. 

AE, e. g. f. i., p. 320 ; its rounded form, p. 325. 
In e. only in strong syllables, where e is more 
general in the South of England. See e for ex- 
amples in English. May be sung as e, pp. 390 r 

AEaa, i. slurred diphthong, p. 1475. 

AEee, e. faulty form of ei ; i. slurred diph- 
thong, pp. 465, 1475 ; f . generated by loss of 
ly\ p. 465. 

AEi, e. faulty form of ai-y, meaning ai', p. 460. 

AEN', f. nasal, not eng or ang, but the last is 
intelligible, pp. 400, 1495. 

AEoo, e. faulty form of ou, p. 475; i. slurred 
diphthong, p. 1475. 

AEuo, e. faulty form of ou, p. 475. 

AE-uo, e. faulty form of ou, p. 475. 

AEW, e. representative of either 0000 or aeuo, 
p. 475. 

AEY, i. and f., p. 465. 

AH, g. f . and Scotch, used for aa, pp. 335, 360 ; 
may be sung as 00 in f . 

AHee, g. common form of ei, p. 445 ; ah-ee, with 
long ah and conspicuous glide, a common German 
form of oi, p. 445. 



Sec. XII 

ANt, e. faulty form of ei, p. 440, also a g. form, 
p. 44*. 

AHN', f. nasal, resembles ong, which is intel- 
ligible, pp. 400, *, 1496. 

AHoo, g. form of ou, p. 47*. 

AHuo, e. faulty form of ou, p. 47*. 

AH-uo, e. faulty form of ou, p. 47*. 

AHW, representative of either ahoo or ahuo, 
p. 47*. 

AH' W, representative of either ah'oo or ah'uo, 
p. 47*. 

AHY, representative of either ahee or ahl, 
p. 460 and 480. 

AH'Y, representative of either ah'ee or ah'i, 
p. 460. 

AI, e. g. f. i., p. 300, without vanish, see ai'y, 
p. 460, for vanish. Not to be confounded with 
ey, ay, aay, &c., p. 30*. Used for eo by many 
Germans, p. 31*. May be sung as e, p. 390. 
Strong and long : eh, ai, bay bai', obey oabai', day 
dai', they rfAar, hay hai', may war, say *0r, way 
wai', whey whai' ; babe *0r*, babes bai'bz ; aitch 
0i-cA ; aid #i'^, aids 0ro'z / swathe swai'dh, 
swathed swai'dhd, bathes bai'dhz ; safe sai'f ; 
waifs wai'fs, chafed chai'ft, vouchsafes vouchsai'fs ; 
plagae plai'a, plagued plai'ad, plagues plai'gz ; 
age ai'j, engage engai-j ; enraged enrai'jd; ache 
ai'k, sake sai'k, rakes rai'ks, baked bai'kt ; ale ai'l, 
pale, pail pai'l, railed r'ai'ld, failed fai'ld, ails 
ai'lz ; aim ai'm, game aai'm, lamed lai'md, games 
gai-mz; sane sai'n, plane, plain plai-n, planed 
plai-nd, strange str'ai'nj, change chai-nj ; ranged 
ravnjd; paint pai'nt, quaint kwai'nt, saints sai-nts, 
pains, panes pai-nz, tape ta-ip, grape gr'ai-p, shapes 
shai-ps; ace ai's, race rat'*; rate rai't, gates yai^s, 
eighth avtth, eighths ai'tths; wraith rai'th, wraiths 
rai'ths; rave rai'v, saved sai-vd, graves grai-vz, 
graze grai'z, gazed gai'zd. Some speakers use ai'y 
in all these words, some even make the ai short, 
and change it into e, ae, as ey, aey ; to be avoided, 
pp. 460. 133*. Weak, and medial or short, e. i., 
shamefaced sharmfaist, aorta aiau'rta. Exercises, 
pp. 113*, 115*, 129*, 133*. 

AI< flatus through the position for ai p. 56<z. 

Al-aa, i., evenly balanced, unaccented diph- 
thong, p. 450. 

AI, e. faulty form of ai'y, meaning ai, p. 460. 

A't, e., a common form of ei, p. 440. 

APee, e. form of the vanish ai-y, p. 460. 

aiJEO, lip glide, p. 55*. 

An, e. faulty form of ai-y, p. 460. 

AI'i, e. form of the vanish ai'y, p. 460. 

Am, e. murmur diphthong, with or without r', 
p. 50* ; a form representing e-u or e-ur at pleasure; 
generally e-u, in the mouths of some speakers ae-u 
or even a'u; the r' is generally omitted. Strong 
and long : air, ere, e'er, heir ai'r, bare, bear bai-r, 
chair chai'r, there dhai'r, fare, fairy0rr, hare, hair 
hai'r, ne'er nai'r, share shai'r ; pared pai'rd, scarce 
skai'rs, scares skai'rz. When a word beginning 
with a vowel follows air, r' is always inserted, see 

AI-EE', e., representing e-ur', and only used 
before a vowel, pp. 1300, 136*. Strong and long : 
wary wai'rr'i, sharing shai'rr'ing, fairy fai-rr'i, 
we'll share it wee-l shai-rr'-it, to pare an apple too 
pai'rr' un ap-l, a pair of shoes u pai'rr 1 uv shoo'z. 

ALu, e. faulty murmur diphthong, for e-u, see 
air, p. 50*. 

A'tu, e. murmur triphthong, form of ei'u, see 
eir, p. 520. 

AIuo, e. very faulty form of ou, p. 47*. 

AIWioT ai'uo, e. faulty form of ou, p. 47. 

AIY, g. provincial ei for ai-ee, p. 46*. 

AI'Y, e., or ai with a vanish, pp. 46 and 55*.- 
Some speakers use ai-y for ai- on all occasions, 
except before r or in weak syllables ; this is most 
frequent when ai ends a word or phrase, when ai 
comes before t, great varieties are found, from pure 
e- long, through pure ai' long, to ai'y, aiy, aey, ay, 
and almost uy, a'y. The examples to ai should be 
read in both ways, with ai' and ai'y, but never 
with the aey, ay forms, pp. 129*, 133*. 

An', e. substitute for aen', p. 400. 

AO, e. g. f. i., p. 350, *, 360, may be sung as au, 
p. 390. As the vowel never occurs in received 
English except before r, it will be treated under 
oar, which see 

Sec. XII. 



AO, flatus through the position for ao, p. 56a. 

AOee, a faulty form of oi, p. 456; ao-ee, the only 
i. form, p. 460. 

-40t, a faulty form of oi, p. 456. 

AOoo, a faulty form of ou, p. 470. 

AO-u, e. murmur diphthong, real form of oar, 
p. 506. 

AOue, a theoretical form of g. ' eu,' as eule 
mue'lu^ p. 446. 

AOuo, a faulty form of ou, p. 470. 

AO'uR', the real form of o0rr', which see. 

AOW, a representative of 0000 or 0owo, p. 476. 

yfOr, f., p. 466. 

ATI, e., p. 350, 360. May be used for o and ao, 
p. 39. Strong and long : awe 0w, daw daw, jaw 
jau'j caw kaw, law 0w, maw maw, gnaw naw, 
paw j90w, raw r'0w, saw saw, shaw shaw, taw taw, 
thaw thaw ; daub dawb, awed 0wo', laud J0W0*, 
lauds lawdz ; cough &aw/, hawk hawk, hawks 
hawks ; hall, haul A0w, bald, balled, bawled 
bau'ld, fallen fau'ln, halt hawlt, salt sawlt, malt 
mau'lt, halts haw Its, all, awl 0w, crawls kr'awlz, 
awn 0ww, awns 0wwz, haunt hawnt (or haa'nt, 
ha''nt) haunts hawnts, ought, aught 0w, caught 
kawt, drought drawt, broth brawth (or broth}. 
Some persons use aw in off 0w/, coffee kawjfl, 
office awfis, often awfn, dog dawg, cross krau's, 
and in America, even long lawny, but these 
and even cough, broth, are perhaps oftener pro- 
nounced with o, as of, kof-i, of'is, ofn, dog, kros, 
long, kof, broth. When r is not pronounced, all 
examples under aur belong to this case, see aur. 
Weak and long, august (adj.) augus't, austere 
austee-r, augment (v.) augmen't. Exs., pp. 114a, 
1166, 1306, 1310. 

A U, flatus through the position for au, p. 56a. 

A Uee, g. form of oi, p. 456. 

AUi, e., a common form of oi, especially before 
z, p. 456, not to be tolerated as a form of ei, p. 44a. 

A Uuo, e. very faulty form of ou, p. 47a. 

Auo, e , a good form of ou, p. 47a. 

ATJ-R, e. representing aw, awu, aur 1 , or awur', 
at pleasure, but most generally 0w, and most rarely 
wur', p. 506. Strong and long: abhor abhawr t 

or awr (when strong, before a vowel, awr' ; before 
a consonant, the same as awe 0w), nor nawr (when 
strong, before a vowel, nawr' ; before a consonant, 
the same as gnaw waw), drawer drawr (a sliding 
box, distinct from drawer, one who draws), orb 
awr6 (generally rhymes to daub dawb], orbs 
awrbz, orchard awrcherd, torch tawrch (or toa-rch], 
scorch skau'rch (or skoa-rch], scorched skawrcht 
(or skoa'rcht), lord lawrd (generally not disting- 
uished from laud lawd], lords lawrdz, wharf 
whawrf, dwarf dwawrf, dwarfs dwawrfs, scorn 
skawrn, born bawrn, horns hawrnz, horse hawrs, 
north nawrth, nok"ths nawrths. Some persons pro- 
nounce all the words in or in this way, as tore 
tawr, more mawr, pork pawk, important impawr- 
tent, but oa-r is considered better. See oar for 
examples. Weak and long, ornate aurnai't, ordain 
aurdai'n, orchestral aurkes-trel, organic aurgan'lk, 
orthography aurthog-rufi, orthoepy aurthoa'epi. In 
such cases aur is seldom anything but au, Ex., 
p. 1376. 

A V-u, the murmur diphthong in aur, which see, 
p. 506. 

A TTuo, faulty form of ou, p. 470. 

AUW, representative of either auoo or auuo, 
faulty forms of ou, p. 476. 

AUT'W, representative of either 0woo or awuo, 
faulty forms of ou, p. 476. 

A UT, representative of either auee or aui, forms 
of oi, p. 460. 

ATJ'Y, representative of either awee or 0w?, 
forms of oi, p. 460. 

A W, representative of either 000 or auo, faulty 
e. forms of ou, p. 476. 

AT, representative of either aee or at, faulty 
forms of ei, p. 460. 

A' T, representative of the a'ee or a'* forms of ei, 
p. 46a. 

B., e. g. f. i., p. 636. Initial before vowels: 
bat 6a, back bak, baa 6aa, bard baa-rd, bate, bait 
bai't, bought bawt, bet bet, beet, beat bee-t, bite 
bei-t, Bute Bewt, bit bit, botch boch, boat boa-t, boy 
boi, boot 600 , bout bout, but but, bull buol. Initial 
before consonants : black 6Ja&, blame blai-m, bleat 



Sec. XII. 

blee-t, blight bleit, bliss blis, blown bloa-n, blur bier, 
bran br 1 an, braid br'ai-d, broad br'au'd, breadth 
bre'dth, breed br'ee-d, bright br'ei't, Briton Br'it-n, 
broach br'oa-ch, brood br'oo'd, brow br'ou, buoy 
bwoi (or boo-1, booy, sometimes boi}. Medial be- 
tween vowels : dubbing dub-ing, blabber blab-er, 
webbing web'ing, fibber fib'er, sobbing sob'ing, 
robber rob-er, snubbing snub-ing, baby bai-bi, gaby 
gai'bi, booby boo'bi, imbibing imbei-bing, bribery 
brei'bur'i. Final, ending words, after vowels : 
cab Jcab, babe bai-b, daub dau'b, dab dab, glebe 
glee-b, bribe brei b, tube teu-b, bib bib, Bob Bob, 
robe roa'b, tub tub. In practising final b, guard 
against a very marked voice recoil b-h', or a 
marked flated recoil, as b-ph ; and if a recoil is 
necessary, 'use the click bp. Double, between 
vowels: tub-bottom tub-bot-m, slob-bib slob-bib, 
Bob beat him Bob bee-t him, a robe bought u roa-b 
bau-t, where is the cab bound ? whai-r iz dki kab 
bound ? Between the two b's of a double b, no 
recoil of any kind is admissible. 

B, g. implodent form of p or b, p. 64#. 

BM' , e. form of m and b, with a cold in the head, 
p. 670. 

1 BR, g. voiced lip trill, with loose lips, p. 660. 

CH, e. g. i., p. 790, not tsh, but probably a con- 
sonantal diphthong, ty'sft, p. 800. Initial, before 
vowels : chat chat, charge chaa-rj, change chai'nj, 
chess ches, cheese chee-z, chine chei-n, chin chin, 
chop chop, choke choa-k, choice chois, choose choo-z, 
chouse chous, chump chump. Ch does not occur 
initial before consonants. Medial between vowels 
(it is rather ty\ which is medial, glided on from 
the preceding vowel, and gliding on to the follow- 
ing sA') : patching pach-ing, fetching fech-ing, 
teacher tee'cher, richer rich'er, botching boch'ing, 
broaching br'oa'ching, slouching slowching, crouch- 
ing krowching, clutching kluch'ing. Final, after 
vowels : batch bach, fetch fech, stitch stich, botch 
boch, roach r'oa-ch, vouch vouch, touch tuch. 
Double, between vowels (ch does not occur in the 
true double form ty'ty'sh", because ty* does not so 
occur, we have, therefore to take tch, which will 

experimentally shew that the initial of ch is not t), 
that cheese dhat chee-z, that choice dhat chois, flat 
cheese fiat chee-z, what charge whot chaa'rj, he hit 
Charles hi hit Ohaa-rlz, a spoiled chop u spoilt chop- 
Compare also abbotship, grab a chip ab'utship, 
grab-uchip, hat shop, that chop hat shop, that chop, 
it shews, it chose, it shoa-z, it choa'z. Ex. p. 1250. 

CH', a mute form of ch, p. 790. 

CH'SH', a possible form of ch, p. 795, 800. 

D, e. (the g. i. f. form is d'), p. 69*. Initial be- 
fore vowels : dash dash, dart daa-rt, dame dai'm, 
daughter dawter, debt det, deed dee-d, dight deit, 
duke deu-Jc, ditch dich, dot dot, dote doa-t, doit doit, 
doom doo-m, douse dous, Dutch Duch. Initial, be- 
fore consonants : dram dr'am, drain dr'ai-n, dredge 
drej, dream dr'ee-m, drive dr'ei-v, drip dr'ip, drop 
dr'op, drone dr'oa-n, droop droo-p, dwell dwel, 
dwarf dwau'rf, dwindle dwin'dl. Medial, between 
vowels : radical rad'ikel, madder mad er, sadder 
sad'er, aider ai'der, solder sawder (or soa'der), 
broader brau'der, wedding wed-ing, breeder breeder, 
idol ei-del, bidding bid'ing, nodding nod-ing, boding 
boa'ding, crowding krotrding, rudder rud-er. Final, 
after vowels : mad mad, made, maid mai'd, Maude 
Maud, bed bed, bead bee-d, bide bei'd, bid bid, 
rod r'od, road r'oa'd, rude r'oo'd, vowed voud, 
mud mud. In practising final d, guard against 
a very marked voiced recoil, d-h 1 , or a marked 
flated recoil, as d-th; if a recoil is necessary, 
use the click dt. Double, between vowels, . 
mad-doctor mad'dok-ter, head-dress hed'dres, a 
loud drone u loud droa-n, he made drums hi 
mai'd drumz, rammed down ramd doun. Between 
the two d'a of a double d no recoil is admissible. 

D, e. provincial implodent for t, p. 693. 

t D, a d made with the under part of the point of 
the tongue against the palate, p. 695. 

D\ g. f. i. form of d, with tongue against the 
teeth (sonant of dh] for which Englishmen may 
use d, used provincially before r , p. 700. 

Q D', g. implodent for f or d', p. 69*. 

DH, e. voiced form of th, p. 685. Initial before 
vowels: that dhat, they dhai, there dhai-r, them 

Sec. XII 



dhem, these dhee-z, those dhoa'z. Initial dh does 
not occur before consonants. Medial dh between 
vowels: bather bavdher, bathing bai'dhing, weather, 
wether wedh-er, together toogetfh-er, gather gadh-er, 
seething seedh-ing, writhing reidh'ing, whither 
whidh-er, thither Midh'er, bothered bodh-erd, 
loathing loa'dhing, soothing soo-dhing, mouthing 
mou'dhing. Final, after vowels : swathe swai'dh, 
breathe bree-dh, loathe loa-dh, clothe kloa-dh, soothe 
soo-dh, blithe bleidh. In these finals it is customary 
at the end of clauses, to shorten the length of dh, 
and glide into a final th, as swai-dhth, bree'dhth, 
kloa-dhth, soo-dhth, p. 935. Double, between vowels : 
clothe them kloa-dh' dhem, soothe them soo'dh dhem, 
I loathe those ei loa-dh dhoa-z. In this doubling 
the insertion of th is inadmissible. Ex., p. 122&. 

D'H, a lisped form of z, p. 700. 

DHTH, e. final, as breathe br'ee-dhth, see p. 935. 

DW,e. labialised form of d, perhaps generally 
used for dw, p. 830, as dw'el, dw'au'rf for dwelt 

DT', e. palatalised form of d, used as the initial 
of the combination expressed by /, which see, 
p. 800. 

DY'SIT, e. final form of j in the pause, p. 800. 

DZ, as an initial, the form used by Englishmen 
in place of the Italian d'z', p. 960. 

b'Z', i., for which Englishmen use dz, pp. 970, 

E, e. g. (in f. i. and strong g. syllables ae is 
used, and also frequently in e. strong syllables; 
all the following strong e'a may be read as ae), 
p. 305, used for oe by many Germans, p. 315 ; used 
for ai in singing, p. 390. Never long in strong 
syllables, except in murmur diphthongs written as 
air, which see. Short and strong: ebb eb, web 
web, ebbed ebd, webbed webd, ebbs ebz, webs webz, 
fetch fech, wretch rech, fetched fecht, head hed, 
wed wed, said sed, tread tred, breadth bredth, 
breadths bredths, weds wedz, left left, bereft biref-t, 
egg eg, beg beg, keg keg, leg leg, peg peg, begged 
begd, begs begz, wedge wej, pledge plej, wedged 
wejd, neck nek, wreck r'ek, necks neks, wrecked 
r>ekt, sects sekts, ell el, bell bel, fell fel, knell nel, 

sheU shel, yell yel, Elbe Elb, Welsh Welch, weld 
weld, held held, shelf shelf, pelf pelf, twelfth 
twelfth, twelfths twelfths, elk elk, elks elks, elm 
elm, whelm whelm, help help, helps helps, else els, 
melt melt, felt felt, health helth, wealth welth, 
healths helths, shelve shelve, elves elvz, sells selz, 
hem hem, hemmed hemd, hemp hemp, hemp's hemps, 
tempt tempt, tempts tempts, hems hemz, pen pen, 
den oVw, hen Am, men men, then o'Am, blench 
blen-ch, quenched kwencht, wrenched r'encht, end 
end, friend fr'end, mends mendz, thousandth 
thou-zendth, thousandths thou-zendths, revenge 
rwen-j, avenged avenyd, hence hens, pence pens, 
offence ofen-s, expense ekspen-s, went went, lent lent, 
rents r'ents, presents (v.)pr'izen-ts, tenth tewA,tenths 
tenths, hens henz, pens^wz, step step, steps steps, 
wept wept, crept krept, leaped fcp, adepts udep'ts, 
depth <fe^A, depths depths, chess cA<?s, cress 7<;>-Vs, 
guess ges, less &s, yes yes, chest cA<?s, jest /*#, 
guessed ges-t, jests jes-ts, mesh wesA, enmeshed 
enmesh't, wet w^^, get ^, pet jt?e#, met met, nets 
0fo, jets ,/e^s, breath breth, breaths breth's. The 
vowel e does not occur weak and short, except in 
the forms ed, el, em, en, ez, which see; it occurs 
short and distinct in some weak syllables, but 
rarely, as ek and es: shipwreck ship-rek, fulness 
fttol'nes, deafness def-nes, ceaseless see-sles, mattress 
mat-res, egress ee'gr'es. Ex., pp. 1180, 120, 120o, 
E' ', e., as in e'r, a form of er, p. 345, p. 39#. 

ED, e. final, weak, varies between ed and id, 
may be Vd, p. 141, as wicked wik'ed, wik-id, 
wik'Vd, dotted doted, dot-id, dot-id, compare pitted 
pit'edjjpit'id, and pitied pit-id only. 

EE, e. g. i. f., pp. 28a and I. 295. Used for ue 
by many Germans, p. 315. Sung as i, p. 39. 
Strong and long : glebe glee-b, glebes glee-bz t 
bleach blee-ch, reach r'ee-ch, bleached blee-cht, weed 
wee-d, knead, need nee'd, needs nee-dz, breathe 
br'ee-dh, breathed br'ee-dhd, breathes, br'ee'dhz, thief 
thee-f, brief br'ee'f, leaf lee'f, beef bee'f, briefs br'ee-fs, 
league lee-g, leagued leeg-d, leagues lee-gz, siege 
see'j, liege lee'j, besieged bisee'jd, leak, leek lee~k t 



Sec. XII. 

meek mee-k, seek see-k, teak tee-k, week wee-k, 
speak spee-k, reek, wreak r'ee-k, weeks wee-ks, 
reeked ree-kt, eel ee-l, heal, heel hee-l, steal, steel 
stee-l, meal mee-l, peal, peel j5^-^, teal tee- 1, veal 
?/, weal wee- 1, wheel w hee-l, wield wee- Id, wheeled 
whee-ld, field fee-Id, fields fee-ldz, eels er/z, seals 
8e7z, seamed, seemed see-md, creams kree-mz, ween, 
wean wee-n, lean lee-n, keen <?rw, dean 0> - w, 
weaned wee-nd, deans dee-nz, deep <&<?;/?, weep 
wee-p, leap for/?, leaps forjw, fleece ^rs, Greece 
Gree-s, east *, ceased <?, eat ee-t, wheat 
whee't, wreath r'ee'th, sheath shee-th, sheath's 
shee-ths, leave lee-v, reeve ree-v, grieve gree-v, 
grieved gree-vd, greaves, grieves gree-vz, grease 
gree-z, greased gree-zd. Ee never occurs strong and 
short in English, being replaced by i. "Weak and 
long it occurs rarely, in closed syllables, as: 
thirteen ther-teen, fourteen foa-rteen, fifteen fifteen, 
diocese dei-oasees. Weak and short, seldom occurs 
in actual use, although many attempts are made 
to enforce it, but is generally replaced by i, see 
p. 280; elicit eelis-it, illicit ilis'it, illis'it, elude 
eeleu-d, eeloo'd, illude ileu-d iloo-d, illeu-d illoo-d, 
allegation al'eegai-shen, alligation al'igai'shen, 
element el-eement el'iment el-ement (the last is most 
common, el-umunt is heard, but generally repro- 
bated). On the difficulty of singing ee at a high 
pitch, or keeping long ee and long i distinct, see 
p. 4ft. Ex., pp. 113a, 115ft, 128ft. 

E'E, e. provincial throat glide, same as tee, 
p. 55ft. 

Q EE, flatus through the position for ee, p. 560. 

'E>E, whispered ee, p. 56ft. 

eeAA, i. close diphthong, usually taken as yaa, 
pp. 450, 148ft. 

eeALee, i. triphthong, usually taken as yai'y, 
p. 50a. 

EEoo, i. diphthong, and faulty e. form of eu, 
after consonants, p. 48ft. 

eeOO, e. form of eu after consonants, p. 480, 
general i. form of eu, p. 48ft. 

EE-R, e., pp. 50ft, 136ft, murmur diphthong with 
er without r' ; a form representing i-u or i-ur 1 at 

pleasure, generally i-u, never eer\ and ee'u, ee-ur 1 
are archaic or provincial. Always long and strong. 
Ear ee'r, beer, bier bee-r, cheer chee-r, dear, deer 
dee-r, feaxfee-r, sphere sfee-r, gear gee- r, here, hear 
hee-r, leer lee-r, blear blee-r, mere mee'r, near nee-r, 
pier, peer pee-r, rear r'ee-r, seer, sere, sear, cere 
see-r, sheer shee-r, tear (s.) tee-r, veer vee-r, weir, 
we're wee-r, year yee'r, cleared klee-rd, beards 
bee-rdz, fierce fee-rs, pierce pee-rs, tierce tee-rs, fears 
fee-rz, spheres sfee-rz, clears klee-rz. When a word 
beginning with a vowel follows ee-r, r' is always 
inserted, see ee-n*. 

EE-ER', e., see p. 136ft, representing &', as 
distinct from eer\ which is Scotch, American, and 
foreign ; used only before vowels. Always long 
and strong. Earring ee-rring, hearing hee-rr'ing, 
cheery chee'rr'i, endearing endee-rr'ing, fearing 
fee'rr'ing, gearing gee-rr'ing, leering lee'rr'ing, 
peering pee-rr'ing ; do you fear it 0*00 eu fee-rr'-it, 
peer into itpee-rr' in-too it, sheer ignorance shee-rr' 

EE-u, e. murmur diphthong, p. 50ft, a faulty 
form of eer, which stands for i-u. 

EE-uE\ e., a faulty form of eerr\ which stands 
for i-ur'. 

El, e. g. i. f., an unanalysed form of diphthong, 
having varieties in e., and other varieties in 
g. i. f. For e., see p. 440 ; for g., see p. 44ft ; for i., 
see p. 450 ; for f., see p. 45ft. The singer may" 
take uy, o?y, aay, aay, as suits him best ; the 
speaker should avoid 00^, and whether he chooses 
uy, or a'y, always use it. Strong : I, eye ei (but 
aye aay}, buy, by, bye, b'ye bei, die dei, fie fei, 
Guy Gei, high hei, sky skei, lie, lye lei, ftyjlei, sly 
slei, my mei, nigh nei, pie pei, rye, wry rei, dry 
dr'ei, fry/rVi, cry kr'ei, pry pr'ei, sigh sei, shy shei, 
sty, stye stei, thigh thei, thy dhei, vie vei, Wye Wei, 
why whei ; ide eid, bide ft#i0*, chide cheid, died, 
dyed deid, guide geid, hide heid, skied skeid, lied 
leid, glide gleid, plied pleid, slide sleid, ride r'eid, 
bride breid, dried dr'eid, fried f r'eid, pride pr'eid, 
stride str'eid, sighed, side seid, shied sheid, tide, 

Sec. XII. 



tied teid, vied veid, bides beidz, chides cheidz, 
guides geidz, hides heidz, glides gleidz, slides sleidz, 
rides r'eidz, brides br'eidz, sides stficfc, tides teidk, 
blithe bleidh, life fet/, knife wei/, rife reif, strife 
str'eif, wife ww/, life's tei/s, kuife's w0i/s, wife's 
weifs, dyke <fci&, like leik, pike j9ei&, tyke tei&, 
dykes deiks, likes fei&y, pikes peiks, liked feiAtf, 
file /<?, mile meil, Nile JV<ei, pile .petf, rile reil, tile 
tei/, vile 0ei, wile weil, while wheil, child cheild, 
filed feild, mild mft?, piled peild, riled r'ttfri, tiled 
teild, wild, wiled weild, wilds weildz, files /<?ife, 
miles meife, piles j90ife, wiles ?&, chime cheim, 
disme deim, lime /eiw, climb, clime kleim, slime 
sleim, mime meim, rhyme, rime r'eim, grime gr'eim, 
crime kr'eim, prime pr'eim, cyme seim, time, thyme 
teim, chimed cheimd, grimed gr'eimd, climbs, climes 
kleimz, chimes cheimz, rhymes r'eimz, crimes 
kr'eimz, times teimz, bine bein, chine chein, dine 
dein, thine dhein, fine fein, line lein, mine mein, 
nine nein, pine pein, brine br'ein, shrine shrein^ 
sign, sine sein, shine sA^m, Tyne Tern, vine vein, 
wine tmn, whine whein, bind ^i^, find feind, 
hind heind, kind keind, lined foiwd, blind bleind, 
mind, mined 7/w?, pined pined, rind r'eind, en- 
shrined enshr'ei-nd, signed seiwc?, wined weind, 
whined wheind, binds beindz, finds feindz, hinds 
heindz, blinds bleindz, minds meindz, ninth neinth, 
ninths neinths, chimes cheimz, dines deinz, nines 
neins, pines peinz, shrines shr'einz, signs *iwz, 
shines sheinz, vines v^iwz, wines weinz, whines 
whelm, pipe joeijo, ripe r'eip, gripe greip, stripe 
str'eip, type teip, wipe wip, pipes peips, gripes 
gr'eips, stripes str'eips, types teips, piped peipt, 
striped str'eipt, wiped weipt, ice eis, bice beis, dice 
^i, lice leis, mice m^i*, nice neis, rice r'^i*, price 
pr'eis, entice enters, vice vm, iced eist, priced 
pr'eist, enticed entei'st, bite belt, fight /Htf, height 
heit, kite Ai, light fo, blight bleit, flight /#, 
plight pleit, slight, sleight *fo, might meit, night 
^i^, rite, right, write, wright reit, bright br'eit, 
fright freit, sprite spr'eit, sight, site seit, tight 
feif, wight weit, white wheit, I've eiv, chive cAeiv, 
five /<?iy, hive heiv, alive ulei~v, rive r'eiv, drive 
dr'eiv, strive str'eiv, shrive shr'ei'v, thrive thr'eiv, 

vfiveweiv, hived hevod, shrived shr'eivd, wived weivd, 
fives feivz, hives heivz, rives r'eivz, drives dr'eivz, 
strives streivz, thrives thr'eivz, wives weivz, eyes 
eiz, buys beiz, thighs theiz, skies skeiz, flies ^eiz, 
pies peiz, dries dr'eiz, fries fr'eiz, pries pr'eiz, shies 
*Am. Weak : idea eidee'u, civilise sivileiz, civili- 
sation sivileizai'shen (or sivilizai'shen), ironical 
eir'on'ikel, isochronous eisok'r'unus, direct deirek-t 
or direk't), divert deiver't (or divert}. Ex., pp. 
123, 1330, 133*. 

J, e. faulty form of ai-y, meaning *, p. 460. 

EI'ER, e., a dissyllable to be distinguished from 
ei'r, which see, p. 54i ; buyer bei-er, dyer dei-er, 
higher hei-er, liar lei'er, plier plei-er, slier slei'er t 
nifher nei-er, briar brei'er, drier drei'er, frier, friar 
fr'ei'er, prier pr'ei'er, sigher mvr, shier shei'er, 
tier ^i-<?r. "When a word beginning with a vowel 
follows, r' is always added. 

JSIEBR', form of eiur', p. 52,b. 

EI'R, e., a murmur triphthong, eiu t with or 
without r\ generally without, to be distinguished 
from ei-er, p. 52a. Long and strong : byre beir, 
dire deir, hire heir, lyre &ir, mire meir, sire mr, 
shire *A0ir, tire teir, hired Atfirtf", tired teird, wired 
weird, lyres leirz, sires seirz, shires sheirz, tires 
teirz. When a word beginning with a vowel 
follows, r' is always added, see ei'rr\ Ex., p. 137*. 

EI-KR', e. seep. 52a, representing ei-ur', in one 
syllable : direr dei'rr j er, hirer hei'rr'er hiring 
hei'rr'ing, tiring tei'rr'ing, wiring wevrr'ing. Ex. r 
p. 137*. 

El-UK, e. dissyllable, p. 52*. 

EJ, e. weak final, p. 140*, representing -ay, -ej r 
or -/, or perhaps -17, the usual '-age,' which i 
differently pronounced according to frequency of 
use, Cabbage kab'ej (often kab-ij), herbage her- 
bej, bondage bon'dij, baggage bag-ej (often bag-ij], 
luggage lug-ej (often lug-ijj, foliage foa-liej vbut 
carriage kar'~ij, marriage mar' -if always), cartilage 
kaa-rtilej (when quite new to the speaker, kaa'- 
tilai-jj, pillage pil'ej, tillage til-ej, village vil m ej\ 
damage dam-ej, image im-ej, pilgrimage pil-grimej, 
manage man'ej (these last words are usually pil'ij, 



Sec. XII. 

til'ij, vil-ij, dam-ij, im'ij, pil-grimij, man-ij}, spinage 
spin-ej (most commonly spin-if, and sometimes 
spin-ich}, courage kur'-ej (usually kur'-ijj, usage 
ewzej (not eu-zich], sausage sos'ej (or sos ijj , savage 
savej (or savijj, language lang'wej (lang-gwej, 
lang-waij, lang-gwaij, lang-wij, lang-gwij, lang-wich, 
lang-gwich are all to be heard), voyage voi'ej (often 
voy'J , knowledge nol-ej, college kol-ej. 

EL, e. g., see p. 1390. Weak syllable, obscurely 
pronounced, approaching ul or ul rather than ael, 
al, seldom clear el, never clear al, or ol ; to be sung 
as ul or u'l, with a slur from u or u' to I ; corres- 
ponding to e. final unaccented -al, -el, -ol, but not 
usually -il, and not heard in -ful. Cymbal, symbol 
sim-bel, radical rad-ikel, pedal ped-el, medal med-el, 
lineal lin'iel, real ree-el, regal ree-gel, frugal fr'oo- gel, 
prodigal pr'od-igel, labial lai'biel, genial jee-niel, 
trial tr'e'vel, essential esen-shel, celestial siles-tiel, 
vial vei-el, decimal des-imel, animal an'imel, dismal 
diz-mel, ordinal au'rdinel, cardinal kaa'rdinel, final 
fei-nel, opal oa'pel, liberal lib-ur'el, temporal tem-- 
pur'el, rural r'oo'rr'el, nasal nai'zel, capital kap'itel, 
vestal ves'tel, usual eu'zheuel, oval oa-vel ; parcel 
paa-rsel, infidel in-Jidel, angel ai-njel, satchel 
sack- el, camel kam'el, trammel tr'am'el, pommel 
pum'el, flannel flan* el, channel channel, kennel 
ken-el, funnel fun-el, tunnel tun-el, colonel, kernel 
Jcer-nel, chapel chap-el, gospel gos-pel, quarrel 
Tcwor'-el, squirrel skwir'-el, weasel wee-zel, chisel 
chiz'el, morsel mau-rsel, tassel tas-el (or taa-sel, 
tau-seT), gravel gr'avel, travel travel, duel deu-el, 
level level, fuel feu-el, shrivel shrivel, hovel 
huvel, shovel shuvel, novel novel, cruel kr'oo-el, 
vowel vowel, hazel hai-zel, pencil pen'sel (QY pen'sil), 
council koun-sel (or kou-nsil, to distinguish from 
counsel kou-nsel), idol ei'del, carol kar'-el, pistol 
pis'tel. This final -el is not very distinct from 
final -I, forming a syllable, except after a vowel, 
and after t, d; compare idle, idol ei'dl, ei'del, for 
the first the point of the tongue remains on the 
palate from d to I, in the second it is removed for 
a very short period. The effect in each case is 
more of a glide up to I than a fixed vowel, p. 74a. 

Whenever el is distinctly pronounced a certain 
effort is necessary, indicated by el-, as novel- for 
novel, the speaker emphasing the fact of his clear 
pronunciation. This would be the case in g. also, 
not in i. or f. In English, however, the change to 
il is then common, as jewel j'eu-il, cruel kroo-il, 
novel novil. 

EM, e. g., seep. 1395. Weak syllable, rather urn 
or u'm than aem or am, never distinctly am or em ; 
an indistinct glide on to m followed by an m. 
When em is distinct, a kind of emphasis ia 
necessary in e. and g., shewn by an accent 
(see el at end), thus poem poo,- em-, in which 
case the change to im is sometimes heard, as 
poa-im. Weak : madam mad-em (but mad- am is 
heard in shops), quondam kwon-dem, buckram 
buk-rem, balsam bau'lsem (some say bal-sem], 
stratagem strat'ujem (some say strat-ujem-}, anthem 
an-them, emblem em'blem, problem problem, poem 
poa-em, item ei-tem (some say ei'tem-}, freedom 
free'dem, dukedom deu'kdem, kingdom king-dem y 
thraldom thrau'ldem, seldom sel'dem, random 
r'an-dem, Christendom Kris-endem, wisdom wiz'dem, 
fathom fadh-em, axiom aks-iem (or ak'shiem^ 
ak'shem), venom ven-em, modicum mod'ikem, petro- 
leum pitroa-liem, memorandum mem-ur'an-dem, 
museum meuzee-em (in America meu-ziem is at least 
sometimes heard), medium mee-diem, odium oa-diem, 
opium oa-piem, delirium dilir' -iem, Elysium Ilish'- 
iem, oakum oa'kem, alum al'em, pendulum peri*- 
deulem (or pen-deulum-}, asylum asei'lem, laudanum 
lod-nem, tympanum tim-punem, conundrum kunun'- 
dr'em, decorum dikoa-rrem, quorum kwoa'rr'em, 
spectrum spek'tr'em, 'forum foa-rr'em (as a Latin 
wordybaTr'ww), ultimatum ul'timai'tem, pomatum 
poamai'tem, stratum strai'tem (some say straa-tum'}, 
quantum kwon'tem, factotum fak-toa-tem, vacuum 
vak-euem Most of these words occur also with z 
after them, as kingdoms king-demz. The am is 
often indistinct in diagram dei-ugr'am, anagram 
an-ugr'am, epigram ep-igr'am, parallelogram par'- 
alel-oogram (often par-u-^-lel'u-^-grem among 
mathematicians), monogram mon-oagr'am ) tele- 

Sec. XII. 



gram tel-igr'am (the last word, though so new, is 
so common that it is fast becomming tel'igr'em). 
The em is also often distinct in diadem dei-udem-, 
requiem rek'wiem- (some say ree'kwiem'}, apothegm 
ap' oat hem\ The clearness of the final syllable 
depends greatly on the unusualness of the word, 
and upon the position of the previous accent. 
The servant's pronunciation of mem is always 
indistinct, yes-mem, noa'mem, not yes'm, noa'm, 
when the lips are separated for an instant, but 
sometimes the mouth is not opened, and the m 
having produced its final effect, is quickly reduced 
in force so as to become nearly inaudible, and 
then very rapidly touched again, thus y 
-^-m, see slur, pp. 45, 1875. 

EN, e. g., see p. 1395. Weak and final, more like 
a glide on to n than any vowel ; difficult to dis- 
tinguish from vocal n, except after a vowel p, b, 
t, d, k, g, where the vowel causes an opening of 
the lips, or withdrawal of the tongue for an 
instant. The singer always takes u'n, see p. 77#. 
A very common pronunciation in final -an, -en, 
-tion, -sion, -ance, -ence, &c., only a few instances 
are given. Turban ter'ben, publican publi'ken, 
ocean oa-shen, European Eu-rr'oapee-en (not 
Eu-^r' oa-pien, as sometimes in America), magician 
vnujish m, musician meuzish'en, physician faish'en, 
guardian gaa'rdien, ruffian ruf'ien, seaman see'men 
(seamen see-men-'}, foreman foa-rmen (foremen 
foa-rmen-'}, horseman hawrsmen (horsemen hau-rs- 
men-'}, churchman cher-chmen, yeoman yoa-men, 
woman wuom'en (women wim'in], German Jer'men, 
footman fuot-men (footmen fuot-men-') human 
yheu-men, layman lai-men (often lai'man-'), clergy- 
man kler'jimen, countryman kun'trimen, gentleman 
jen'tlmen (gentlemen jen'tlmen''}, Satan Sai'ten 
(Sat- en, Sai-tn, Sat-n, satin sat-inj, veteran 
vet-uren, puritan peu-rr'iten, deafen def-en (or 
def-n), stiffen stif-en (or stif-n], roughen ruf'en (or 
ruf-n), heathen hee-dhen, lengthen lengk'then (or 
lengk-thn], alien ai'lien, sullen sul'en (or sul-n, or 
stil-en-' 1 }, specimen spes-imen, chosen choa-zen (or 
choa-zn], often open (or ofn, some say au-fn}, 

soften sof-en (or sof'n, some say aau-fn), raven 
rai-ven, even ee'ven, eleven ileven (or el- even, or 
with final vri}, riven riven (or rivn], heaven heven 
(or hevn), beacon bee-ken (or beek-n), deacon dee-ken, 
pardon paa-rden (or more often paa-dn}, pigeon 
pi-jen, luncheon lun-chen, flagon flag-e>i legion 
lee-Jen, religion rilij-en, lion lei- en, battalion 
batal-yen, dandelion dan'dilei'en, bullion buolyen, 
onion un-yen, union eu-nyen, occasion okai-zhen, 
adhesion ad-hee-zhen, decision disizh-en, division 
divizh-en, convulsion konvul'shen, mansion man'- 
shen, pension pen'shen, explosion eksploa'zhen, 
version vcr-shen, session sesh'en, mission mish-en, 
education ed'eukai-shen (some say ej-ookai-shen], 
creation kriai-shen, action ak-shen, election ilek-- 
shen, junction jungk-shen, auction au'kshen, ambi- 
tion ambish-en, petition pitish-en, motion moa-- 
shen, inscription inskrip-shen, portion poa'rshen 
(some say pa.u'shen, rhyming with) caution 
kau-shen, revolution revoaleu-shen, connexion 
ktmek-shen, oblivion oablivyen, felon fel-en, colon 
koa'len, chaldron chaa-ldren (or chau-dr'en], environ 
envei-rr'en (iron ei-ern is often merely ei-en, com- 
pare Ion), venison ven'zen, (vewizen is orthographi- 
cal only), unison eu-nisen, poison poi'zen (or poi'zn], 
prison priz-en (or priz'n), lesson, lessen Us- en (or 
les-n], amazon am'uzen, horizon Jtoar' ei-zen (not 
hor''izen}. Most of these words add on z, as 
missions mish'enz. Elegance el' iff ens, vengeance 
ven-jens, semblance semblens, nuisance nfu-sens, 
substance sub-stem, circumstance ser-kemstens (some 
say ser'kumstans-' or ser' 'kumstans-} , distance dis'- 
tens, license lei-sens, innocence in-oasens, cadence 
kai-dens, impudence im-peudens, science sei-ens, 
obedience oabee-dyens, experience ekspee'rr'iens, 
patience pai'shens, silence sei'lens, violence vei'oalens, 
vehemence vee'umens (some try to say vee'imens', 
vee-emens"), influence in'flooens (often in'Jlooens, in 
two syllables), sequence see-kwens ^often see-kwens''}, 
consequence kon-sikwens. 

EO. g. f. see p. 310, in g. always long and 
strong ; in f . often peculiarly short &nd indistinct 
eo, p. 945; may be sung as oe, p. 39a. Ex. 
pp. 144, 149a. 



Sec. XII. 

eOE, possible labial glide, beginning with lips 
wide open, and then gradually closing, p. 55b. 

EB, e., see p. 53. Strong and long by the pro- 
longation of the vowel sound, either simply as 
u-, e'-, or modified by a more or less raised point of 
the tongue, as u' tl r, but always with permission to 
addr'. To pronounce clear er', aor' , ur', uur',is 
quite un-English, but is heard in Scotch ; and a 
very light form of r' is heard in the provinces, as 
also ae^r, uur. All these sounds are disagreeable 
in received speech. Sometimes an attempt is made 
to distinguish "er, ur" as u-, uu-, or u', e'-, written 
er, ur; this is not recommended, see p. 53a. It 
must be remembered that er represents a real long 
vowel, with a permissive trill r' after it, and that 
this trill is quite inadmissible where no r' 
originally existed. Err er, burr ber, fir, fur fer, 
her her', cur her-, blur bier", slur sler, purr per-, 
sir ser, were wer, herb herb (erb is old), curb 
kerb, disturb disterb, verb verb, herbs herbz, curbs 
kerbz, birch berch, kerchief kerchif, lurch lerch, 
perch perch, search serch, searched sercht, burred 
berd furred ferd, heard herd, occurred okerd, 
blurred blerd, slurred slerd, purred perd, absurd 
abserd, preferred priferd, word wer-d, sherd sherd, 
words werdz, serf, surf serf, turf ter'f, serfs serfs, 
urge erj, dirge derj, merge merj, surge serj, 
turgid terjid, verge verj, irk erk, birk, Burke 
berk, jerk jerk, lurk lerk, clerk klerk (as some 
say, but klaa-k is more common), smirk smerk, 
perk perk, shirk sher k, Turk Terk, work werk, 
quirk kwerk, Turks Terks, works werks, dirks 
derks, kirks kerks, earl erl, churl cherl, iuxlferl, 
girl gy'erl (or ger-l, but gy' is more common, gal 
is very common indeed, and some say gael, but 
guu'l, guu- (( rl, guu\rl are very disagreeable), hurl 
her'l, pearl, purl perl, whirl wherl, earls er'lz, 
hurls her'lz, germ jer'm, worm wer'm, germed 
Jer'tnd, wormed wer'md, germs ger-mz, worms 
wermz, earn ern, burn ber'n, churn chern, fern 
fern, learn lern, turn ter'n, yearn yern, earned 
er-nd, ernt, burned ber'nd, bernt, churned cher-nd 
(never chernt], learned lernd, lernt, turned ternd 

(never ter'nt], yearned yernd (never yernt], learns 
lernz, churns chernz, chirp cher-p, chirps cher-ps, 
hearse her-s, curse ker-s, nurse ner's, terse ters, 
verse ver's, worse wer-s, cursed kerst, nursed ner-st, 
worst wer-st, earth er'th, birth ber'th, dearth der'th, 
girth ger'th, hearth her'th (much more generally 
haa-th), mirth mer'th, Perth Perth, worth wer'th, 
births berths, girths ger'ths, serve ser'v, served 
servd, serves servz. Weak, final, commonly -u or 
-', without any trace of r', which, however, is 
always inserted before a following vowel, but 
should never be inserted when there was no 
original 'r,' as is commonly done for ease of 
speech, pp. 53-4. When w-- occurs in speaking, 
weak er should not be written in Glossie, because 
when er is written it implies that -f-r' may be 
said. Hence ' again ' must not be written ergai'n, 
although if r' were not sounded simply ^t-^-(/a^n 
weuld be heard. This termination is so common 
that only a few examples are given. Cedar see-der, 
calendar kal'ender, vinegar vin-iger, familiar 
fumil'yer, friar frei'er, robber rob'er, member 
mem'ber, number num'ber, cider sei'der, preacher 
pree-cher, feather fedh'er, whether whedh'er, 
weather, wether wedh-er, soldier soa'ljer, rapier 
rai'pyer, furriei/Mr'^r, courtier koa'rtyer, prisoner 
priz'ner partner paa'rtnvr (not paa'rdner, a common 
mistake), skewer skewer (ofter skeur], employer 
emploi-yer (sometimes emploi-er), elixir ilik-ser, 
meteor mee'tyer, anchor angk'er, author aifther, 
warrior wordier, honour on-er, favour favver^- 
labour lai-ber, liquor lik'er, grandeur, grander 
gr'an-der (some say gr" an- dyer, gr'an'jer, gr'an-deur, 
for the first), sulphur sul'fer, murmur mer-mer. 
Most of these words add on a z, as furriers fur'ierz. 
When a vowel follows pure w-j-r' or w'-f-r' is 
heard, as ever, every ever, evur'i, a soldier of 
fortune tt-$-sooa-ljit~r' uv fau-rteun. Ex. pp. 132, 
136a, 138a. 

EBB', e., see p. 53a, 1360. Strong, before vowels 
only: erring err' ing (often erring], burring 
ber r* ing (not burning], incurring inker r' ing ^or 
inkur'-ing}, slurring slerr'inff, preferring prifer- 
r'ing (or pr if erring). 

Sec. XII. 



EU, e. i., see p. 48, b. An unanalysed form, 
having several permissible pronunciations, as yoo 
strong and weak, ywo strong, both at the beginning 
of words, and yoo strong and weak in middle of 
words, and 100 strong and weak after consonants 
which glide on to it, Ex., p. 1355. These forms are 
not usually distinguished, in the mind of the 
speaker, and are written by the same sign. Strong 
and long: you, yew eu, chew cheu, dew deu, few 
feu, gewgaws geirgauz, hue, hew heu (more cor- 
rectly yhioo, written yheu, but few speakers are 
conscious of yh], Jew Jeu, cue, queue keu, lieu 
leu (not loo, but blue bloo, not bleu, flew floo, not 
fleu, glue gloo, not gleu, clue, clew kloo, not kleu, 
slew sloo, not sleu), mew meu, new neu (not noo), 
snew sneu (not snoo), pew peu (not peeoo, rue r'oo, 
not r eu, brew br'oo, not br'eu, drew dr'oo, not 
dreu, grew gr'oo, not gr'eu, crew &r'oo, not &r'0w, 
strew str'oo, not streu, shrew shr'oo, not sArew and 
not shr'oa, sr'od), sue sew (not soo nor sAoo), thew 
A<?, view veu, whew wheu (really a whistle), 
Bude Bewd, nude newd, pewed pewd, sued sewd, 
tewed tewd, viewed vewd, febrifuge febTifewj, huge 
heuj properly yheuj or yhiooj), duke dewk, puke 
pewk, dukes dewks, pukes pewks, puked pewkt, 
yule, you'll ewl, exhume ekseu'm (or eks-hewm, 
meaning eksyhewm, rather pedantic), fume fewm, 
Hume Heum (meaning Yhewm), luminary lew- 
mineri (or loo'miner' i), fumed, few md, fewmz, 
dune deu'n, June Jewn, lune leu'n (not loo'ri), 
impugn impeu'n, tune tewn (not too-n nor chewn), 
impugned impeu-nd, impugns impewnz, use eu-s, 
abuse ubews, deuce dews, juice jews, used ewstf 
(was accustomed) ewzd (employed), Bute Beu't, lute 
lewt (or ?oo ^), mute mewt, newt wew^, repute 
ripeu'tj suit s#w (not soo*^ nor shoo't), mutes 
meu-ts, newts newts, suits sewts, you've ewv. 
Weak, long or short : unite eunei-t, unique eunee'k, 
usurp euzer-p, ubiquitous eubik-witus, uranium 
eurai-niem, utility eutiliti, monument mon-eument, 
document dok'eument, vacuum vak'euem, residuary 
rizid'euer'i, mortuary mawrteuer'i, usual ewzheuel, 
annual an-euel, virtual ver-teuel, tribulation trib-eu- 
lai'shen, virtue ver-teu, value val-eu, continue 

kuntin-eu, issue ish-eu (or ish'oo, not is-eu), tissue 
tish-eu, statue stat-eu. Ex., pp. 124a, 132, 135^. 
E-U, e., the real form of air, p. 5Qb. 

EITE, e., representing the murmur triphthong 
eu'u, followed at pleasure by a trilled r' , p. 52b. 
Strong and long: ure ewr (compare ewer ewer) 
endure endewr, cure keu'r, lure lewr (or loo-r), 
immure immewr, inure inewr, obscure obskewr 
(compare skewer skewer) pure pewr, sewer sewr 
(recently, formerly shoa-r, compare sure shoo-r, 
sewer, a waiter, is sewer, pursuer persewer, not 
persoo'er, nor pershoo-er], mature mutewr, your eur, 
inured inewrd. Weak : verdure ver-deur (often 
ver-jer), figure fig' eur (generally Jig'er), injure 
iti'jeur (usually in'jer), perjure per'jeur (usually 
perjer), pleasure plezh-eur (usually plezh-er), mea- 
sure mezh'eur (usually mezh'er], treasure trezh-eur 
usually trezh'er), pressure presh-eur (usually 
presh-er), fissure fish-eur (sometimes .Jis-eur, usually 
Jish'er, the same as ' fisher,') feature fee'teur 
(usually fee-cher], nature nai'teur (usually nai- cher), 
temperature tern-pur uteur (not tem-pr'ncher}, 
literature lit-ur'uteur (not lit-r'ucher), stature 
stat'eur (not stach'er), manufacture man-eufak-teur 
(not man- if ak" cher), fracture frak'teur (often frak-- 
cher], conjecture kunjek'teur (often kunjek-cherj, 
lecture lek'teur (usually lek-cher], picture pik-teur 
(usually pik-cher), stricture str'ik-teur (not strik'- 
cher), tincture tingk-teur (often tingk-cher), puncture 
pungk-teur (oftenpungk-cher), structure str'uk-teur 
(usually str'uk-cher), forfeiture faurfiteur (often 
fawficher), furniture fer-niteur (usually fer-nicher), 
culture kul'teur (usually kul-cher], vulture vul'teur 
(usually vul-cherj, venture ven'teur (usually ven'- 
cherj, capture kap-teur (usually kap-cherj, rapture 
r'ap'teur (usually r'ap-cherj, scripture skr'ip-teur 
(usually skr'ip-cherj, torture taur-teur (usually 
tawcherj, moisture mois-teur (often mois-cher , 
future fewteur (usually fewcherj, fixture fik-steur 
(usually Jik'scherJ, seizure see'zheur (usually see'~ 
zherj. The change of -teur, zheur into -cher, -zher, 
depends mainly on the frequency with which the 
word is used, the latter forms are those which 



Sec. XII 

prevail in common words. Before vowels -eur' or 
-ur' is used, as figuring Jig 'eur' ing, flg'ur 1 ing. Ex., 
p. 137. 

E'uR , e., a form of airr', which see. 

ETJ-RR', e., a representative of eu'ur" ', before 
vowels only, p. 1370. Long and strong: enduring 
endeu'rring, immuring immeu'rr'ing, curing keu'rr*- 
ing, purer peu-rr'er, purity peu-rr'iti, puritanic 

Euo, e. faulty form of ou, p. 475, usually written 
ew, and then to be distinguished from eu, which see. 

EW, see last entry. 

EZ, e., weak and final, with indistinct vowel, 
sometimes e, sometimes i, sometimes perhaps i', 
forming plurals and third persons of verbs, p. 1410. 
Princes prin'sez, princesses prinses-ez, seizes see-zez, 
inches in'chez, flinches flin-chez, judges ./w/'ez. 

F, e. g. i. f ., see p. 675. Initial before vowels : 
fat fat, farm faa-rm, fate fai't, fought fau~t, fell 
fel, feel fee-l, file fell, feud feu-d, fit Jit, fodder 
fod'er, foal foa-l, four foa f r, foist' foist, fool foo'l, 
foul foul, fuss fus, foot fuot. Initial before con- 
sonants : flat flat, flaunt flaa'nt, flame flai-m, fled 
fled, fleet flee-t, flight fleit, flit flit, flog flog, float 
floa't, &oux flour, flutter flut-er, fragil fr'aj-il, fray 
frai', phrase fr'ai'z, fraught fr'au't, fret fr'et, 
free //*e-, fright fr'eit, fritter fr'it-er, frog /r'o^, 
froth fr'oth (oitenfr'awth), fro ward fr'oa'erd, fruit 
fr'oo-t, frown fr'oun, fructify fr'uk'tifei. Medial 
between vowels : Baffin Baf-in, wafer wai-fer, 
heifer hef-er, stiffer stif-er, offer of-er, loafer loa'fer, 
roofing roo'flng, rougher ruf'er. Final: staff staa'f, 
waif wai-f, safe sai-f, deaf def, beef bee-f, life lei-f, 
stiff s^/, cliff Wt/, scoff skof (also skau-fj, oaf 
0<r/, coif, quoif A;oe/, hoof hoo'f, stuff S^M/. Double: 
a stiff frost u stif frost, a half foot u haa-f fuot, a 
gruff foe u gr'uf foa-, a laugh forced u laa-f 
foa-rst, a stiff fog u stif fog, a half friend u haa'f 
fr'end, a gruff foreigner u gr'uf for^ener. Ex., 
p. 1215. 

I", g , only in the combination pf, see pp. 35, 

J^F, perhaps occasionally initial in "W. Somerset, 
hiss of /passing into buzz of v, p. 92a. 

G, e. g. i. f., sonant of k, p. 825. Initial before 
vowels : gad gad, ghastly gaa-stli (often gaa-slij, 
g&meffai-m, gall yawl, get get, geese gee-s, guile 
geil, gimblet gim-blet, got got, goat goa't, goose 
^oo', gout gou-t, gum ^wm, good guod. Initial 
before consonants : glad glad, glass glaa-s, glaze 
glai'z, glean glee'n, glitter glit'er, glossary glos'ur'i. 
gloat gloa't, glut glut, grand grand, grass gr'aa's 
great gr'ai-t, grit ^r'i<, grotto gr'ot'oa, groin gr'oin. 
groom gr'oo'm, growl groul, grub gr'ub. Medial: 
haggard hag-erd, plaguy plavgi, beggar beg-er. 
eager ee^r, tiger tevger^ trigger tr'iyer, flogging 
flog'ing, disemboguing dis'emboa'ging, drugget 
dr'ug-et, sugar shuog-er. Final : nag nag, stag 
stag, plague plai-y, egg ey, league lee-g, big 5iy, bog 
bog, rogue roa'g, rug rwy. Double : a big gun 
u big gun (compare a big 'un u big-un}. 

Q Gr, theoretical implodent of k, see p. 825. 

GH, g., voiced form of kh, pp. 830, 1460. 

'GrH, g. faulty form of gh, allowing uvula to 
trill, p. 840. 

G W, rare e. combination, used for gw\ which see. 
-GW, e. usual form of gw, as here always 
written. See p. 825. 

G W'H, g. labialised form of gh, p. 835. 

GT, e., usually written for gy\ which see. 

GT\ e. a (now) faulty pronunciation of g, 
especially before aa, ei, written gy, pp. 805, 1500. 

GY'H, g. voiced form of kyh, pp. 810, 1460. 

H, e. g., aspirate, in speaking either hi or h?, in 
singing always hf, p. 585. Initial only : ham ham", 
hat hat, heart, hart haa-rt, hate hai-t, haze hai'z, 
haws hau'z, hem hem, heel, heal hee'l, height heit, 
huge heuj (or properly yheuj), hit hit, hot hot, home 
hoa'm, hoist hoist, hoot hoo't, who hoo', howl houl, 
hull hul, hook huok. 

1 H, the Arabic wheeze, p. 605. 

H', e. g. f., the symbol for simple voice, p. 565. 

H, e. g. f., the symbol of simple flatus, p. 560. 

J3"', e., the symbol of whisper, p. 565. 

HH, e., the symbol of jerked flatus, p. 585. 

lH, e., a very perceptible gradual attack, p. 57. 

HI, e., jerked gradual attack, common form of 
aspirate, p. 590. 

Sec. XII. 



Hi, e., jerked clear attack, the singer's aspirate, 
p. 590. 

I, e., replaced by ee, in g. i. f., pp. 280 and b, 
29b, 315, 390. Strong and short : itch ich, if if, 
ill t/, in in, it it, is iz, bib #i, fib fib, jib yii, nib 
m, rib r'ib, fibbed fibd, jibbed jibd, nibbed nibd, 
bibs bibz, fibs/fo, ribs r'ibz, bitch #icA, ditch dich, 
hitch AicA, nitch nich, pitch jsicA, rich r'icA, stitch 
stick, witch wich, which which, hitched hicht, 
pitched picht, bid bid, chid chid, did did, hid Ai^, 
kid &^, lid lid, rid r'trf, quid kwid, width wid'th, 
widths wid'ths, lids lidz, quids kwidz, tiff ^/, stiff 
ft/, whiff wAt/j tiffs tifs, whiffs wAtjft, whiffed 
whift, lift /(/if, fifth //*A, fifths fifths, big %, dig 
diff, fig A, gig <7*<7, jig jiff, pig 4V, rig r'iy, wig 
wt^, swig *t0t^, whig whiff, jigged jigd, rigged 
r'igd, wigs wigz, gigs ^tyz, midge mij, ridge r'y, 
ridged r'ijd, Dick DtA, kick AtA, lick lik, flick ,/KA, 
click A/tA, nick tA, pick jwA, rick r'ik, brick ir*tA, 
crick kr'ik, prick jtfr'tA;, sick si A;, tick tik, thick 
*AiA;, wick wik, quick Awt'A, nicks wiA;s, fix fiks, six 
*tA*, fixed fikst, sixth siksth, sixths siksths, licked 
likt, pricked pr'ikt, ill il, biU */, chill <?At/, fill//, 
gill /, hill At/, jill jil, kill At//, skiU At/, mill 
mil, pillow/, rill rt/, briU Jr't/, driU dr't/, frill /r't/, 
griU^t/, shrUl Ar't/, thrill *A/i/, siU /, till /, 
will tot/, quill At0t/, swiU swil, filch >, 7 cA, filched 
filcht, killed At/rf, drilled rfr't/rf, thrilled thr'ild, 
builds bildz,- bilge bilj, bilk ii/A;, milk mi/A;, silk 
silk, silks si/A:s, film film, films jtf/wz, kihi A;i/w 
(usually At/), built Atft, guilt, gilt ^i/^, hilt Ai/^, 
jilt jilt, kilt At/*, lilt /t, milt milt, silt tft, tilt 
tilt, wilt wtft, hilts At/to, jilts jilts, ills tfo, biUs 
bilz, mills wife, f rills fr'ilz, dim c?iw, him Aim, Jem 
Jim, limb &m, rim r'im, brim ir'im, grim gr'im, 
prim pr'im, Tim rtm, whim whim, limbed /iw<?, 
shrimp shrimp, guimp gimp, limp /tmp, shrimps 
shrimps, limped limpt, in, inn in, bin Jiw, chin cAiw, 
din din, fmfin, begin biffin-, gin jin, kin A;iw, pin 
pin, grin ^r'iw, sin sm, shin shin, tin iw, thin thin, 
win w?iw, whin wAm, inch inch, finch finch, lynch 
linch, pinch pinch, winch winch, pinched p^ncht t 
lynched /t0A, Ind Ind, double- chinned dub'l- 

chiwd, dinned dind, finned find, piuned pind t 
sinned sind, shinned shind, tinned tind, thinned 
thind, hinge hinj, impinge impinj, fringe fr'inf, 
cringe kr'inj, springe spr'inj, singe sinj, tinge tinj, 
fringed fr'in/d, singed sinjd, mince mins, rince 
r'ins, prince prins, since sins, wince wins, minced 
minst, winced winst, dint dint, hint hint, lint lint, 
flint fiint, glint glint, splint splint, mint mint, 
print pr'int, tint tint, splints splints, plinth plinth, 
plinths plinths, king king, ling ling, sling s/iw^, 
ring r'iny, sing sm^r, string sir' ing, thing thing, 
wing mw^, winged wingd, chink chingk, link 
/m^A, blink blingk, pink pingk, rink ringk, drink 
dr'ingk, sink siw^A;, stink sting k, think thingk, 
wink wingk, drinks dr'ingks, thinks thingks, 
blinked blingkt, winked wingkt, stings stingz, 
wings wingz, chip cAij9, dip <%?, hip Ai/?, gypjip, 
skip sA;ijt?, lip /ij, flip /ip, clip A/ijt?, slip slip, nip 
nip, pip pip, rip r'tp, drip rfr'ij9, grip ^r'tp, scrip 
skr'ip, strip str'ip, sip sij, ship sAi#>, tip <tp, equip 
ikwip', whip whip, ships ships, whips whips, 
shipped shipt, whipped whipt, this dhis, hiss his, kiss 
Aw, bliss i/is, miss mu, frisk fr'isk, f risks fr'isks, 
lisp /wj?, crisp kr'isp, wisp m*j9, whisp whisp, lisps 
/tsjos, fist ./?*#, hist Aisif, gist yt*^, mist, missed mi*^, 
wrist r'ist, grist gr'ist, whist whist, wrists r'ista, 
dish ^isA, fish fish, wish wisA, whish whish, fished 
/A^, whisht whisht, it t, bit ii*, chit chit, fit /, 
hit At*, kit At*, lit lit, flit fiit, split *j9/i*, slit /t*, 
smit smit, nit, knit i*, pit pit, writ r'i, grit ffr'it, 
sit st*, tit *i*, wit wit, whit wAi, Eitz Fits, writs 
r't**, kith At*A, myth mith, pith ^i*A, frith fr'ith, 
myths miths, live (v.) liv, sieve siv, lived /ivc?, 
lives (v.) livz, sieves sivz, is iz, his Aiz, Liz Liz, 
'tis *iz, whizz wAiz, whizzed whizd. Weak, short, 
and open, by some considered as -i' : lobby lob'i, 
piracy pei-rr'esi, ready r'ed'i, clayey klai-i, leafy 
lee'fi, craggy kr'ag'i, stingy stin-ji, valley val'i, 
chimney chim'ni, bushy buosh'i, stithy stidh'i, 
healthy hel'thi, leaky /^*At, bravely brai-vli, poppy 
pop'i, beggary beg'ur'i, aviary arviur'i, salary 
sal'ur'i, laundry laa'ndr'i, nunnery nun-ur'i, glory 
gloa'rr'i, defamatory difam'utur'i, parry par'-i, 
cherry cher'"i, sorry sor'i, hurry hur-i, sultry 



Sec. XII. 

sul'tri, vestry ves'tri, fury feu-rr'i, usury eu'zhur'i, 
courtesy koa-rtesi, ker-tsi, pansy pan f zi, daisy dai'zi, 
busy biz'i, haughty hau-ti, unity eu'niti, envy 
en'vi, colloquy kol'oakwi, dizzy diz'i. Ex. pp. 
1180, 119*, 128*. 

i, mark of an i forming a diphthong with the 
preceding vowel, p. 43*, or of short i. 

I', e., p. 290, the Welsh u, p. 290, supposed in- 
distinct sound of weak short open i, which gee, 
p. 390. 

IEE, e., a throat glide, and dialectal form of ee, 
written ee, p. 55*. 

WO, e., a form of eu, p. 480. 

I'u, e. , the murmur diphthong in eer, p. 50*. 

? Z7j&, a theoretical lip glide, faulty form of ue, 
p. 55*. 

lUO'u, e., a form of eur, which see. 

J-wV, e., a form of 0m-', which see. 

J, e. i., not dzh, but dy'zh', see p. 800. Initial 
before vowels : jack jak, jaundice jaan'dis, jade 
jai'd, jaw/aw, jet ,/e, genius j'ee'nius, gi&ntj/ei'eftl, 
June /ewtt, jig jiff, jot >, jolt /otrft, joy Joi, jowl 
/oJ, just /wsZ. / does not occur initially before 
consonants. Medial between vowels : badger 
baj-er, paging pai'jing, raging rai'jing, pledging 
plej-ing, lieges tee-jez, obliging oablei'jing, fidget 
fij'et, Hodge's Hoj'ez, gouging goo'jing, budget 
buj-et. Final after vowels: age */, engage 
engai-j, edge ej, dredge dr'ej', ridge r'ij, podge poj, 
judge juj, liege leey, oblige oablei-j, doge doa'j, 
gouge goo-j. Double : a huge giant u yhewj jei'entt 
a stage jest u stai-j jest, a strange joke u str'ai'nj 
joa-k. Ex. p. 1250. 

/', a sonant form of j, p. 790. 

J'ZH', a possible form of j, p. 800. 

K, e. g. i. f., see p. 82*. Initial before vowels : 
cat kat, cart &00-r, cate kai-f, call kau'l, kept kept, 
keep kee'p, kite keit, cue keu, kit kit, cot kot, eoat 
koa-t, coil koil, eool koo-l, cowl koul, cut kut, cook 
^wo^r. Initial before consonants : clad klad, class 
klaa-s, clay ^fei, claws klau'z, cleft A:^, cleave 
klee-v, clime &im, cliff ^^/, clot klot, clove kloa-v, 
cloy ^rfoi, cloud kloud, club ^^M*, cram &r0w, crane 

krai'n, crawl krawl, crept #n?^, cream kr'ee-m, 
crime kr'eim, criminal kr'im'inel, croft kr'oft, croak 
kroa-k, crude kr'oo-d, crowd kr'oud, qualm kwaa-m, 
quail kwai'l, quell &M>^, queen, quean kwee-n, quite 
kweit, quit kwit, quantity kwon'titi, quote kwoa'i 
(sometimes koa't). quoit &w>oi (often &0i) ; all 
these &w are really ^^', which see. Medial 
between vowels : sacking sak'ing, taking tai-king, 
walking wau-king, pecker pek-er, meeker mee-ker, 
striking str'ei'king, puking peu'king, picking 
pik'ing, knocking nok'ing, poking poa-king, ducking 
duk-ing, cooking kuok'ing, looking luok'ing. Final 
after vowels : back bak, bake bai'k, balk bau-k. 
neck nek, meek mee-k, spike spei'k, Suke Seu-k. 
sick sik, lock lok, poke poa'k, suck suk, look ^woi 
Double : bookcase buok-kais (compare bouquets 
buok-aiz), a black cat u blak kat, a black cock 
u blak kok, a quick camel u kwik kamel, a quid? 
canter M kwik kan-ter. 

JT, e., the sound produced by gently separating 
the back of the tongue from the roof of the mouth 
as black blak , see p. 94*. 

KH, g., see pp. 830, 1460, the guttural hiss. 

1 KH, g. faulty form of kh, with a trill of thf 
uvula, p. 840. 

K-H, g. post-aspirated k, the following vowe' 
being jerked, or preceded by jerked flatus, p. 900. 

KH, e. final k followed by an ejection of flatus 
stronger than k, see p. 94*. 

KV, the real g. ' qu ' in quelle kv'ael'u, see. 
p. 830. 

KW, e., p. 82*, an attempt to pronounce k and 
w at the same time, the true e. 'qu' in quell 
kw'el, usually written kw, see k. 

KWH, g., the guttural hiss kh, pronounced 
while the lips are rounded for oo, p. 83*. 

KY\ e., p. 80*, old-fashioned attempt to pro- 
nounce k and y together, pp. 80*, 1500. 

KTH. g., pp. 810, 1460, the palatal hiss in ich 

L, e. (the g. i. f. form is I', which see), see 
p. 730. Initial before vowels : lad 00*, last laa-st, 
late lai-t, law lau, let let, least lee'st, light leit, 
lute leu't (or loot], lit lit, lot lot* loam loa'm, 

Sec. XII. 



Lloyd Laid, loom loo-m, loud loud, luck luk, look 
luok. L does not occur initial before consonants. 
Medial between vowels : alley al-i, railing r'ai'ling, 
calling kau-hng, selling pel- ing, ceiling, sealing 
see-ling, filing fei'ling, duly deu'li, killing kil'ing, 
Dolly Dol-i, coaling koa-ling, coiling koi-ling, cool- 
ing ' koo-ling, growling growling, culling kul'ing, 
pulling puol-ing. Final after vowels : Sal Sal, sail 
sai'l, Saul Sau-l, sell sel, seal see-l, pile peil, mule 
mewl, pill pil, doll dol, droll dr'oa'l, toil tot/, tool 
too-/, fowl foul, dull </tf/, full /MO/. Final after 
consonants, vocal, forming a syllable and capable 
of being followed by d or z : dabble dab- 1, dabbled 
dab-Id, dabbles dab'lz, addle ad-l, snaffle snaf-l, 
higgle hig-l, haggle hag-l, struggle str'uyl, cackle 
kak-l, sickle sik-l, apple ap-l, nipple nip- 1, ripple 
rip-l, jostle jos-l, epistle ipis-l, little /*/, kettle 
ket-l, cattle &/, mizzle wiz-/, drizzle driz'l. If a 
vowel follows as an inflection, the / ceases to form 
a syllable, as stable, stabling stai-bl, stai-bling, not 
stai'bl-ing or stai'bl-ling. Double between two 
vowels : a full league ufuol lee-g, a dull lad u dul 
lad (compare dullard dul-erd), Mill Lane Mil Lai'n, 
not till late not til lai't (compare not till eight not 
til ai-t], a tall lady u tau-l lai'di, a wall lamp u wau-l 
lamp, vile labour veil lai-ber, illicit illis-it (compare 
elicit ilis-it), ill luck U luk, soulless soa-lles (com- 
pare solace soa-les). Double between a consonant 
and a vowel : Apple Lane Ap'l Lai-n, the battle 
lasted long dhi bat-l laa-sted long, a little lass u 
lit-l laa-s, to haggle long too hag-l long. Ex. p. 1 255. 

L\ g. i. f., with the point of the tongue against 
the gums or teeth, but Englishmen need not 
distinguish it from /, p. 735. 

( L, theoretical unilateral /, one side of the tongue 
being close to the palate, and the other (generally 
the right side) depressed to allow a passage of air, 
AS in clicking to make a horse go on, p. 735. 

4 Z, possible western e. I, with the under part of 
the point of the tongue brought against the palate, 
see p. 735. 

LH, the hiss of /, p. 735. 

VH, the hiss of /', p. 735 

'LH, the hiss of % the Welsh ' U ' as Hall '/Aa'/A 
p. 735. 

LY', i., attempt to pronounce / and y at the same 
time, pp. 815, 1485. 

M, e. g. i. f., see p. 665. Initial before vowels : 
mat mat, Mars Maa-rz, mail, male mai-l, maul 
mau-l, mellow mel-oa, Molly Mol-i, mole moa-l, 
moist moist, move moo-v, mouth mouth, muff muf. 
M does not occur initially before consonants. 
Medial between vowels : clammy klam'i, maiming 
mai-ming, hemmer henrer, teeming tee-ming, climb- 
ing klei-ming, fumitory feu-mitur'i, dimming dim-- 
ing, Tommy Tom-i, gloaming gloa-ming, grooming 
gr'oo-ming, humming hum-ing. Final after a 
vowel : ham ham, aim ai'm, shalm shawm, stem 
stem, team, teem tee'm, time teim, dim dim, Tom Tom, 
loam loa'm, tomb too-m, room r'oo-m (not r'wom). 
hum hum. Final after a consonant, not forming a 
syllable : realm r'elm', elm elm-, whelm whelm-, 
film film'. Words like worm werm, term term, 
formfatirm, do not belong to this class unless the 
r" is heard, and then speakers are apt to make the 
m form a syllable, as wur'-em, ter'-em, for' -em, and 
similarly they are apt to say el-em ; neither fault 
should be imitated. Final after a consonant, 
forming a syllable : logarithm log-urith-'m, chasm 
kaz'm, enthusiasm entheu'ziaz-'m, spasm spaz-m, 
criticism krit-isiz-'m, schism siz-m, sophism sofiz-m, 
organism au-rguniz-'m, prism pr'iz-m, egotism 
eg-oatiz''m, abysm abis'm, paroxysm par'-oksiz-'m. 
Double between two vowels : a calm manner u 
kaa-m man~er, to thrum music too thrum meu'zik, 
a grim man u grim man, immure immewr, some 
magpies sum mag-peiz. Double between a conso- 
nant and a vowel : the schism mentioned dhi siz-m 
men-shend, a prism made by me u priz-m mai'd bei 
mee, a spasm might ensue u spaz-m meit enseu-, 
heroism modernism mechanism her-oaiz~'m mod'ern- 
iz-'m mek-uniz-'m. Ex. p. 1260. 

MH, theoretical flated form of m, p. 675. 

MP, e. final, extremely short sound of m, checked 
by closing the glottis, p. 985. 


N, e. v the g. i. f. form is n", which see), p. 11 a. 
Initial before vowels : gnat nat, gnarled naa-rld, 
nail nai-l, gnaw nau, knell nel, kneel nee- 1, knife 
ne^f, newt <, knit nit, knot, not wo, note noa-t, 
noodle noo-dl, now MOM, nut nut. N does not occur 
initial before consonants. Medial between vowels: 
Fanny Fan'i, staining stai'ning, awning awning, 
penning pen-ing, weaning wee-ning, pining penning, 
tuning tewning, pinning pin'ing, bonnet bon'et, 
owning oa-ning, joining joi-ning, crooning kroo-n- 
ing, frowning frowning, punish pun'ish. Final 
after vowels : pan pan, pain, pane pai'n, pawn 
pawn, pen pen, seem, seam see-m, sign sein, tune 
tewn, pin pin, gone gon, groan gr'oa-n, groin groin, 
soon soo-n (not suon), brown br'oun, fun fun. 
Final after consonants, all the following may also 
be pronounced with indistinct en, which see : ashen 
ash-n, freshen fr'esh'n, heathen hee'dhn, oaken 
oa-kn, taken tai-kn, silken sil-Jcen, spoken spoa-Jcn, 
happen hap-n, chosen choa'zn, lessen, lesson les-n, 
beaten bee'tn, often of-n, hasten hai-sn, flatten 
flal'n, rotten rot-n, seven sewn, waxen waks-n, 
frozen froa-zn, basin bai-zn (some call Latin Lat'n, 
satin sat-n, but it is an antiquated pronunciation), 
rosin, resin roz'n (or roz'in or rez'inj, pardon 
paa-rdn, wagon wag-n, syphon sei'fn, reason ree-zn, 
treason tr'ee'zn, season see-zn, poison poi-zn, cotton 
kot-n, mutton mut-n, button but'n (these three last 
are perhaps never Jcot-en, mut-en, but-en). Double 
between two vowels : unknown unnoa'n (compare 
unowned unoa'nd), one known to me wun noa'n too 
mee, soon known soo'n noa-n, sign now sein nou, 
sign none sein none, a nun known now u nun noa-n 
nou. Double between a consonant and a vowel: 
Newton knew well Newtn neu wel, it's frozen now 
its froa-zn nou, chosen knolls choa-zn nolz, beaten 
never bee-tn never, often now of-n nou, he saw 
treason nigh hee sau tr'ee'zn nei. Ex. p. 1265. 

N', symbol for French nasalisation, see aen', 
ahn', oan', oeri , p. 395. 

N", g. i. f., dental n, p. Ha, with the point of 
the tongue against the gums or teeth, for which 
an Englishman may always use his own n, which 


t N, an n made with the tongue in the position of 
t d, which see, p. lla. 

NG, e. g. i., see p. 84a. Never initial in English 
either before a vowel or a consonant. Medial 
between two vowels : hanger hang-er, ganger 
gang-er, singer sing'er, longer long-er (one who 
longs, but long-ger more long), hanging hang-ing, 
singing sing-ing, longing long-ing. Final: bang 
bang, fang fang, gang gang, hang hang, clang 
Hang, slang slang, pang pang, rang rang, sang 
sang, stang stang, king Icing, ling ling, fling fling, 
cling kling, sling sling, ring ring, bring br'ing, 
string sir 1 ing, thing thing, wing wing, swing swing, 
gong gong, long long, strong str'ong, thr'ong throng, 
song song, thong thong. Never double. Ex. p. 

NGG, e., see p. 84i. Never initial, final, or 
double, only medial : &.ng&cjing-ger, linger ling-ger, 
stronger str'ong-ger, hunger hung-ger. Avoid final 

NGH, theoretical flated form of ng, see p. S5a. 

NGK, e. g., p. 985. Very short ng terminated 
by closing the glottis, never initial, common final : 
bank bangk, think thingk, wink wingk, hunk hungk, 
monk nwngk. When medial proper the ng is 
equally short, as thinking thingk- ing, winking 
wingk- ing, but sometimes advantage is taken of the 
following vowel to lengthen the ng, and this is^ 
always the case in Italian : monkey mung'ki, not 
generally mungk'i, but flunkey Jlungk-i always; 
Italian ancora aang-koa-raa. 

NH, e. flated form of n, still heard in Cumber- 
land for kn initial, p. 78b. 

N"H, flated form of n", which see, p. 783. 

NY', i. f., p. 82, an attempt to pronounce n and 
y at the same time. Ex. pp. 148i, 1505. 

NT, e., p. 985, very short n terminated by closing 
the glottis, when nt is final, as pant pant-, paint 
pai'nt, haunt hawnt (or haa'nt], went went, pint 
peint, hint hint, font font, won't woa'nt, aroynt 
uroi'nt, fount fount, punt punt. When medial 

Sec. XII. 



advantage is taken of the following vowel to 
lengthen the n, as painting pain-ting, hinting 
hin--ting, hunting hun'-ting. 

0, e. (the foreign form is ao), p. 35, 360. Strong 
and short : bob bob, fob fob, hob hob, job job, cob 
kob, blob blob, mob mob, knob w0, rob r'oi, throb 
thr'ob, sob so, swab swob, jobbed jobd, cobs /bfo, 
botch boch, notch noch, watch woch, watched 
wocht, god god, hod hod, cod &o^, plod plod, nod 
woe?, pod J906?, rod r'od, sod so^, wad woe?, hods hodz, 
rods r'oife, off of, doff <&>/, cough &o/ (or kau-f], 
doffs efo/s, coughed koft (or kau~ft], crofts krofts, 
lofts /o/Vs, bog do?, dog dog, fog /o^, Gog oy, hog 

jogged >yc?, flogs fiogz, dodge %', Hodge JETo;, 
lodge loj, lodged lojd, dock dok, cock &o&, lock o&, 
block blok, flock ^o^, clock &o&, mock mok, knock 
nok, pock pok, rock r'oAr, frock frok, crock r'o&, 
sock so&, shock shok, thou mock'st c?Aow mokst, 
mocked mokt, shocked shokt, doll dol, loll fo/, Moll 
JfoJ, knoll nol, Poll PoJ (but poU poa't), golf ^o//, 
dolls dolz, lolls jWz, romp r'omp, prompt pr'ompt, 
prompts prompts, on on, don ?ow, gone yow (or 
gau-n], John 7b, con kon, shone sAow (sAtw or 
shoa-n), bond iowe?, donned ^ewc?, fond fond, 
conned kond, blond blond, pond pond, frond 
frond, wand wows?, ponds pondz, wands wondz, 
sconce skons, font yo (see -nt], fonts fonts, cons 
konz, gong //owy, long /ow^, prong pr'ong, strong 
str'ong, throng thr'ong, song sowy, thong thong, 
longed longd, thronged thr'ongd, songs songz, 
thongs thongz, chop oAoj?, fop fop, hop Aqp, lop lop, 
flop^oj?, slop s^, mop mop, pop joo/?, drop ^r'oj9, 
crop kr'op, prop pr'op, sop sop, shop sAoj9, top ^q/?, 
stop stop, whap wAo/?, swap swop, slops *&^?s, stops 
*#oj35, cropped kr'opt, propped pr'opt, adopts udop-ts, 
loss los (or laws), floss ^os, gloss yfos, Joss Jos, 
moss mos, Ross ^05, dross dros (these 5 words never 
have -aws], cross kr'os (or kr'au's], toss ^os (or 
<aws), cost /cost (or kau-st], lost fos (or lawst), 
mossed wos#, frost fr'ost (or fr'au'st], crossed kr'ost 
(or kr'au-st), tossed ^o*^ (or tawst), wast wo*^, frosts 
frosts (or fr'au'sts), bosh iosA, wash wosA, quash 
kwosh, washed wosht, quashed kwosht, dot ?o^, got 

got, hot Aoif, jot jot, cot &<tf, scot 5^0^, lot lot, blot 
/o, clot klot, plot j9?oi{, slot sfo^, not not, pot jt?o, 
rot rot, grot ^r'otf, sot so^, shot shot, wot wo, 
squat skwot, what wAo#, blots ifoiJs, clots klots, 
cloth A^o^A (or klau-th], moth mo^A, wroth r'o^7i (or 
rau'th], broth ir'o^A (or br'au-th), froth fr'oth (or 
fr'au-thj, Thoth Z%o*A (or Tau-t], cloths Ms 
(or klawthsj, frothed fr'otht (or fr' awtht], was 
woz. "Weak and short, rare, as o becomes w, or 
indistinct : chaos kai'os, tripos trei'pos, bloodshot 
blud-shot, upshot up-shot, earshot ee'rshot, polyglot 
pol-iglot, underplot un-derplot, counterplot kou-nter- 
plot, grass-plot or plat graa'splot, cannot kan'ot, slip- 
slop slip-slop, milksop milk'sop, snowdrop snowdrop, 
padlock pad-lok, shuttlecock shut-lkok, thingumbob 
thing-embob, lapdog lap-dog, slipshod slip-shod, dry- 
shod drei-shod. Ex. pp. 118J, 1205, 130*. 

OA, e. g. i. f., see p. 355, 36<z, 39. There is a 
tendency in London to say oa-w, and even oaw, 
p. 36 ; the latter should be avoided always ; the 
oa-w (which is rather a lip glide, p. 550, the lips 
closing from the mid-round position for oa, to the 
high-round position for oo; is used in open 
syllables when final, but only at the end of a 
phrase and word, when there is a pause, and in 
closed strong syllables before vocals and lip letters 
chiefly, its general use should be avoided. Strong 
and long : bow boa-, (or boa-w), doe, dough doa- (or 
doa-w], though dhoa," (seldom dhoa-w, avoid the 
Scotch thoa-}, foe/oar (or/o<rw>), go ^o- (or goa-w, 
avoid goo), hoe hoa- (or hoa-wj, Joe /oa-, low 
loa- (or loa-wj, blow bloa- (or bloa-ivj, ftowjloa- (or 
floa-w^, glow gloa- (or gloa-w), slow sloa- (orsloa-w], 
mow (v.) moa' (or moa-w, mow (s.) mow), no, 
know noa-, noa-w, snow snoa- (or snoa-w], row (v.) 
r'oa- (or r'oa-w ; in the sense of tumult, r'ou), grow 
gr'oa- (or gr'oa-w], crow kr'oa' (or kroa-w], throw 
thr'oa' (or thr'oa-w), sow, sew soa- (or soa-w], 
show, shew shoa' (or shoa-w], toe, tow toa- 
(or toa-w}, stow *;o' (or stoa~w , woe woa- (not 
), Job /oa - 5 (or Joa-wb], lobe ^oa'5 (not 
, because the word is unusual], globe gloa-b, 
robe r'oa-b (or roa-wb], probe proa-b, robed roab'd, 
probed pr'oa-bd, robes roa-bz (or r'oa-wbz), coach 



Sec. XII 

koa'ch, poach poa-ch, roach r'oa-ch, brooch, broach 
br'oa'ch, encroach enkr'oa'ch, poached poa'cht, bode 
boa-d, goad goa'd, hoed hoa-d (or hoa'wd, but 
not common in any such case), load, lode loa'd, 
flowed floa'd, glowed gloa'd, mode moa'd, node 
noa-d, rode road r'oa-d, crowed kroa-d, sowed, 
sewed soa-d, shewed, showed shoa-d, towed, toad 
toa-d, stowed stoa'd, woad ivoa-d, modes moa'dz, 
toads toa-dz, loathe loa-dh, clothe kloa-dh, loathed 
loa f dhd, loathes loa-dhz, clothes kloa'dhz (or kloa-z}, 
oaf oa-f, loaf Zoa-f, loafs loa'fs, loafed loa'ft, rogue 
roa'ff, brogue br'oa'g, vogue voa'g, brogues br'oa'gz, 
doge doa-j, oak oa'k, choke choa'k, joke joa- k, smoke 
smoa-k, poke poa'k, spoke spocrk, broke br'oa-k, 
croak kr'oa'k, stroke str'oa-k, soak soa'k, woke 
woo, k, yoke, yolk, yelk yoa'k, oaks oa'ks, croaks 
kroa-ks, hoax hoa-ks, Nokes Noa'ks, stroked 
str'oa'kt, bowl boa'l (or boa'wl ; when a ball, some- 
times boul), dole doa-l (or doa-wl), foal foa-l (or 
foa-wl), goal goa'l (or goa-wl), hole, whole AoarJ (or 
hoa'wl), coal &o<r (or koa-wl), -mole moa'l (or 
moa-wl), pole j90<r (or poa-wl), roll r'o<r (or 
r'oawl), droll dr'oa-l (or droa-wl), scroll skr'oa-l (or 
skr'oa-wr), sole, soul, soal so<r (or soa-wl), shoal 
sAoa 1 / (or shoa-wl), toll fo<r (or tocrwl ; I find 
that I do not say oa*W in any case, but that I do 
close the lips a little more at the end of the oa than 
at the beginning, not, however, to the complete oo 
position, and that the tongue remains still, so that 
the sound begins with pure oa and ends with an 
oa slightly inclined towards oo; to say oa-wl is 
unnatural to me), holp hoa-lp, bolt boa-It, dolt 
doa'lt, jolt j'oa-lt, moult moa-lt, bolts boal'ts, dolts 
doa'lts, holes hoa'h, dome doa'm (or doa'wm, but in 
all the following words I find that my lips come 
only slightly nearer for oa, and fall suddenly on 
m without passing through the form for oo, com- 
pare doo-m, doa-m in the mirror and see that they 
do not end alike), foam foa-m (or foa-wm), home 
hoa'tn (or hoa'wni), comb koa'm (or koa'wm), loam 
loa-m (or loa'wn), clomb kloa-m (or kloa-wm/, 
gnome noa-m, roam r'ovm, tome toa'm, foamed 
foa-md, combed koam-d, roamed r'oa'md, combs 
koa'mz, roams r'oa'mz, tomes toa-mz, own oa~n (or 

oa'wn, the oa'w more common), bone boa-n (or 

boa-wn), hone hoa-n (or koa-wn], loan, lone Zoa-n, 

blown bioa-n (or bloa-wn), flown floa-n (or Jloa-wri), 

moan moa'n (not often moa'wn), known noa'n (or 

noa-wn) y roan r'oa-n, drone dr'oa-n (or droa f wrij, 

grown gr'oa-n (or groa'wri), prone pr'oa-n, strewn, 

strown str'oa-n, thrown, throne thr'oa~n (or 

throa'wri), sown soorw (or soa-wri), shewn, shown 

shoa-n (or shoa-wn), tone foarw, stone ^oa-w (or 

stoa'wn), don't doa'nt (often doct'wnt], won't woa'nt 

(seldom woa-wnf), bones boa-nz, stones stoa-nz (or 

stoa'wnz], ope 007? (I find oa-wju rather difficult, yet 

I think I hear it occasionally), hope hoa-p, cope 

koa'p, slope sloa'p, mope moa'p, pope poa~p, rope 

r'oa-p, grope gr'oa-p, soap oo;'ji?, hopes hoa'ps, ropes 

r'oa-ps, groped groa-pt, dose cfotrs (some say doa-z), 

close (adj.) kloa-s, boast boa-st, ghost goa-st, host 

hoa'st, coast koa'st, most moa'st, post poa'st, roast 

r'oa-st, toast toa-st, ghosts yoas'ts, hosts hoa-sts, oat 

oa-^, boat 0<r (I have heard boa-wt, and even 

boawt, but thought them very strange), dote cfoa-, 

goat ^o#-, coat 00% bloat bloa-t, float floa't, gloat 

gloa-t, moat moa't, note noa't, rote r'oa't, throat 

thr'oa't, oats oa'te, boats boa-ts, throats throa-ts, 

oath oa'^A, both boa'th (not boa'wth, nor boa-dfr), 

loth loa'th, sloth sloa-th, oath's o-^As (but oaths 

oa'dhz}, hove hoa'v (or hoa'wv), Jove Joa'v (or 

Joa'wv), cove koa'v (or koa'wv}, rove roa'v, drove 

dr'oa-v, grove gr'oav, strove str'oa-v, shrove shr'oa-v, 

throve thr'oa'v, wove woa'v (never woa'wv], coved 

koa-vd, coves koa'vz, groves gr'oa'vz, doze c?o-z", 

those dhoa-z (or dhoa-ws), foes /oa'z (or foa-wz) t 

goes ^rofl'z (or goa'wz), hose Aoorz, blows i/o-z (or 

bloa-wz}, flows ^oa'2 (orjloa'wz), glows, gloze ffloa-z, 

(and, as glows gloa-wz], close ^v.j ^^o-z (orA;foa-W7z), 

nose woa-z (or uoa-wz perhaps, but not often), pose 

j3o-z, rose r'oa-z (or r'oa-wz perhaps), froze /ro-z, 

grows groa'z (or groa-wz) , crows kroa-z (or kr'oa-wz), 

prose pr'oa'z, strews, strows stroa-s (or str'oa-wz), 

throws thr'oa'z (or thr'oa-wz), sows (v.) soarz (or 

soa'wz, but sows (s.) sowz), shews shows shoa-z (or 

shoa'wz , toes, toze foa'z, woes woa-z. Weak and 

strong, in open syllables, and then often -M, which 

when final, is confounded with -*r by many 

Sec. XII. 



speakers, that is, they consider themselves at 
liberty to add an r when a vowel follows, or to 
rhyme with words in -er, as ' window, cinder ;' 
this should be carefully avoided. There is never 
any tendency to change oa into oaw under such 
circumstances. Felloe fel'oa (very often pro- 
nounced fel-i, and even written ' felly,') mistletoe 
miz-ltoa, tiptoe tip-toa, hero hee-rr'oa, negro nee'groa, 
tyro tei-rr'oa, also au-Zsoa, potato potai'toa (often 
ptt-^-tai'tu), mulatto meulat'oa, motto mot'oa, grotto 
gr'ot'oa, bravo braa'voa (not brai'voa, still less 
brai'v-^-oa], salvo sal'voa, embryo em-br'ioa, elbow 
el'boa, rainbow rai-nboa, meadow med f oa, shadow 
shad'oa, widow wid-oa, window win'doa, furbelow 
fer'biloa, callow kal'oa, fallow fal'oa, hallow hal'oa, 
shallow shal-oa, sallow sal-oa, tallow tal'oa, wallow 
wol-oa, swallow swol-oa, fellow fel-oa, bellow bel-oa, 
mellow mel- oa, yellow yel-oa (not yel-u, or yal'er), 
billow bil-oa, ipillowipil'oa (distinguish from pillar 
pil'er), willow wil-oa, callow kal'oa, follow fol'oa, 
hollow hol'oa, minnow min'oa, winnow win'oa, 
arrow ar f oa, barrow bar'-oa, f arrow far'-oa, harrow 
har'-oa, marrow mar-'oa, narrow nar'-oa, sparrow 
spar'-oa, morrow mor'-oa, sorrow sor'-oa, burrow 
bur'~oa, furrow fur''oa, tornado taurnai'doa, lum- 
bago lumbai-goa, virago vir'ai-goa, sago sai-goa, 
indigo in'digoa, vertigo ver'tigoa, cargo kaa'rgoa, 
echo ek'oa, ioliofoa'lioa, ratio rai'shioa, buffalo buf~- 
uloa solo soa-loa, volcano volkai'noa (or volkaa-noa), 
insolent in's&alent, innocence in-oasens (compare, 
in no sense in noa' sen's), trilogy tril-oaji (or 
tril-i^-ji, and so for all endings in '-logy,' as) 
zoology zoa-ol'oaji, zoa-ol'uji, zoological zov'oa- 
loj-ikel, zoophyte zocroafeit, Laocoon Zaiok-oa-on, 
innovation in''oavai'shen, impotence im'poatens, 
omnipotence omnip'oatens, geographical jee^oa- 
graf-ikel, geometrical jee-'oamet-r'ikel. Ex. pp. 
114*, 1163, 124, 131$, 135a. 

O'A, e. provincial lip glide, same as uuoa, p. 55b. 

OAi, e., a faulty form of oi, which see. 

OA-1, e. faulty form of oi, p 455, not to be 
tolerated for ei, p. 44a. 

OAN', f. nasalised oa, more like oang than ong, 
p 40i. 

OA-R, e., representing the murmur diphthong 
ao'ii, with the permission to add on a trill ; not to 
pronounced au'u or au, p. 5Qb. Always strong 
and long. Oar, ore oa~r, door doa'r, fore foa-r, 
gore ffoa-r, hoar hoa-r, core koa-r, score skoa-r, lore 
loa-r, floor floa'r, deplore diploa-r, more moa-r, Nore 
Noa'r, snore snoa'r, pore, pour poa'r, roar r'o*r, 
crore kr'oa'r, sore, soar soa'r, shore shoa'r, tore 
toa-r, store stocrr, wore woa-r, yore yoa f r, porch 
poa-rch, torch toa'rch y board boa'rd, ford foa-rd, 
gored gocfrd, hoard hoa-rd, floored Jloa-rd, pored, 
poured poa'rd, roared r'ocrrd, soared soa'rd, stored 
stoa'rd, hoards hoa'rdz, fords foa'rdz, borne boa'rn 
(distinguish born bau'rri), mourn moa-rn (also 
moo'rn, distinguish from morn mau'rri), shorn 
shoa-rn, torn toa-rn, worn woa'rn, mourns moa-rnz, 
hoarse hovrs (distinguish horse hau'rs), force 
foa-rs, coarse, course koa'rs, source soa'rs. The 
distinction between oa'rt, au'rt (or au-t], oa-rn, 
au-rn (or awn), oa'rs, au'rs (or au-s) should be kept 
very clear. If any difficulty is felt, begin in two 
syllables with oa-er, alter to ao-er, ao'er, ao'r, and 
see pp. 131 a, 136*. 

OA-ER', e., standing for ao-ur ', p. 50*. Long 
and strong, before a vowel only : goring goa'rr'ing, 
scoring skoa'rr'ing, flooring floa'rr'ina, Flora 
Floa'rr'u, snoring snoa-rr'ing, roaring r'oa-rr'ing, 
storing stoa-rring, sorer soa-rr'er. See p. 137. 

OA'u, e. murmur diphthong, faulty form of oar, 
which see. 

OAuo, e. faulty form of ou, p. 47. 

OA-uo, e. vanish of oa, p. 47*. 

OA W y e. faulty form of ou, p. 47*. 

OA-W, e. vanish of oa, pp. 47*, 55*, 124. 
OAT, g. f.,p. 46*. 

OE, g. f., see pp. 300, 31*, 390, 144*, 149*. 
OEee, f. diphthong, see p. 470. 

OEN', f. nasal vowel something like ung, sea 
p. 410. 

OUT, f. diphthong, see p. 470. 

01, e. g. diphthong, p. 45*, i. andf. form, p. 46a. 
Generally awl when final and strong, as boy *ot f 



Sec. XII. 

(when this is weak, as footboy fuot'boi, the diph- 
thong becomes o7) , coy koi, hoy hoi, joy joi, cloy 
kloi t alloy alloi" (or uloi'j, employ emploi-, annoy 
unoi' troy troi, destroy destroi', toy toi, buoy boi 
(or *oo-), and this remains before inflexional d } z, 
as destroys destroi' z, destroyed destroi' d, and even 
poise poi-z t poised poizd, but before * it is more 
frequently 01, and may be always so pronounced, 
as oyster oi'ster, boisterous boi'stur'us, hoist hoist, 
joist joist (not jois, nor jeis), foist foist ; before n 
it is variable, as join join (notjein'), coin koin, loin 
An (not few), point j!?ow (not j^). Ex. pp. 
123*, 1340. 

Oi, e., proper form of oi, especially before s, 
p. 45*. 

0/.K, e., commonly called waur, p. 520. 

0Tw, e. attempt to pronounce ' choir, moire,' with 
oi, see p. 520. 

ON', e. substitute for f. ahn", p. 400. 

00, e. g. i. f., see p. 36*, peculiar g. and Swedish, 
p. 370, may be sung as wo, p.' 390. Long and 
strong: do doo", who Aoo-, coo 00*, loo 00-, blue 
0700', flew Jloo', glue gloo', clue, clew &/oo', slew 
sloo' (or .s&w), pooh J000-, rue roo', brew br'oo-, drew 
0>'0o', grew gr'oo', crew kr'oo-, strew str'oo', shrew 
shr'oo- (formerly shroa'}, true tfr'oo-, threw, through 
thr'oo', shoe sAoo-, too, two (and sometimes 'to') 
00', woo woo', the Zoo 0"Ai Zoo-, food foo'd y cooed 
#00'0*, glued gloo'd, slewed sloo-d, mood moo-d, snood 
snoo'd, rude r'oo'd, brood br'oo'd, crude kroo-d, 
strewed str'oo-dy shrewd shr'oo-d, shoed shoo'd, 
wooed woo'd, foods foo-dz, broods br'oo-dz> mooda 
moo'dz, booth boo'dh, soothe soo'th, soothed soo-dhd, 
soothes soo'dhs, aloof uloo-f, roof r'oo'f, woof woo 1 /, 
roofs r'oo-fs, roofed r'oo-ft, gouge ^ooy, fool/00'^, 
ghoul ^oo^, cool koo-t, school skoo-l, pool jsoo'/, 
spool spoo-ly rule 7*'oo'/, tool too'l, cooled koo'ld, 
ruled r'oo'ld, schools skoo-lz, tools ^oo-/z, boom 
boo-m, doom doo'm, whom hoo'm, Combe Koo'm, 
loom foo'm, bloom bloo-m, gloom gloo-m, plume 
ploo-m, (or pleu-m), room r'oo-m (not r'uoiri), broom, 
Brougham br'oo'm (the latter not r'oa'e)ri), tomb 
<oo';n, bloomed bloo'md, doomed doo'md, boon *oo'w, 
loon foo'w, moon moo'n, noon woo', soon *oo'w (not 

suon), moons moo'nz, hoop Aoo'ju, coop Jcoo'p, loop 
foo-j3, poop ;;oo-j0, roop r'oo-p> droop dr'oo-p, group 
groo'p, croup kr'oop, scruple skr'oo-pl, soup soo^?, 
whoop whoo-p, hoops hoo-ps, groups gr 1 oo-ps, hooped 
hoo-pt, drooped droo'pt y goose goo-s, loose loo's, 
loosed loo-st, moot tnoo-t y root r'oo-^, brute br'oo't 
(not br'eu't], fruit frooi (not fr'eu'tj, soot *oo'^ (or 
swo^ or sutj, shoot shoo't, moots moo'ts, fruits 
fr'oo'ts, shoots shoo-ts, uncouth unkoo'th, forsooth 
faursoo'th, tooth too'th, tooth's too'ths, move moo'v, 
prove pr'oo-v, moved moo-vd, proved pr'oo-vd, moves 
moo - vz, proves pr' oo- vz. Long and weak, in closed 
syllables: forenoon foa'rnoon, Blackpool Jllak-pool, 
storeroom stoa'rr'oom. Short and weak, in open 
syllables : into in-foo, unto un'too, influence in'- 
Jlooens, rheumatic r'oomat'ik, rugose roogoa's^ 
rubescent roobes-ent. Ex. pp. lloa, 117, 1313, 

O'O, e. prov., an 00 begun with the mouth open, 
same as ww'oo, p. 37# and p. 55*. 

ooAA, i. f., usually written waa, p. 49#. 

OOaa, i. slurred diphthong, p. 148a. 

ooAAee, i. close triphthong, pp. 45a, 49a. 

ooAI, i. close diphthong, p. 49. 

So AO, i. close diphthong, p. 49a. 

ooAOee, i. close triphthong, p. 490. 

oo E, e. form of we, as dwell dooel, p. 490. 

ooEE, f. form of oui, usually written wee, pp. 
460, 49*. 

oo/, e. form of wi, as twin tooin, p. 490. 

00*E, e., p. 50*, the murmur diphthong uo'u y 
with permission to append a trilled r\ Strong and 
long: boor boo-r, lure loo-r (or leu-rj, moor moo'r t 
poor poo'r, sure shoo'r (or shewr). Weak and long: 
Dartmoor Daa-rtmoor. See p. 1370. 

OO'EE', e., meaning twitr', p. 50*. Long and 
strong before vowels only, boorish boo'rr'ish, moor- 
ing moo'rr'ing, poorer poo'rr'er. 

OO'u, e., p. 50*, the murmur diphthong in oor, 
which see. 

00 Y, g. i. f., p. 46*. 

OU, unanalysed diphthong with different species 
in e. and others in g. i. f., see p. 47. Strong : 

Sec. XII. 



bough, bow (v.) bou, thou dhou, how hou, cow kou, 
plough plou, slough slou, mow (s.) mou, now nou, 
row (noise) r'ou, brow brou, prow prow, sow (s.) 
sou, vow vou, wow wow, couch, co witch kouch, 
slouch slouch, pouch pouch, crouch kr'ouch, vouch 
vouch, crouched kr oucht, vouched voucht, bowed boud, 
cowed koud, loud loud, proud pr'oud, vowed voud, 
bow-wowed bouwou-d, mouthe moudh, south (v.) 
soudh, mouthed moudhd, southed soudhd, owl oul, 
foul, fowl foul, howl houl, jowl joul, coul koul, 
growl groul, prowl pr'oul, growled gr'ould, prowled 
pr'ould, howled hould, owls oulz, fowls foulz, down 
doun, gown goun, brown br'oun, drown dr'oun, 
frown fr'oun, crown kr'outi, town toun, bound 
bound, found found, hound hound, mound mound, 
pound pound, round r'ound, browned br'ound 
drowned dr'ound, frowned fr' ound, ground grr'ottnd, 
crowned kround, sound sound, wound (p.p.) wound, 
mounds moundz, pounds poundz, flounce flouns 
pounce pouns, trounce tr'ouns, flounced flounst, 
trounced trounst, fount fount, count kount, mount 
mount, founts founts, mounts mounts, gowns gounz, 
crowns krounz, hounds houndz, chouse chous, douse 
dous, house hous, louse lous, mouse (s.) mous, grouse 
gr'ous, souse sous, soused soust, out out, bout bout, 
doubt dout, gout gout, lout lout, flout flout, pout 
rout r'out, drought dr'out, sprout spr'out, trout 
tr'out, shout shout, tout tout, doubts douts, trouts 
tr'outs, shouts shouts, mouth mouth, south south, 
cows kouz, ploughs plouz, brows br'ouz, prows 
pr'ouz. Ex. pp. 123*, 134$, 135 a. 

OTTER, e., p. 52*, two syllables, as distinct from 
our, which see. 

OU-ERR', e. form of ou-ur' , p. 526. 

OTTR, e., p. 52*, murmur triphthong ou-u, with 
a permissive trill r' after it. Long and strong: 
bower bour, dower dour, cower kour, lour lour, 
flower, flour flour, glower glour, power pour (but 
pour poa-r, poo-r], sour sour, shower shour, tower 
tour (but tour too-rj. See p. 137*. 

OTJ-RR', e., p. 52b, meaning ou-ur'. Long and 
strong : sourer aou'rr'er, sourish sou-rr'ish, cower- 

ing kou-rr'ing, louring lowrr'ing, glowering 
glou-rr'ingj towering tou'rr'ing. See p. 137*. 

OTT-TIR', e. dissyllable, as flowery flou'ur'i, 
p. 52*. 

OY, e. abbreviated form of oee or 01, p. 46. 

P, e. g. i. f., p. 63*. Initial before vowels : pat 
pat, part paart, pate pai't, pall, Paul paul, petptt, 
peat pee-t, pike peik, puisne, puny peu-ni^ pit pit, 
pot pot, pole poal, poison poi-zn, poolpoo-l, pontpout, 
pun pun, pull puoL Initial before I and r' : plait 
plat, plaister, plaster plaa-ster, play plai- (orplai-y), 
plaudits plau-dits, plenty plen-ti, plea plee, plight 
pleit, plinth plinth, plot plot, plume ploo-m, plough 
plou, pluck pluk, prattle pr'at-l, prance pr'aans, 
praise, prays pr'ai-z, present pr'ez'ent, preach 
pr'ee-ch, pride pr'eid, pretty pr'it'i, promise 
pr'om-is, prone pr'oa-n, prude pr'oo'd, proud pr'oud, 
Prussian Pr'mh-en (not Proo-sheri). Medial be- 
tween vowels : clapper klap-er, apish ai-pish, 
pepper pep-er, creeper kree-per, poppy pop-i, 
popery poa-pur'i, looping loo-piny, supper sup-er 
Double between vowels : the top pinnacle dhi top 
pin-ukl, soup plate soo'p plai-t, pump-powerj9^mj9'- 
pour, to chop poles too chop poa-lz, slop-pail slop-- 
pail, to gallop post haste too gal-up poa-st hai'st. 

P, e. click afterj^ final, p. 63*, 94*. 

PI", g., sometimes^/, p. 660. 

P-H, g. post-aspirated, p 63*. 

P Q H, e., flatus after final p, p. 63*, 94*. 

'PR, theoretical flated lip trill, p. 66. 

R, e., p. 530 (not g. i. f., p. 550), a direction to 
make a murmur diphthong or triphthong with 
preceding long vowel or diphthong and add a trill 
r 1 at pleasure, see aar air aur eer eir eur oar, oir t 
oor, our; also a direction to pronounce preceding e 
in strong syllables as w long with a permissive 
trill r' after, and in weak syllables to pronounce u 
short with or without a loose glide on to a follow- 
ing r', pp. 530, *, 126*, see er. 

R', e. g. i. f., p. 74*, much weaker in English 
than in Italian. Initial before vowels: rat r'at, 



Sec. XII 

rascal r'aa'skel, rail r'ai'l, rare r'ai'r, wrought 
r'au't, wretch r'ech, reach ree'ch, writer r'eiter, 
writ r'it, rot r'ot, roam r'oa'in, roysterer roi' stumer, 
room room, rout r'out, rut r'ut. Initial r' does not 
occur before consonants. Medial between vowels : 
Harry Har' -i, starry staa'r'i (or staa'rr'ij, meiTy 
mer-i, spirit spir'-it, sorrow sor'-oa, hurry hur''i. 
See also aarr', airr', eerr', eirr', eurr', oarr, oorr\ 
ourr 1 and err'. Final r' never occurs in English 
except as a permissive trill, see r. Inserted r', 
p. 515. Ex. pp. 136138. 

", e. provincial, e. 'dental r' after t\ d\ in 
which case it possibly also occurs in g. i. f., p. 745. 

( R, f., Parisian ' uvular r,' p. 835. 

".K, Northumberland uvula rise, p. 840. 

( H, e. provincial ' reverted r,' p. 760. 

(( R, e. ' untrilled r,' or ' point rise,' p. 760, for 
which in London is always substituted r, which 

,R, Danish ' glottal r,' or croak, p. 605. 

H, flated form of r', p. 745. 

"&, flated form of r", p. 745. 

1 EH, flated form of V, p. 835. 

'UW', Northumberland labialised uvular l r, p. 

S, e. g. i. f., p. 705. Initial before vowels : sat 
sat, serjeant, sergeant saa-rjent (not ser'jent), same 
stti'm, sought sawt, set set, seal see'l, sight seit, suit 
seu't (not soo't or shoo't], sit sit, sop sop, soap so0'j9, 
soy soi, soup soo'^, sow (s.) sow, sun, son em, soot 
suot (or soo'^ or suf). Initial before consonants: 
sphere sfee-r, scatter shatter, skate skart, scare 
skaiT, scald sTcawld, sketch sJcech, scheme sltee'm,, 
sky ^i (not sky'ei or sky'iei-}, skewer skeu-er, skip 
sij9, scot s^o#, scold skoa'ld, school skoo'l, scowl 
skoul, scull A;w?, scrap skrap, scratch skr'ach, 
scrape skrai-p, scrawl skr'au'l, scroll skr'oa'l, 
scrutinise skr' oo'tineiz, scrub skr'ub, squall skwawl, 
squeeze skwee f z, squat skwot, slam ^am, slate slai't, 
slaiighter slau'ter, sledge slej\ sleet slee't, slight, 
sleight skit, slew sleu (or /oo), slit slit, slop sfop, 
slope sloa'p, slouch slouch, sludge sluj, smatter 
mat'er, smart smaa'rt, smite smei't, smit swi^, 

smock *moA:, smoke smoa-k, smooth smoo-dh, smudge 
smujj snap snap, snarl snaa'rl, snake snai'k, snort 
snau'rt, sneak snee'k, snipe snei'p, snivelled snivld, 
snob snob, snore snoa'r, snooze snoo-z, snout snou-t, 
snub snub, span span, spark spaa-tk, spake spai'k, 
spectacle spek'tukl, speak spee'k, spike spei'k, 
spume speu'm, spin sjinw, spot *j90^, spoke spoa'k, 
spoil sjooi/, spool spoo'l, spouse sjs>o<2, sponge spunj\ 
splash splash, splay splai', splenetic splen-etik (not 
splenet'ik], spleen splee-n, splice spleis, split */?^, 
splutter splut-er, sprat spr'at, spray spr'ai, sprawl 
spr'au'l,, spread spr'ed, spree spr'ee-, sprite spr'eit, 
sprinkle spr'ingk'l, spruce sproo's, sprout sprout, 
sprung spr'ung, stand stand, starling staa'rling, 
state toi^, stair stai'r, stem s^m, steam stee'm, 
stile, style s^i^, still **W, stolid stol-id, stole *to^, 
stool stoo'l, stout stout, stuff sw/, straggle strag'l^ 
straight str'ai't, straw str'au", stretch str'ech, 
stream str'ee-m, stripe str'eip, strip str'ip, strop 
strop, stroke str'oa'k, strut str'ut, swagger swag-er, 
swarthy swaa'rthi (or swau'rthi), swelter swel'ter, 
sweet swee't, swine swein, switch swich, swab swob, 
swollen swoa'ln, swoop swoo'p, swam swum. Medial 
between vowels : hassock has-uk, asses aa'sez, 
tracing trai-sing, sauces sau-sez, messes mes-ez, 
piecing pee' sing, spicy spei'si, missing mis-ing, 
tossing tos'ing, (or tau'sing}, mossy mos'i, doses (s.) 
doa'sez, choices choi-sez, spruces sproo-sez, douses 
dou'sez, fussing fus-ing. Final after vowels : gas 
gas, ass aa-s, case kai's, sauce saws, chess ches, 
piece pee- s, spice speis, use eu-s, miss mis, moss mos/ 
close kloa-s, rejoice rijoi's, loose loo's, mouse mous, 
fuss fus. Double between vowels or a vowel and 
consonant : missent missen't, Miss Smith Mis 
Smith, Mrs. Stiles Mis'is Stei'lz, Miss Strange, Mis 
Strai'nj, this stretcher dhis stretcher, this story 
dhis stoa-rr'i, this stew dhis steu. See p. 1215. 
<S", e. modification of * after t, pp. 705 to 710. 

SH, e. g. i. f., p. 710. Initial before vowels: 
sham sham, sharp shaa'rp, shale shai-l t shawl 
shau-l, shed shed, sheet shee't, shine shein t shin 
shin, shot shot, shoal shoa'l, shoe shoo', shout shout, 
shun shun, shook shuok. Initial before the con- 

Sec. XII. 



sonant r" : shrapnel shr'ap'nel, shred shred, shrike 
shrei-k, shrill shril, shrewd shr'oo-d, shroud 
shroud, shrub shrub. Medial between vowels : 
hashing hash-ing, meshing mesh'ing, leashing 
lee'shing, wishing wish'ing, galoshes gulosh'ez, 
flushes/?**/^-;. Final after vowels : splash splash, 
mesh mesh, leash lee-sh, wish wish, bosh bosh, gush 
gush, bush buosh, push j)uosh. Double : I wish 
she'd do it ei wish shee'-tf doo it, do you wish shells 
to-day ? doo eu wish shelz toodai' ? the bulrush 
shakes dhi buol-rush shai'ks, boyish shame boi'ish 
shai'm, vanquish shams vangk'wish shamz, ice- 
bergs crush ships ei'sbergz krush ships. Seep. 1215. 

SIT , e. variety of sh after tij in ch, which is 
really ty 'sh ', see pp. 490 and 1455. 

SZ, g. initial, for z, see p. 720. 

T, e. (the g. i. f. form is *'), p. 690. Initial 
before vowels : tap tap, tart taa-rt, tata ! taa'taa- ! 
tail tai'l (not tai-yl], taught tau't, text tekst, teach 
tee'ch, tile teil, tune teww, tick tik, top fop, toad 
toa'd (not toa'wd], toil foi/, tool fo<r, town foww, 
tub tub, took tao&. Initial before consonants: tl 
is often $0^ for kl, but it is not acknowledged : 
track trak, trash tr'ash, trail tr'ai'l, trawl trawl, 
tread rW, treat tree't, trite r'<?i, trip fr-'ip, trot 
r'o, trope tr'oa'p, troy r'oi, truth troo'th (not 
tr'uoth], trout tr'out, truck tr'uk. Medial between 
vowels: patting pat'ing, prating pr'ai'ting, tighter 
tawter (sailor's pronunciation, tevter received), 
tutor teu'ter, titter tit'er, boating boa'ting, adroiter 
adr'oi'ter, mobted moo-ted, pouting pou'ting, shut- 
ting shut-ing, putting puot'ing. Double: boot-tree 
boo'ttree, to hit two too hit' too', that time dhat' 
term, wet turf wet' ter'f, most terrible moa-st ter-'ibl 
(the first t is commonly omitted), Mat told me Mat- 
toa'ld mce, bat-trap-and-ball bat'trap'nbau'l. 

T\ g. i. f. form of t, for which Englishmen may 
use t without hesitation, see d" and pp. 69#, 76, 
145a, 148, 1495. 

t T e. provincial reverted t, most probably used 
before t r in the "West of England, p. 69i. 

T, e. click after t final, p. 94*. 

T*H, e. flatus driven out after t final, p. 90. 

T-H, e. faulty post-aspirated t, p. 92. 

TH, e., see p. 685. Initial before vowels : thatch 
thach, thaw thau, theft theft, theme thee m, thigh 
thei t thermic thermik, thews theu-z, thick thik, 
thong thong, thole-pin thoa'lpin. thousand thou'- 
zend, thumb thum. Initial before consonants : 
thrash thrash, thrave thr'ai'v, threat thr'et, three 
three, thrive thr'ei'v, thrift thr'ift, throng thr'ong, 
throat thr'oa-t, through thr'oo', thrust thr^ist, 
thwack thwak, thwart thwawrt (or thwaa'rf). 
Medial between two vowels, not found, but 
between a vocal and vowel sometimes, as wealthy 
wel-thi, filthy fil'thi. Final after a vowel : hath 
hath, faith fai-th, breath br'eth, wreath r'eeth, 
earth erth, youth eu'th, pith pith, wroth r'oth (or 
r'au-th], broth br'oth (or brau-th], both boa'th (not 
boa'dti), tooth too'th, mouth (s.) mouth (v. moudh), 
doth duth. Double : both thank you boa'th thangk 
eu, both thieves boa'th thee'vz, uncouth thought 
unkoo'th thau't. 

THDH, e. provincial beginning with flatus and 
proceeding to voice, sec dhth and p. 92#. 

T'JT, advanced s, the Spanish z, see p. 705. 

TS',e. final in cats kats, may be used for the g. 
and i. initial fs 1 , which see, and p. 705. 

T'S', g. i. initial z, see p. 70. 

TW, e., probably the proper form of the sound 
written tw in twine twein, pp. 49, 83. 

TT' e. attempt to say t and y at once, p. 800. 

TTSH', the real analysis of ch, p. 800. 

U, e., pp. 340 and 5, 360, 395, for which uu is 
very frequently used in strong syllables, p. 345, 
and may be practised in the following examples. 
Strong and short : chub chub, dub dub, hub hub, 
cub kub, blub blub, club kh(b, snub snub, rub r'ub, 
grub grub, scrub skrub, shrub shr'ub, trouble 
tr'ub'l, sub sw5, tub ^5, rubbed mJc?, snubbed 
snubd, clubbed klubd, hutch hue h, cluch kluch, 
much 7mcA, such such, touch tacA, clutched klucht, 
touched tucht, bud 50", cud kud, scud s&wrf, blood 
blud, flood ^wo", mud WW0", puddle pud- 1, sud sw0*, 
thud thud, buds 5wk, suds s?/0z, buff buf, chough 
chuf, duffer duf-er, huff Aw/, cuff &/, scuffle 
skufl, luff J/, bluff bluf, fluff /w/, muff mw/, snuff 
snuf, puff pw/, rough, ruff r'uf, gruff ^rw/, scruff 



Sec. XII 

skruf, tough tuf, puffs pufs, roughs r'ufs, puffed 
puff, cuffed kuft, tuft tuft, tufts tufts, bug bug, 
dug dug, hug hug, jug jug, lug /wy, slug slug, mug 
wwy, pug pug, rug r'wy, drug dr'ug, shrug shr'ug, 
struggle strug-l, tug tug, thug tfAw^, hugged AM#^, 
shrugged shr'ugd, mugs mugz, hugs hugz, tugs tugz, 
budge %', fudge fuj, judge >/, sludge %', smudge 
smuj, nudge nuj, drudge dr'uj, grudge gruj, trudge 
tr'uj, nudged nujd, drudged dr'ujd, buck buk, chuck 
chuk, duck duk, luck luk, cluck kluk, pluck pluk, 
muck w&, puck JSM&, ruck r'uk, struck str'uk, 
truck tr'uk, tuck w&, stuck sw&, ducks duks, 
trucks truks, plucked plukt, tucked tukt, dul dul, 
gull gul, hull 7m, cull kul, lull M, mull WM, trull 
tr'ul, bulb M/, bulbs bulbz, dulled tfwW, lulled 
Jw&?, gulf gulf, gulfs ^M(/JS, bulge bulj, bulged buljd, 
bulk M/&, hulk hulk, sulk swJ&, hulks hulks, sulks 
sW&s, sulked sM/AY, Hulme Hulm (generally Hoom), 
culm kulm- (in one syllable), gulp gulp, pulp JPW^, 
gulps gulps, gulped gulpt, hulls Awfo, culls kulz, 
chum eAww, dumb c?ww, gum gum, hum Awm, come 
hum, scum skum, glum glum, slum slum, mum mum, 
numb num, rum r'um, drum dr'um, crumb kr'um, 
strum strum, thrum thrum, sum, some sum, thumb 
thum, drummed dr'umd, thumbed thumd, bump 
bump, chump chump, dump dump, hump hump, 
jump jump, lump lump, clump klump, plump plump, 
pump pump, rump r'ump, frump fr'ump, grump 
gr'ump, trump trump, thump thump, jumps jumps, 
mumps mumps, thumps thumps, bumped bumpt, 
humped humpt, thumped thumpt, comes kumz, 
drums dr'umz, sums sumz, thumbs thumz, bun bun, 
dun dun, fun fun, gun gun, nun, none nun, pun 
pun, run r'un, sun, son sun, shun shun, tun, ton 
tun, one, won wun, bunch bunch, hunch hunch, 
lunch lunch, munch munch, punch punch, crunch 
kr'unch, munched muncht, crunched kr'uncht, 
dunned dund, shunned shund, lunge lunj, plunge 
plunj, plunged plungd, once wuns, hunt hunt, blunt 
blunt, punt punt, runt r'unt, front frunt, grunt 
gr'unt, shunt shunt, stunt stunt, wont wunt (often, 
but occasionally woa-nt, which is properly won't), 
hunts hunts, grunts gr'unts, shunts shunts, buns 
bunz, guns gunz, bung bung, dung dung, hung hung, 

, clung klung, slung slung, wrung, rung 
r'ung, sprung spr'ung, strung strung, sung sung, 
tongue tung, bunged bungd, bunk bungle, funk 
fungk, hunk hungk, junk jungk, slunk slungk, 
monk mungk, drunk dr'ungk, shrunk shr'ungk, 
trunk tr'ungk, sunk sungk, bunks bungks, hunks 
hungJcs, monks mungks, funked fungkt, bungs 
bungz, tongues tungz, cup Jcup, pup pup, sup sup, 
cups kups, pups jwj!?s, buss #MS, thus dhus, fuss /MS, 
Russ R'us, busk iwsA;, dusk <Zw5^, husk husk, musk 
rusk r'usJc, tusk <ws^, husks husks, tusks 
cusp ^?^sj9, cusps kusps, cusped kuspt, bust 
&, dust dust, fussed fust, disgust disgus't, 
just just, lust Jws, must must, rust r'e^, crust 
kr'ust, trust tr'ust, thrust thr'ust, busts 
trusts trusts, gush #sA, hush AwsA, lush 
blush blush, Hush' flush, plush plush, slush 
rush r'wsA, brush br'ush, crush kr'ush, thrush 
thrush, tush tasA (the tushes of a boar are some- 
times tuosh'ez), gushed gusht, hushed husht, butt 
but, gut #, hut hut, jut /w, cut A-w^, glut glut, 
slut sw, nut nut, put (s.) j*?w, rut r'ut, strut 5^rM<, 
soot SM^ (or suot or oo^), shut shut, tut rw, huts 
AM^, nuts nuts, struts str'uts, doth duth, above 
ubuv, dove rfwv, love luv, glove yftw, shove shuv, 
loved ?MVC?, shoved shuvd, doves ?wvz, gloves ^^MVZ, 
does (v.) <?M2, fuzz /MZ, buzz buz. Weak and short, 
in open syllables, never uu, but often u' ; final and 
initial, when written a may be a', and may be 
always so sung, generally written a, which see; 
before r' always u, being the remnant of weak er,* 
in which the permissible trilled r 1 in given entirely 
to the following vowels. Initial: abandon uban-- 
den (or a'ban'deri), abase ubai's (or a'bai-s), ablaze 
ublai'z (or cCblai-z], abolish ubol'ish (or a'bol'isti), 
account u-kount (or a'kou-nt], adapt u-dap-t (or 
adap m t), affair u-fai'r (or a'fai'r), afront, affront 
u-fr'un't (or a'fr'un't], alone u-locrn (or a-lwn), 
amass u-maa-s (or a-ma's'}, approve u-pr'oo-v (or 
appr'oo-v, a'pr'oo-v), award uwawrd (or a'wau'rd). 
Final, see . In the middle of words, weak u is 
not more than slurred on to the following letter : 
appanage ap-u-^-nej, ratable rait-u-^-bl, heritable 
, notable not-u-^-bl, comfortable Jcum'- 

eec. XII. 



fertu-^bl, mutable mewtur^-bl, primary prei' 
finery fei'nu-^-ri, every evu~r'i. See also u\ 
Note that in possible, positive, and such words u~ 
must not be used, say pos-ibl, poz'itiv, not pos-ubl, 
pnz-ntiv, nor yet pos eebl, poz'eetiv. Ex. pp. 1190, 
1203, 1310, 1320. 

T, e. provincial form of uo, p. 373. 

U", e., the possible form assumed by weak 'a,' 
see a weak, and u weak, and pp. 343, 380 ; may be 
sung as u, p. 390. 

UA, provincial e , p. 343. 

HE, g. f., described p. 29, confused with ee i in 
German, but not in French, p. 393 ; how it differs 
from oo, p. 370. See also pp. 1440, 6, 1490. 

ueEE, f . diphthong ui, see p. 493, and uee$, p. 1493. 

UEY, variety of ueee, p. 470. 

Ui, e. , one of the best spoken forms of the diph- 
thong ei, a i being another ; the singer's form is 
aai, p. 440. 

TTiu, e. form of the murmur triphthong eiu, 
involved in eir, see p. 520. 

Vn', e. substitute for f. oeri , p. 400. 

HO, e. g., used in place of short oo in closed 
syllables, much used in the provinces in place of u, 
p. 373. Short and strong : good guod, hood huod, 
could kuod, should shoud, would, wood wuod, book 
buok, hook huok, cook kuok, look luok, nook nuok, 
rook 7-' MO A, brook br'uok, crook kr'uok, shook shuok, 
;ook tuok, bull buol, bullion buol' yen, full fuol, pull 
puol, pulpit puol-pit, bush buosh, cushion kuosh-en, 
msh puosh, tush tuosh (or tush], foot fuot, soot 
mot (or soo-t or sttt). Ex. pp. 1190, 1210, 1320. 

110 ', acute uo, or uo pronounced for high notes 
with open mouth and contracted arches, p. 383. 

UO ii, e., the real form of the murmur diphthong 
n on-r, p. 503. 

UOur , e., the real form of oo'rr" , which see. 

UU, e , a very common pronunciation of u, in 
'.trong syllables, see M, and pp. 340, 360, 39. 

UU\ e., the sound of oo when the lips are 
pened, see do, p. 370. 

UlTi, e., a form of ei, just admissible in speech, 
>. 440. 

Uuo, e., one of the best forms of the diphthong 
ou, of which a'uo is another ; the singer's form is 
aauo, see p. 470. 

Uuo, e., an admissible form of ou, p. 470- 

uuOA, e. provincial lip glide, a faulty form of 
00, p. 553. 

uu 00, e. provincial lip glide, a faulty form of 
oo, written do, pp. 370, 553. 

TJuou, e., the murmur triphthong ouu involved 
in our, p. 523. 

UUuo, e., a faulty form of ou, p. 470. 

VU-uo, e., a very faulty form of ou, p. 470. 

UUY, abbreviated form of uui, or uuee, p. 460. 

UT, abbreviated form of ui or uee, p. 460. 

V, e. i. f., p. 673. Initial before a vowel : vat 
vat, vast vaa-st, veil, vail, vale vai~l, vaunt vau'nt 
(orvaa-nt), vault vau'lt, vegetable vej'itubl, velvet 
vel-vet, veal vee-l, vile veil, virtue ver'teu, view veu', 
victuals vit-lz, villain vil-en, volley vol'i, void void, 
vouch vouch, vulgar vul-ger. V is not found initial 
before a consonant. Medial between vowels 
navvy navi, lava laa-vaa, navy nai'vi, bevy 
bevi, levy levi, leaving lee-ving, Levi Lee-vei, 
striving str' ei'ving , serving serving, living living, 
sovereign sovurin (or sovr'in, some say suvrin, 
but this is archaic), coving koa'ving, moving moo-v- 
ing, shoving shuving. Final after a vowel : have 
hav, stave stai'v, reeve r'ee-v, alive ulei-v, serve 
serv, sieve siv, grove groa v, groove groo~v, love 
luv. Double : love virtue luv ver-teu, sportive vice 
spoa-rtiv veis, a festive voice u fes-tiv vois, a live 
Vandal u leiv Van- del, five vowels feiv vou'elz, 
above vaults ubuv vau-lts, five villains feiv vil'enz, 
twelve vines twelv veinz. Ex. p. 1220. 

V, g., the sound of g. ' w,' see p. 650, 3. 
VF, e. final v at end of a phrase, as : I see five, 
all alive? ei see feiv f, au'l ulei-vf ? seep. 933. 

W, e. p. 64, used in Glossic of i. f. for oo, form- 
ing a diphthong, as wee for ooee, see p. 823. Initial 
before vowels : wag wag, waft waa-ft, waif wai'f, 
water wau'ter, wet wet, weal wee- 1, wile wei-l, work 
werk, wit wit, wot wot, woke, woa-k, woo woo* 




Sec. XII 

wound (part.) wound (in to wound, a wound, 
usually woo'nd, but soldiers all ay wound}, wood 
wuod. W is not found initial before consonants, 
medial, or double. Ex. p. 1220. 

WAA, abbreviated form of i. and f. ooaa, p. 490 
and p. 500. 

WAAY, abbreviated form of i. and f. ooaaee, 
p. 500. 

WAE, abbreviated form of f. ooae, p. 493. 

WAEN', abbreviated form of f. ooaen' , p. 49 1>, 
and p. 500. 

WAI, abbreviated form of i. ooai, p. 493. 

WAO, abbreviated form of i. ooao, p. 490. 

WAOY, abbreviated form of ooaoee, p. 500. 

WE, e. abbreviated form of ooe, p. 490. 

WEE, abbreviated form of f. ooee, p. 490. 

WI, e. abbreviated form of ooi, p. 493. 

WY^EE, form of ueee, not used, p. 500. 

WH, e. p. 643. Initial before vowels : whack 
whak, whale whavl, wharf whau-rf, whet whet, 
wheel whee-l, while wheil, whirl wherl, whit whit, 
what whot. Wh is never found initial before a 
consonant, medial, final or double. As the sound 
of wh is dying out very generally in the South of 
England, and it is advisable to retain it, the 
following contrasts should be observed, and 
sedulously practised : whale, wail whai-l, wavl, 
what, wot whot, wot, wheal, wheel, weal whee-l, 
wee-l, when, wen when, wen, where, wear whai'r, 
^vai'1', whet, wet whet, wet, whether, weather, 
wether whedh'er, wedh'er, whey, way whai', wai', 
(or whai-y, wai-y], which, witch which, wich, whig, 
wig whig, wig, while, wile wheil, weil, whiled, wild 
wheild, weild, whin, win whin, win, whine, wine 
whein, wein, whirld, world wherld, werld, whist, 
wist whist, wist, whit, wit whit, wit, white, wight 
wheit, weit (Isle of Wight Eil ov Weit], whither 
whidh-er, whort, wort whert, wert, why, Wye whei, 
wei. Ex. 1215. 

' WR, e. faulty tight lip trill for r, see p. 663. 

WY\ f. abbreviated form for ue diphthongs, 
p. 500. 

Y, e g., p. 783, in i. f. it is used in Grlossic for ee 
vr i, forming a diphthong with the following vowel, 

p. 480, 3. Initial before vowels : yam yam, yak yak 
yankee yangk'i (sometimes yangK'kee), yard yaa'rd 
jQ&yai (not yai-y], Yale Yai-l, yawl yawl, yawn 
yau-n, yet yet (not yit], yes yes (not yis, or is) 
ye yee (not ee}, year yee-r (not ee~r], yield yee-ld (not 
ee-ld),yea,n yee-n (not ee-ri), yeast yee-st (not ce-st 
sometimes yest], yearn yern, yew yen (that is, 
yioo], yule yeul (that is, ywo-l), yacht yot, yolk, 
yelk yoa-k ("yelk" is sometimes yelk], yoicks! 
yoiks ! you eu (that is, yoo], your eu~r that is 
yoo'r ; when weak, often yer], you'll ewl that is, 
yoo'l], youth eu-th (that is, yoo-th], young yung. 
Y is not found initial before consonants, medial, 
final, or double in received English. Some e. 
speakers say eey for ee final, some g. faulty 
speakers say yr'- and yl- for gr',- gl- initial. 

YAEY, form of i. eeaaee, p. 490. 

YJEUior yioo, a form of e. eu, p. 480, 3. 

YWO, a form of e. eu, p. 483. 

YH, e., p. 79a, initial in yheu hue, hew, Hugh, 
yheewmen human, Yheum Hume, Yheuz Hughe 
These words are often pronounced htoo, hloo'me 
Ifioo'm, ITioo'z, which are written heu, heu'men, 
Heu-m, Heu-z. The singer uses the form hwo. 

YOO, form of i. eeoo and e. too, pp. 483, 49a. 

Z, e. g. i. f , p. 720. Initial before vowels : 
Zantiote Zan'tiot, zany zai'ni, zealous zel'us, zeal 
zee'l, zero zee'rr'oa, zinc zingk, zocle zok'l (also 
socle sok-l), zodiac zoa-diak, zone zoa-n, the Zoo dhi 
Zoo^, zooks ! eoo-ks ! (or zuoks, gone out of use), 
zounds zoundz Z is not found initial before con- 
sonants. Medial between vowels : hazard haz-erd, 
mazard maz-erd, lazy lai'zi, mazy mai'zi, pleasing 
plee'zing, wiser wei'zer, Mersey Mer-zi, kerseymere 
kerzimeer, Pusey Pewzi, gizzard giz-erd, wizard 
wiz'erd, positive poz'itiv, posy poa-zi, rosy r'oa'zi, , 
losing loo-zing, oozy oo'zi, drowsy drou'zi, carousing 
kur'ou'zing, buzzing buz'ing. Final after vowels : 
has haz, baas baaz, baize, bays 30rz, gauze gau'z, 
gnaws nawz, fez fez, fees fee~z, freeze free'z, wise 
weiz, prize preiz, pies peiz, firs, furs forz, ewes, 
use (v.) eu'z, his hiz, pose poa-z, knows, nose noa'z, 

Sec. XII. 



boys boi-z, lose loo~z, shoes shoo-z, brows, browse 
trouz, buzz buz. Final after consonants : cubs kubz, 
adds adz, breathes bree-dhz, eggs egz, bells belz, jams 
jamz, nuns nunz, songs songz, loves zwz, saves sai'vz, 
waves wai-vz. Double : his zeal hiz zee-l, wise zeal 
iveiz zee'l, it flies zigzag it flelz zig-zng, he shews 
zest hee shoa'z zest, prize zinc preiz zingk, his zone 
hiz zoa-n. Ex. p. 1220. 

Z\ advanced z, heard in i. initial d'z , see p. 720. 

ZH, e. f., see p. 720. ZA does not occur initial, 
final, or double in e., but is frequently initial and 
final in f Medial between vowels : division di- 
vizh'en, occasion okai'zhen, invasion invai'zhen, 

persuasion perswai'zhen, adhesion adhee'zhen, de- 
cision disizh-en, vision vizh-en. revision rivizh'en 
fusion feu-zhen, conclusion kunkloo-zhen, delusion 
dileu-zhen (or diloo-zhen , intrusion intr'oo-zhen, con- 
tusion kunteu'zhen, pleasure plezh'er (or plezh'eur] 
measure mezh'er (or mezh'eur"), treasure trezh'er (or 
trezh-eur], erasure eerai'zheur, leisure lezh'er (or 
lezh'eur, sometimes lee'zher or lee'zheur), closure 
Jcloa'zher or kloa'zheur], exposure ekspoa'zher (or 
ekspoa-zheur). Ex. p. 1220. 

ZH\ e., the ge in judge juj, which, when fully 
analysed, is dtfzKudyzK , p. 800. 

ZS, e., final z at the end of a phrase, as 'tis his 
tiz hizs, p. 93. 


I ' gradual,' a turned I, signifying the gradual 
attack and release of voiced sounds, pp. 570, 920. 

? A, the same made very perceptible, p. 570. 

j ' clear,' a turned t, signifying the clear attack 
and release of voice sounds, p. 57b. 

(;) ' check,' a semicolon, signifying the check of 
the voice, p 580. 

(') 'bleat' or \anyn. turned semicolon, signifying 
the Arabic bleat, p. 60* 

) 'imploded' or 'flated' or 'clicked,' small 
circle used for degrees, placed before a sonant, 
makes it signify an implodent, p. 54'*, placed before 
a vowel indicates flatus through the vowel position, 
as ee, p. 560 ; placed before h as h makes it 
signify simple flatus, p. 560 ; placed before h' as 
%' makes it signify simple whisper, p. 56* ; placed 
after a final mute, as t, indicates the gentle 
English final click, pp 63.-/, 9-1 i 

entirely, see the letters with these marks affixed in 
the preceding index. 

() ' accent,' turned period, placed after a vowel, 
shews that it is strong and long, as mee't meat, 
p. 105* ; placed after a consonant shews that the 
next preceding vowel is short and strong, as 
fam'ili family, p. 105*; placed before a word 
shews that it is emphatic, p. 1050; placed after a 
systematic diphthong, it shews that the strong 
element is short, as ui'lid uylid eyelid, p. 43*. It 
does not separate syllables. 

(') ' sub-accent,' turned period, followed by an 
apostrophe, placed after a vowel shews that it is 
long and has a secondary accent, as v&rtilai''ted 
ventilated, p. 1050, placed after a consonant, shews 
that the next preceding vowel is short and has a 
secondary accent, as dem-'oakr'at'ikel, p. 1050. 
seldom distinguished from 
ig. It does not separate 

jfore a vowel shews it to be 
['), p. 105*. 

two letters, shews that 
(between them, as u-\-i, that 
I*. This is omitted except 



Sec. XII. 

(-J-) ' slur,' between two letters, shews that there 
is a ' loose glide ' or ' slur ' between them, as aa-^-ee 
in Italian diphthongs, pp. 45a, 87. This is 
omitted except in theoretical writing. 

(...) ' break,' between two letters, shew that 
there is a ' silence ' and no glide or slur between 
them, p. 87b. When words are written separately 
it by no means follows that there is no glide 
between them, hence for theoretical writing, 
although the close glide may be still omitted, the 
slur (-f-) and the (...) should be used, and there 
should be no separation between the words unless 
there is a sensible pause. Thus : ' Command your- 
self, if you would command others,' which in 
ordinary Glossic would be kumaa-nd eursel-f if eu 
wuod kumaa-nd udh'erz, would be theoretically 
written ku-^-maa-nnd-^-yuousell'f..., if-'yoo-^-wuod 
-~ku-~maa'nnd~udh'u~-z, where the nn, II shew 
long vocals. 

(-) ' hyphen,' between groups of letters, is used 
merely to guide the eye in the separation of the 
groups, 'as lue-ee, pot-hous, it does not indicate 
gliding or slurring, except in such combinations 
as aa-ai used to mark Italian slur, p. 45. It 
may always be omitted when other means mark 
the separation of the groups, as the accent mark 
in pot'hous, or the gliding mark in lueee. 

( w ) ' gliding mark ' in diphthongs, placed over 
the letter or letters which represent a single vowel 
sound, when it is weak and the preceding strong 
vowel glides on to it and forms a diphthong, as 
ui uuo, p. 43 ; when these weak vowels are i or ee, 
it is usual to write y only, as uy, for either ui or 
uee, p. 46r?, and when the vowel is uo or do, it is 
usual to write w only, as uw, for either uuo or ooo, 
p. 47* ; when the accent () is used, it is placed after 
the first element when that is long, as aa~1 or aa-y, 
and after the second element when the first element 
is short, as am~ or aay, p. 43, and in weak syllables 
t is omitted altogether. The gliding mark is also 
used over the letter which represents a single 
owel sound when it is weak and glides on to the 
following strong vowel, as laa, ooaa ; when these 
weak vowels are i or ee, it is usual to write y for 

either, as yaa for \aa or eeaa, and when they are 
So or uo, as ooaa, ooao, it is usual to write w, as 
waa, wao. The length and strength of the second 
element is then treated in the usual way. When 
great phonetic exactness is required (as in discus- 
sions) it is necessary to distinguish %aa, eeaa, yaa 
accurately, and similarly for ooaa,, uoaa, waa. When 
ue is one of the elements, the sign ought to be used, 
as lueee, but lue-ee is often quite enough. When it 
is necessary to mark the length of the weak ele- 
ment, the long mark is used, as aaee, but this is 
scarcely ever necessary. The aaee or aay leaves 
the length of the second element generally un- 

("} ' short,' over a vowel letter, or first of two 
letters representing a vowel, when it is not 
followed by a vowel, shews that it is short. Thus 
the vowels ee, ai, aa, ao, oa, oo, being generally 
long in English closed syllables, it is much easier 
to the reader to see the short mark applied when 
they are short in foreign languages, as meelky'h 
milch, g., skydit-toa schietto, i., maan mann,g., 
aom homme, f., soat'toa sotto, i., pool poule, f. 
This is unnecessary in g. i. f., because the rule 
should be that the vowel is always short unless 
marked long. In other cases the ( v ) is a ' gliding 

(") 'long,' over a vowel letter or first of two 
letters representing a vowel when it is preceded by 
a consonant and not followed by a vowel. This is 
sometimes convenient in weak syllables, as prim-- 
roaz primrose, and is necessary in French where 
no accent can be marked, as pahsyoarf passion, but 
the long syllables are not carefully distinguished 
in French speaking. In other cases (") is a 
gliding mark. See end of Q ' gliding.' 

(") 'medial,' over a letter, or the first of two 
letters representing a vowel, shews that it has 
medial length, p. 104#, as faast ; this is also repre- 
sented by (:) before the vowel, a,sf:aast, p. 1055. 

(') acute, after a vowel, spoken above the usual 
pitch of the voice, p. 1044. 

Sec. XII. 



(') detached, 'acute,' spoken above the usual 
pitch of the voice, p. 104; attached, as in 60, 6ai 
e'e, indicates certain provincial glides, p. 55b. 

(") detached, 'grave,' spoken helow the usual 
pitch of the voice, p. 1045 ; attached, used to 
distinguish provincial u from no, p. 37b. 

(") pitch glide from high to middle, p 104J. 

Note that when the marks -j :_-' are 
omitted (and they are unnecessary except for ex- 
tremely refined phonetic work), Glossic can be 

printed by any printer in any fount of types, and 
has rather the appearance of a reformed system of 
spelling with the old alphabet than of a totally 
different and perfectly systematic orthography* 
precisely indicating pronunciation, using the old 
letters, indeed, but on an entirely novel system, 
namely, the absolute restriction of one combin- 
ation of letters to mean one combination of sounds, 
so that given the one the other can be immedi- 
ately determined with absolute certainty. 




English Pronouncing Dictionaries Necessary. 
Our language rejoices in such a remarkable orthog- 
raphy, that no one who merely sees a word can be 
quite sure how it should be pronounced, and no 
one who hears a word can be at all sure how it 
should be spelled. Both pronunciation and spelling 
have indeed varied materially during the last six 
centuries, and even during the last two centuries, 
without any definite connection having been 
established between the two. Hence arose during 
the last hundred years a feeling for the necessity 
of Pronouncing Dictionaries, which purpose by 
additional marks, or by re-spelling the words, 
according to some systematic phonetic principle, to 
supply the necessary information. But here 
another difficulty occurs, no one is empowered to 
declare what is or should be the pronunciation of 
English. In point of fact, English is spoken very 
differently indeed in different parts of the country, 
and material differences affect even men of the 
highest education. We seldom fail to detect a 
Scot, an Irishman, or an American after hearing 
him speak a few words. Now our first English 
pronouncing vocabulary was written by a Scot 
(James Buchanan, in 1757) our first English 
pronouncing dictionary was written by an Irish- 
man (Thomas Sheridan, in 1780), and one of our 
most widely-used pronouncing dictionaries at the 
present day is by an American (Joseph E. 
Worcester, 1847.) There is no doubt in my own 
mLud (and I have devoted much time to the study 
of this subject) that all three would have pro- 
nounced their key words in different ways, so that 

we can only approximate to the result by following 
them. Moreover, I probably pronounce those key 
words in a different way from any one of the 
three. At the same time, if those who have 
studied the value of the Glossic symbols from the 
detailed account of them here given, pronounce 
the key words as my symbols declare, and thence 
deduce the value of symbols in pronouncing 
dictionaries, he will arrive at results which will 
be quite good enough for any practical purpose. 
Different orthoepists (atirthoa-epistsj , or persons 
who take upon themselves to declare what is the 
correct pronunciation, differ in opinion from one 
another. " Who's to decide when doctors dis- 
agree ? " The only means is to listen to numerous 
persons of education with whom the listener has 
come into direct communication during a long 
period of years. Even then very much more than 
half the words of the language will never have 
been heard, and can be pronounced only by the 
analogy of those known. In giving the pro- 
nunciation of numerous words in the preceding 
Glossic Index I have often added an alternative 
pronunciation, which I have frequently heard from 
educated speakers, and I have also directed others 
to be avoided, because I have found them to be 
generally avoided among those who are thought 
to speak decently. But whatever pronunciation is 
there mentioned has been heard, and heard often. 
My opportunities have been, education for four 
years at a large private classical school, for three 
and a half years at Shrewsbury school, for three 
years at Eton College, for four years at Cambridge, 

Sec. XIII. 



constant communication since then with highly- 
educated people, more than thirty years study of 
speech sounds, with especial examination of all the 
varieties of English speech, and nine years re- 
search into the history of the changes of English 
pronunciation, tracing them from century to 
century. Yet with all this I do not presume to 
decide. I have my own preferences, and I am. led 
to believe from the general approval of my pro- 
nunciation when reading in public, that those who 
follow it, will not be held to make default, although 
on many little points they might be called in 
question by others, whose pronunciation I might 
also perhaps call in question on the same, or 
numerous other points. This is a matter for 
personal choice. But beyond such limits there are 
varieties in which no speaker can indulge without 
being condemned as ignorant. H must never be 
omitted, except on very rare occasions, and none 
must ever be inserted where not written. Trilled 
r' must never be added when no r appears in the 
spelling. These three are heinous offences, which 
some people never forgive. Ai must never ap- 
proach to the sound of ei, nor oa to the sound of 
ou ; neither must ei approach aey or oi, or ou 
approach aew, oaw. No a must sound as aa, no u 
as uo, or uo as u. No w must become a v, and no v 
a w No er must be sounded as er' or iir 1 , with a 
short vowel and trilled r\ All these usages mark 
provincialisms or vulgarisms. Many others have 
been already incidentally pointed out. While, 
therefore, the boundary which separates received 
from inadmissible pronunciation is by no means a 
mathematical line, but is a sensibly broad band, 
there are distinctly inadmissible pronunciations, 
which all who wish to cultivate refined and careful 
pronunciation must diligently avoid. No better 
plan can be followed than learning accurately the 
aature of sounds, and acquiring a facility in pro- 
aouncing both one way and the other, because 
when this is done, the ear and judgment cannot be 
deceived, and the speaker consciously adopts a 
particular pronunciation as the most desirable. 
The difficulty always consists in making the 

speaker conscious of differences, and capable of 
understanding wherein they consist. In Shak- 
speare's tragedy of " King John," Mrs. Charles 
Kean had to use the word ' calf ' with great energy, 
and Mr. Alfred Wigan had to repeat it after her 
with equal force. The lady said ka-f, the gentle- 
man said kaa-f, which had the effect of correcting 
her pronunciation. Yet probably no one present, 
except myself, perceived the difference. We are 
so accustomed to listen to sense, and not observe 
the sound by which it is conveyed, that when the 
difference of sounds is within the limits of usage 
it is not remarked, except by special observers. 
'Calf is a word which is heard as kerf, ka'-f, 
kaa-f, kaaf, hence there was nothing strange. 
But if the lady had said kaf- (as some do, in ladies' 
refined Yorkshire speech), and the gentleman had 
said kao'f (as in Cumberland peasant speech ^ , the 
effect would have been ludicrous, and Mr. Wigan 
at least would have been greeted with a shout of 

For the ordinary words of songs, a pronouncing 
dictionary ought never to be necessary, but as 
speakers have no opportunity of hearing half the 
words of any language in actual speech, they have 
often to refer to such a book for assistance. Hence 
I add the titles and key words and modes of 
symbolisation adopted in some of the most acces- 
sible of these works. 

Walker. "A Critical Pronouncing Dictionary 
and Expositor of the English Language, in which 
not only the meaning of every word is clearly 
explained, and the sound of every syllable correctly 
shewn, but, where words are subject to different 
pronunciations, the authorities of our best pro- 
nouncing dictionaries are fully exhibited, and 
reasons for each at large displayed, and the 
preferable pronunciation pointed out. To which 
are prefixed, Principles of English Pronunciation, 
in which the sounds of letters, syllables, and 
words are critically investigated, and systemati- 
cally arranged, the influence of the Greek and 
Latin accent and quantity, on the accent and 



Sec. XIII. 

quantity of the English, thoroughly examined and 
clearly denned, and the analogies of the language 
BO fully shown as to lay the foundation of a con- 
sistent and rational pronunciation. Likewise, 
Rules to be observed by the Natives of Scotland, 
Ireland, and London, for avoiding their respective 
peculiarities ; and Directions to Foreigners for 
acquiring a knowledge of the use of this dic- 
tionary. The whole interspersed with observations 
etymological, critical and grammatical. By John 
Walker, author of Elements of Elocution, Rhym- 
ing Dictionary, &c , &c. Quare, si fieri potest, et 
verba omnia, et vox, huj us alumnum urbis oleant ; 
ut oratio RSmana plane videatur, non clvitate 
donata. Quint. [Wherefore, if possible, let every 
word and sound savour of a native of this city ; 
that your speech may be unmistakably Roman, 
and not Romanised.] The fourteenth edition, 
London, 1814." 8vo, double columns. Prelim- 
inary matter 92 pages, Dictionary 602 pages, 
stereotyped. The first edition published in 1791. 
The previous authorities referred to are Johnson, 
1755; Buchanan, 1757; Entick, 1764; Kenrick, 
1773; Ash, 1775; Perry, 1775; Sheridan, 1780; 
Scott (new edition), 1797; Nares, 1784. 

This is a most painstaking work, by a man who 
devoted his whole time, thought, and energy to 
teaching pronunciation. But he had not had the 
advantage of a high education, or of associating 
on equal terms from childhood with the children 
of persons of high education. He was born at 
Colney Hatch, Middlesex, 18th March, 1732, was 
brought up to trade, became an unsuccessful actor, 
quitted the stage in 1767, became a school master, 
and in 1769 began to teach elocution. He died 
1st August, 1807. His pronunciation, therefore, 
belongs entirely to the last century, and it is 
perceptibly antiquated. It is full of instruction 
to those who wish to study the history of our 
pronunciation, and remember the circumstances 
under which the author acquired his knowledge. 
But it is not a model to be followed at the present 
day. Modern editions, and so-called "pocket 
Walkers," are simply worthless. 


As completely spelled by himself in the body of the 
dictionary, not as imperfectly given in his list. 
These have superior numbers 1 , 2 , &c , placed 
actually over the letters, special types having been 
cast, and this arrangement makes them rather 
difficult to read. Here these numbers are placed 
above and to the right for convenience of printing. 
The French examples are given by himself. My 
own pronunciation of these English and French 
words is added in Glossic (in italics) . 
a 1 . fa j te, pa ir -pu 2 r fai-t, pa'vper ; e in fee epee, 

fai aipai. 
a 2 . fa 2 r, fa 2 -THe 2 r, pa*-pa 2 ', ma 4 m ma 2 ' faa'r, 

faa'dher, pupaa', mumaa' (or paapaa', maamaa') ; 

a in fable, rable, fahbleo, rahbleo. 
a 3 . fa 3 ll, wa'll, wa 3 -tu 2 r fau-l, wau-l, wau'ter ; 

a in age, Chalons ahzh, Shahloan\ 
a 4 . fa 4 t, ma 4 t, maV-re 1 fat, mat, mar'-i ; a in fat 

matin faat, maataen' orfa't, ma'taen'}. 
e 1 . me 1 , he^e, me 1 '-te 2 r, me v -de 1 -u 2 m or me 1 '- 

jV-u'm mee, hee'r, metier, mee-dyem ; i in 

mitre, epitre meetreo, aipeetreo. 
e 2 . me't, Ie 2 t, ge 2 t met, let, get ; e in mette, nette 

maet, naet. 

1 1 . p^ne, ti j '-tl pein, tei'tl ; ai in laique, naif 
laa-eek, naa-eef. 

1 2 . pi 2 n, ti 2 t'-tl pin, tit- 1; i in inne, titre eennai, 
teetrai [quite different from tea-tray tee'trai*']. 

1 . no 1 , no j te, no 1 '-ti 2 s noa, noa-f, noa'tis ; o in 
globe, lobe gldob, Idob. 

2 . mo 2 o 2 v, pro 2 o 2 v moo-v, proo'v ; ou in mouvoir, 
pouvoir moovwaar', poovwaar 1 . 

3 . no 3 r, fo 3 r, o 3 r, "like the broad a 3 ," naur f 
fawr, au'r ; o in or, for, encor dor, faor, ahn'- 


4 . no 4 t, ho 4 t, go 4 t not, hot, got ; o in hotte, cotte 
aot, Mot. 

u 1 . k^be, ku r -pi 2 d [not in the body of the work, 
spelling taken from ku 1 -pi 2 d'-e 1 -te 1 keupid'iti] 
teu-b, keu-pid; iou in Cioutat, chiourme Syootaa, 

u 2 . tu 2 b, ku 2 p, su 2 p tub, kup, sup; eu in neuf, 
veuf noef, voef. 

Sec. XIII. 



u 3 . bu 3 !, fu 3 !, pu 3 ! buol, fuol, puol; ou in boule, 

f oule, poule bool, fool, pool. 
O 3 i 2 . o 3 i 2 ! oil ; o'i in cycloide, heroi'que seekloa-eed, 

o 3 u 3 . THO 3 u 3 , po 3 u 3 nd dhou, pound ; aou in Aout 

oo (could it have been aaoo in Walker's time ?) 
th. Ai 2 ngk, th\~n. thingk, thin. 
TH. THi 2 s, THa 4 t dhis, dhat. 
g. ge 2 t, go*n, go 1 , gi 2 v, geVse get, gon (or gau'n], 

goa, giv, gee's. 

j. ji^'-a^t, ji 2 n'-j\i~-rjei'ent,jm-jer. 
s. si 2 n, su 2 n, so 1 , si 2 t, se 2 nse sin, sun, soa, sit, 

z. ro ] ze, ra j ze roa'z, rai'z. 

Smart. " Walker Remodelled. A new critical 
Pronouncing Dictionary of the English Language, 
adapted to the present state of literature and 
science, embodying the original stores of Johnson, 
the additions of Todd and Webster, and many 
words in modern use not included in former 
dictionaries, exhibiting the pronunciation of words 
in unison with more accurate schemes of sounds 
than any yet furnished, according to principles 
carefully and laboriously investigated : explaining 
their meaning by classification and mutual refer- 
ence, as well as by improved definitions ; /and 
accompanied by i. Hints for surmounting defects 
of utterance, foreign, provincial, vulgar, and im- 
pedimental ii. An etymological index of common 
terminations ; iii A key to the pronunciation of 
Greek, Latin, and Scripture proper names ; iv. A 
brief appendix on the pronunciation of modern 
foreign names. By B. H. Smart, author of an 
Outline of Sematology ; a Practical Grammar of 
English Pronunciation ; Theory and Practice of 
Elocution, &c. London, 1836." 8vo., double 
columns. Preliminary matter 64 pages, Dictionary 
and Appendices 738 pages. 

This is still a valuable work of reference. 
Although the author (who died a few years ago), 
like all others of his time, had not quite an 
adequate knowledge of phonetic relations, the 
work shews much independent study, and is a 

great advance on Walker. There are some pro- 
nunciations which are rather archaic and "thin," 
and many which shew the elocution-master rather 
than one in the habit of hearing and conversing 
with people of high education. But certainly no 
one could be blamed for adopting his pronuncia- 
tions. He takes the "well-educated Londoner" 
for his model, and does not allow quite sufficient 
latitude of pronunciation. For study, the work is 

In his spelling he adopts letters with numbers 
over them in a few cases, here given by superiors. 
He has a peculiar " script " character occasionally, 
which is here represented by italics, and his italics 
are distinguished by being placed between paren- 
theses, as (a 3 ) A, the a being in italics and the h in 
script, for th, dh he uses peculiar letters which are 
here written th, TH, as in Walker. The mode of 
indicating pronunciation is so singularly laborious 
and intricate, that he avoids it whenever he can, so 
that not half the words in his dictionary are spelled 
at full according to this scheme, but the sounds 
are merely indicated to belong to some preceding 
word, by italics, &c., and even in his scheme he 
has spelled only the syllable of the example con- 
taining the peculiar sound at full. This occasions 
considerable difficulty at times. The mode also in 
which he has grouped his words according to 
etymology often occasions delay in finding the 
word required. The key words are here spelled 
as in the body of the dictionary when they occur 
there. The Glossic (in italics) gives my own 


" Note that a, e, i, o, u, y, w, h, so printed, are 
mute, though in general significant : Note further 
that the mark (") changed to ( : ), as a to a 1 , 
signifies a change in the quantity of the corres- 
ponding accented vowel ; that an italic letter [in a 
parenthesis] implies a change or corruption in 
the quality; and that no change of indication 
implies that there is no change of quantity or 
quality, the difference in such case being merely 



Sec. XIII 

that of remitted accent. Note likewise that two 
or more ways of marking a sound s, or c, or ss, for 
instance) imply no difference in the sound itself." 

1. a, ai, ay, gate, gait, pay, gai't, gai't, pai. 

2. a 1 , a 1 *, a ! y, a 1 -e'-re 1 -(a)l, re'-ta 1 *!, gate-waV, 
aier-'iel, ree'tail, gai-twai. 

3. e, &e, ea, me, mete, meet [in the dictionary ; in 
the scheme, meet, met], mee, mee-t, mee-t. 

4. e 1 , e ] e, e ! y> de ] -fy, ped'-e^gre 1 ^, gal'-h^y, 
difei', ped'igree, gal'i. 

5. I, le, y, wide, deified', de^fy, weid, difei-d, 

6. I, le, y, i-de'-(a 3 ), for'-te'^fies, for'-te^fy, 
eidee'u, fau'rtifeiz, fau'rtifei. 

7. 6, da, 6e, ow, ow, no, bo#t, foe, sowl, "blow, noa, 
boa~t, foa, soa-l, bloa. 

8. o 1 , Q I W, o^bay', f ol'-lo 1 [in the dictionary ; in 
the scheme, fol'-lo^], oabai-,fol-oa. 

9. ii, ue, ui, cube, du [in the dictionary ; in the 
scheme, due], suit, keu'b, deu, seu't. 

10. u 1 , u j e, u^zurp', a'-gu 1 [a'-gi^e in scheme], 
euzer'p, ai'geu. 

11. a, man, chap'-m(#)n [in scheme here chap- 
man], man, chap-men. 

12. a, (a), ack-sept' [ac-cepf in scheme], chap'- 
m()n [chap'-m(a)n in scheme], afrsept, chap-- 

13. e, lent, lent. 

14. e, si'.lent, sei'lent. 

15. i, pit, pit. 

16. i, saV-pit [saw'-pit in scheme], saw pit. 

17. o, not, com'-m(o)n [common in scheme], not, 

18. o, (o), pol-l'55t', c(o)m-mand', com'm(o)n, 
pulewt, kumaa-nd, kom-en. 

19. u, nut, ciis'-t t)rd, nut, hus-terd. 

20. u, wa 4 wl'-nut, cer'-kus wau-lnut (or wau-nut], 

21. oo [the v is single but large, covering both 
letters], good, hood, guod, huod. 

22 oo, ch(i)ld'-h(oo)d [in scheme, child' -hood, in 
the dictionary child, as a principal word, is given 
as chiled, and the (i} refers to this] chei'ldhuod. 

23. a 3 , a 3 A, p(# 3 )-pa 3 ', a 3 A, pupaa-, na. 

24. ( 3 ), ( 3 )A,p(a 3 )-pa 3 ',man'-n( 3 ),mes-sI'-(2>, 
pupaa', man'u, mesei'u (or man'aa, mesei'aa). 

25. a 4 w, a.* we, atw, la%, a 4 w [a 4 we in scheme], 
/aw, w. 

26. a 4 w, jack'daw [jack'-da 4 w in scheme], jafr- 

27. 65 [the ' is single but large and covering both 
letters], p65l poo- 1. 

28. oo, wAerl'-pool [where wh means hw ; whirr- 
pool in scheme] wherlpool. 

29. oi, oy, toil, boy, toil, boi. 

30. oi, oy, tur'moil, foot'-boy, ter- moil, fuot- boi. 

31. ou, ow, noun, now, brown, noun, nou, br'oun. 

32. ou, ow, pro^-nown [apparently a mistake for 
pr5'-nown], niit'-brown, proa-noun, mtt-br'oun. 

33. ar=a 3 r, ar'-dent, aa-rdent. 

34. ar, ()r=a 3 r, (# 3 ,r, ar-cade', dol'-l()r, aarkai'd 
(or aakai-d], dol-er. 

35. er, ir, er'-mm, ver'-tue, er-min, ver-teu. 

36. er, (e)r, (i)r, com'-merce, let'-t(e)r, na'-d e)r, 
kom'ers, let-er, iiai'der 

37. or=a 4 wr, or'-d(e)r, au-rder. 

38. or, (o)r, stu-por, sa,il'-(o)r, steu'per, sai'ler. 

39. ur, ur'-gent, er-jent. 

40. ur, siil'-fur, sul'fer. 

41. are=a'ur, mare, mai'r [he writes mayor= 
may- 'o)r=ma'-ur=mare]. 

42. a 1 re=a 1 ur, wel'-fa^e, wel-fair. 

43. ere=e'ur, mere, mee~r. 

44. e 1 re=e 1 ur, at'-mos-fe 1 re, at-musfeer. 

45. Ire=I'ur, mire, mei-r. 

46. ire=iur, em'-plre, em-peir. 

47. 6re=5'ur, more moa-r. 

48. o'-re=o'ur, raer'-fo^e dhai-rfoar. 
4.9. ure=u'ur, mure, meu'r. 

50. u 1 re=u 1 ur, fig'-u^e Jig-eur (or fig-yer 01 

51. 66r=66'ur, poor poo'r. 

52. oor=oour, black'- (a) -moor, blak-umoor. 

53. ower=ow'ur, power, pou-r. 

54. ower=owur, c^^l-e^flower, kol-iflour. 

55. ('), " A slight semi- consonant sound between 
e 1 and y consonant, heard in the transition from 
certain consonant to certain vowel sounds, as in 

Sec. XIII. 



lute (1'oot), jew (j'65), nature (na'-ch'oor) [in 
the dictionary this is called " colloquial," and 
na'-tu^e is given as the first form], g'arment 
[in the dictionary gar'-ment], k'ind [in the 
dictionary kined], leut (or loot), jeu (or joo , 
nai'teur (or nai'cher}, gaa'rment (not yyaa'rment], 
keind (not kyeind}. 
66. h, hand, per-haps' [meaning p(0'r-haps' ?] 
ve'-he^ment hand, per-hap-s, vee'himent (or 
vee'iment, vee-ument, the last is commonest). 

57. w, we, be^ware', fro'-w(o)rd, hwe#t=hweet, 
wee, biwai'r,froa'erd, whee't. 

58. y, y65, yoo, eu; "And this sound is always 
to be understood as present in u, u 1 , u ] re, which 
are equivalent to yoo and yoor." 

59. s, ss, also c or so before e or i ; sell, cell, sit, 
cit, mass, sene^seen [scene], si'-ence [science], 
set, sel, sit, sit, tnaa's (or maas'}, see~n, sevens. 

60. z, zz, ze, zeal, buz, maze, zee'l, buz, mai'z. 

61. sh, mish'-iin, mish'en. 

62. zh, vizh'-iin, vizltoi. 

63. ch, tch, [chair] chare, eetch, match, chai'r, 
ee-eh, mach. 

64. j, and also g before e or i, jog, jem, age, jm, 
jog, jem, ai-jjin. 

65. f, ff, fe, fog, cuff, Hie, fog, kuf, leif. 

66. v, ye, [vain] vane, luv [lov<?], vai'n, luv. 

67. th, thm, pith, thin, pith. 

68. TH, THe, THen, WITH, breeTHe, dhen, widh, 
bree dh. 

69. 1, 11, \e, let, miU, sale, let, mil, sai'L 

70. m, mm, me, may, ham'-m(^)r, blame, mai, 
ham'er, blai-m. 

71. n, nn, ne, nd, ban'-n(^)r, tune, noa, ban'er, 

72. ng, ring, ring. 

73. r, rr, "as audibly beginning a syllable; or being 
one of a combination of consonants that begin a 
syllable," ray, e^rect', uorid=florrid [in the dic- 
tionary only FLOR'-ID, meant for flor-rid?], torrid 
[meaning tor'-rid, in dictionary TOR'-BID, under 
tor'-re l -fy], pray, spred, r'ai, eer'ek-t, flo^'id, 
tor' 'id, pr'ai, spr'ed, " Under other circumstances 
the letter is a sign of mere guttural vibration." 

74. p, pp, p?, pop, siip'-p(tf)r, hope, pop, sup-er, 

75. b, bb, be, bob, rob'-b(e)r, robe, bob, rob'er, 

76. k, ck, ke, also c final, and c before a, o, or u, 
or a consonant, king, hack, bake ; an'-tick, cat, 
cot, cut, claim, king, hak, bai'k, an-tik, kat, hot, 
kut, klai'm. 

77. g, before a, o, or u, or a consonant, gap, got, 
gun, g^<ess, plagwe, grim, gap, got, gun, ges, 
plai'y, grim. 

78. t, tt, ie, ten, mat'-t(e)r, mate, ten, mat-er, 

79. d, dd, de, den, mad'-d(e)r, made, den, mad'er^ 

An Epitome of " Smart " is published. 

Worcester. " A Critical and Pronouncing Dic- 
tionary of the English Language, including 
Scientific Terms. To which are added Walker's 
Key to the Pronunciation of Classical and Serip- 
ture Proper Names, much enlarged, and a 
Pronouncing Vocabulary of Modern Geographical 
Names. By Joseph E. Worcester. London, 1847." 
Large 8vo., double columns. Preliminary matter 
75 pages, dictionary and vocabulary 956. 

Worcester is an American, so that possibly the 
sounds he attributes to his key words may differ in 
many points from those here given. But taken as 
those, this dictionary is the most complete and 
serviceable one I know. Wherever there is a 
noticeable disagreement among Sheridan, 1780; 
Walker, 1791; Perry, 1795; Jones, 1798; Fulton 
and Knight, 1802; Enfield, 1807; Jameson, 1827; 
Webster, 1828; Knowles, 1835; Smart, 1840; and 
Reid, 1846, it is here given, and assigned to the 
proper authority. Every word is respelled or 
marked in a manner equivalent to respelling. The 
preliminary account of pronunciation does not 
enter at all into the principles of speech, but there 
is a good deal of other interesting matter. The 
vocabulary is altogether more complete and more 
handy than Smart's. The principal defects are 
the treatment of the unaccented vowels, and the 
vocal r. The letter r is certainly differently pro- 



Sec. XIII. 

nounced in America and in England. Ask any 
American to pronounce the word America, and 
listen. If, however, we read hy English rules the 
whole book becomes clear and useful. Worcester's 
marks for indicating pronunciation often require 
new signs, and in that case they are here put in 
italics or small capitals, and described. If not 
otherwise mentioned, italics indicate under-dotted 
letters. The spelling is that in the body of the 
work, with the respelling if there given. The 
unmarked vowels in a combination are mute. The 
Glossic (in italics) gives my own pronunciation. 


1. a. fate, lace, aid, pain, player, plater, fai-t, lai-s, 
ai'd, pai-n, plai-er. 

2. a. fat, man, lad, car'ry, fat, man, lad, kar'-i. 

3. a. [a with ' over it], fare, rare, pair par, bear 
bar, fai'r, r'ai'r, pai'r, bai'r. 

4. a. far, fa/TH^r, part, arm, oalm kiim, faa'r, 
faa-'dher, paa'rt, aa'rm, kaa-m. 

0. A. (a with a + above it), fAst, branch, grASp, 
grAss [this is meant for ', stated to be "inter- 
mediate between its short sound, as in fat, man, 
and its Italian sound, as in far, father, 1 ' but 
whether long, or short, or medial is not stated], 
faa'st, br'aa-nch, graa-sp, gr'aa-s. 

6. a. fall, hall, haul, wawk, warm, fau-l, hau'l, 

hau'l, wau'k, wau'rm. 
7- a. ll'ar, pal'ace, ri'vfll, ab'ba-cy, lerer, pal'es, 

r'ei'vel, ab'usi. 

1. e. mete, seal, fear, keep, mee-f, see'l, fee'r, 

2. e. met, men, sell, fer'ry, met, men, sel,fer'-i. 

3. e. like a, heir ar, THere THar, where hwar, 
ai-r, dhai'r, whai'r. 

4. e. her, herd, fern, fer'vid, her, herd, fern, 

5. e. brl'er, fu'el, cel'ery, br ever, few el, sel-ur'i. 

1. I. pine, file, find, mild, fire, pein, feil, feind, 
meild, feir. 

2. I. pm, fill, miss, mir'ror, pin,Jil, mis, mirr''er. 

3. i. like e, ma-^hlne', po-lice' po-les', mien 
men, m-rme' m-ren', mushee-n, poalee-s, mee-n, 

4. i'. fir, si'r, bird, Tirfwe, virt'yw, fer, ser, berd 

5. i. 0-lix'ir e-Kk'sur rr'in, lo^'ik lod'jik, a-bil'- 
i-ty, ilik'ser, r'oo'in, loj'ik, ubil'iti. 

1. 5. note, f5al, tow to, s5re, noa't, foa-l, toa~, 

2. o. not, con, odd, bor'r5, not, kon, od, bor-oa. 

3. 6. move, prove, food, soon, moo'v, proo'v, 
foo'd, soo'n. 

4. 6. like a, nor, form, sort, ought awt, nau-r, 
fau'rm, sau'rt, au't. 

5. o. (an o with J- over it), son, done, come, 
mon'ey, sun, dun, kum, mun-i. 

6. o. ac'tor, con-fess', fel'o-ni, ak'ter, kunfes', 

1. u. tube, tune, suit sut, pure, teu'b, teu'n, seu't, 

2. ii. tub, tiin, hut, hiir'ry, tub, tun, hut, hur''i. 

3. u. bull, full, pull, push, buol, fuol, puol, puosh. 

4. ii. fiir, tiirn, mur'mwr, hiirt, fer, tern, mer- 
mer, hert. 

5. u. (u with -*- over it , like 6, rule, rude, true. 
r'oo'l, r'oo'd, troo. 

6. u. sul'phwr sul'fwr, miir'niwr, dep'w-ty, sul'fer, 
mer-mer, dep-euti. 

1. y. type, style, lyre, teip, steil, leir. 

2. y. syl'van, sym'bol, crys'tal, sil-ven, sim'bel, 
kr j is-tel. 

3. y. myrrh mir, myrtle mi'r'tl, mer, mer'tl. 

4. y. truly trvle, en'vy, mar'tyr, tr'oo'li, en n vi t 

01, oy, boil, toH, boy, toy, boil, toil, boi, toi. 

6u and ow, bound, town, now, bound, toun, nou. 

ew, like u, few, new dew, feu, neu, deu. 

9, like s, ac'td as'id, pla9-id, as'id, plas'id. 

c (c with J- under it, or C with an oblique lino 

through it), like k, flaccid, scep'tie, Jlak'sid, 


Sec. XIII. 



eh. (c as before), like k, chav'ac-ter k&r'ak-ter, 

chasm kazm, kar'-akter, kaz-m. 
9h, like sh, 9haise shaz 9hev-#-lieV shev-a-ler, 

shai-z, shevulee-r [Fr. sheovaalyai.'] 
ch, like tsh, charm, church, chact'rm, cherch. 
G (g with J- over it , Get, Give, Gift, get, giv, gift. 
g (g \vith a half inoon over it; capital, with re- 
verted half moon under it), ^en'd^r, gl'ant, 
jen'der, jei'ent. 
s (s with a half moon under it), like z, muse, 

choose, meu-z, choo-z. 
x (x with a straight line under it) <?#-Am'ple egz- 

Am'pl, ex-ist' eg-zist', egzaa'tnpl, egzis't. 
TH (in capitals the T has a cross line through its 

stem, in small letters the h has a cross line through 

its stem), THIS, TH, THen, dhis, dhee, dhen. 
tion, sion, like shun, na'tion na'shwn, nation 

no'shwn, pen'sion pen'shwn, mis'sion mish'wn, 

nai'shen, noa'shen, pen's hen, mish'en. 
cera, cian, like shan, o'cean 6'shn, op-ti"cin 

op-tish'n, oa- sheii, optish-en. 
cil, sil, tial, like shal, com-mer'cial kom-mer'shl, 

con-tro-ver'si^l kon-tro-ver'shal, kumer'shel, kon- 

ceows, ciows, tiows, like shus, far-i-na'ceows far-^- 

na'shws, ca-pa'ciows ka-pa'shws, sen-ten'tiows 

sen-ten'shws, far 1 in ai- shus, kupai'shus, senten'- 

ffeous, giou&, like jus, cot^-ra'^eows kwr-ra'jws, 

re-liff'ious re-lid'jws, kur'ai'jus, rilij-tis. 
qu, like kw, queen kwen, ques'tion kwest'y^n [but 

the first spelling ought to have given kwes'shem, 

see tion above], kween, kwes'tyen. 
wh, like hw, when hwen, while hwil, when, wheil. 
ph, like f, phan'tom, ser'ph ser'sd, fan' tern, ser''af 

(or ser^'ufj. 

Ogilvie and Cull. A smaller English Dictionary, 
etymological, pronouncing, and explanatory, by 
Joint Ogilvie, LL.D. The pronunciation adapted 
to the best modern usage, by Richard Gull. F.S.A., 
1875, London, Blackie, pp. 464. 

A compact, useful, and very cheap little book 
(3s 6d.) beautifully printed and got up. Mr. Cull 

is a well-known orthoepist. His usages and re- 
commendations will, however, be found to differ in 
many respects from those here given. For example, 
he uses the vanishes ai-y, oa w always ; he does not 
distinguish r, r', rr\ and does not recognise murmur 
diphthongs, and he treats weak syllables as if they 
were strong. The following key words run along 
the foot of each page. They are here given in 
Mr. Cull's orthography, using a, u for a, u with 
two dots under them. To these are added a few 
other words to shew Mr. Cull's treatment of R and 
weak syllables. The Glossic in italics gives the 
pronunciation indicated, and where it differs from 
my own pronunciation the latter is subjoined in a 


Fate/-y* tfai'tj, far /' (faa-rj, f&tfat, fall 
fau'l ; me mee, met met, her hur' (her) ; pine pein, 
pin pin; note noa'wt (noa'tj, not not, move moo'v ; 
tube teu'b, tub tub, bull buol ; oil oil, pound pound. 
Chan chai-yn (chai'n) ; job job ; go goa-w (goaj ; 
sing sing; THen [the stem of the T is crossed] dhen ; 
thin thin; wig wig; a'zhur ai'yzheur fai'zhettr, 
ai'zher, azh'eur, azh'erj. 

OTHER WORDS mer'li inee'r'li (mee-rli) ; se'rez 
see-r'eez fsee'rr' ieezj , rar r'ai-yr' (r'ai'r), ra're-fl 
r'ai-yr'eefei (r'ai'rr'ifeij, 5'ral oa'wr'al foa'rr'elj, 
porpoo-r' fpoo-rj, la'ber-er lavybur 'ur' (lai'burer), 
de-pend-ant deepend-ant (dipen'dentj, de-pend'ent 
deepend'eni fdipen'dentj [these two last words are 
usually identical], re-jon ree'jon (ree-jen) , or'gan 
or-gan (au-rgen, aw gen), for'tu-nat for'-teunai-yt 
fau-rteunet, fawchunet), hor'rid hor'-r'id (hor'-idj, 
flo'rid flor^'id [these two last words rhyme per- 
fectly], flo'-rist/or'-u* (floa-rrist). 

As I am personally acquainted with Mr. Cull, I 
know that the pronunciation he uses in conversa- 
tion and public speaking does not differ from my 
own so much as these words would imply, and 
hence I recommend those who use this dictionary 
to read the pronunciation there given in accordance 
with the above indications. 





Introduction Although it is not possible to lay 
down rules which will enable a reader to ascertain 
the sounds from the ordinary spelling of English 
words, this is much more nearly the case with 
German, Italian, and French. 

I. German. For German it is not usual to give 
any assistance to the reader, and most Germans 
are under the delusion that they spell as they 
pronounce. This is not the case. High German 
is a literary language which owes its predominance 
to the fact that Martin Luther (Luot-ur ) was 
born at Eisleben CAayslae-benJ in Saxony, and 
used his own dialect for his translation of the 
Bible. In different parts of Germany different 
systems of pronouncing this literary language 
prevail, distinguished by their treatment (1) of 
German e, (2) of the diphthongs, (3) of the corre- 
spondence of short vowels in closed syllables to 
long vowels, (4) of German g, (5) of German s, 
and (6) of German ng. The three principal 
systems are thus defined and described by Dr. 
H. M. Rapp, in his " Physiologic der Sprache," 
vol. 4, 1841, p. 85. 

A. The Orthographical or Low Saxon System of 
Pronunciation, used in the North West of Germany, 
between the Weser (V'ae-zur) and the Elb, and 
mostly in the Hanse Towns (Hamburg, Liibeck, 
Bremen), Holstein, Hannover, East Friesland 

(Haam-buorkh, Lue'baek, Brae-men, Haol-staayn^ 
Haan-oa-vur , Free- sldandj . Through Hamburg 
and Hannover (which we write Hanover, and call 
Han-uver) % this system chiefly reaches England, 
but the point to which the English cling is the 
fifth, concerning st, sp. 

(1) Short i, u, ii become e, oa, oe. Short e, o, 6 
become ae, o, e\ 

{2} When ' e ' long is derived from ' a ' long, or 
' i ' long, it becomes ae- long, and is otherwise ai- 
long. This custom requires a knowledge of the 
language, or marked vowels. [Mr. Henry Sweet, 
in a paper on " The Characteristics of North 
German," read before the Philological Society, 
17th March, 1876, immediately on returning- from 
a six months' residence in Hanover, stated that 
this distinction in now entirely given up, and that 
long 'e' is invariably ai-, no matter whence it is 

(3) The diphthongs ' ai, ei ' are both aay, ' au ' 
is aaw. and * au, eu ' are both oy. 

(4) Initial ' g ' is g at the beginning of syllables, 
and gh or gy'h at the end of syllables. [Mr. 
Henry Sweet says it is always g except at the end 
of words, and even then it is generally k ; the gy'h 
or ky'h occurs only in the termination ~ig.~\ 

(5) The combinations ' st, sp ' are always &t, sp. 
[Mr. Sweet says that st, sp are not considered 
correct at present in Hanover, that sht-, shp-, with 

Sec. XIV. 



the full labial sJi (p. 713) are always heard on the 
stage and in public speaking, and st-, sp- may be 
considered to have practically disappeared.] 

6) Final ' ng ' adds on a g, as ngg, but between 
vowels no such g is heard. [Mr. Sweet knows 
only ngk final, but even this is now discoun- 
tenanced, and ng alone is used.] 

B. The Historical System of Pronunciation, used 
in the North West of Germany, Berlin, Branden- 
burg, the shores of the Baltic from Mecklenburg, 
through Pomerania to the Russian borders ; also 
in isolated districts in the middle provinces, on the 
lower Rhine about Aix-la-Chapelle and Cologne, 
near the river Fulda in Franconia, &c. ; and like- 
wise in South West Germany, in Swabia, Alsatia, 
Switzerland. (Baei'lee'n, Br'aatrdenbuor'ky'h, 
Maek-lenbuor'ky'h, Paom'urn, French Aezlaa- 
Shaapael, Kaolaony , German Aa'khen, Koeln, 
Fuoldaa) . 

(1) The short vowels have the same quality as 
the long vowels. 

(2) The use of ae, ai long, as in the Ortho- 
graphical System. 

(3) A very complicated diphthongal system, 
first, the ' ei, au, eu ' corresponding to the old 
simple vowels ee, do, ue. are uy, uw, uue ; secondly, 
those corresponding to the old diphthongs are 
perhaps aey, ow, e'ue ; thirdly, when either of these 
precede nasals, they become aay, aaw, oeue. 

v4) The ' g ' is always g, except in the termina- 
tion ' ig.' 

(5) The initial ' st, sp ' become sht, slip (or 
perhaps stit, sh'p}. 

(6) The ' ng ' treated as in the Orthographical 

C. The Practical System of Pronunciation, used 
throughout Middle Germany, from the Polish to 
the French frontier, in Silesia, Upper Saxony, 
Franconia, the Palatinate of the Rhine, and Upper 
Palatinate, and also in Bavaria and Austria. 

(1) Short and long vowels the same in quality. 

(2) All long ' e ' are ai [but tie is often heard in 

(3) The diphthongs ' ei, au, eu ' are aay, aaw, 
aay [but oy or aoy is used for ' eu ' on the stage, 
the aay being thought vulgar ; Rapp supposes a 
theoretical one, other theoreticians give a theoreti- 
cal aaue, I have never heard either.] 

(4) Initial ' g ' is g, final ' g' is kh or ky'h, and 
' g' between vowels, and after a liquid and before 
a vowel, is gh or gy'h. 

(5) Initial ' st, sp ' always sht, shp [or, in 
Saxony, in the most refined speaking, more exactly 
sKt, sh'p.] 

1 6) The ' ng ' is always ng without any final g 
[or *.] 

It is this system of pronunciation to which I 
have become accustomed by three years' residence 
in Dresden. But I always took the liberty of using 
those pronunciations known in other parts of 
Germany, which were easiest for my own organs, 
and I recommend other Englishmen to do the 
same. Thus the short German vowels ' a, e, i, o, u, 
6, ii,' I recommend pronouncing as aa, e, ?, o, uo, 
oe, ue, and the long as aa, ai, ee, oa, do, eo, ue. The 
diphthongs ' ei, au, eu ' may be taken exactly as 
English ei, ou, oi, in the form most usual to the 
speaker. The ' g ' may even be always </, except 
in '-ig,' but it sounds very harsh, and when the 
learner has once mastered ky'h, kh, which are 
quite indispensable, he will find no difficulty in 
using gy'h, gh. The sh't, sh'p or sht, shp initial 
are indispensable ; the st, sp have a strange, short- 
tongued effect, and, as seen above, were confined 
to a very limited district, whence they are dis- 
appearing. The ' w ' may even be pronounced as 
v, if the lip press the teeth very lightly, but v' is 
so much softer and pleasanter that it should be 
adopted if possible. The place of the accent offers 
no difficulties to an Englishman. 

With these liberties it does not become very 
difficult to assign rules for pronuncing German 
from ordinary spelling, and these I have tried to 
give in the following Alphabetical Key. The 
pronunciations are given on my own responsibility. 
I have paid great attention to German speech for 
more than thirty years; at one time I used to 



Sec. XIV. 

speak well enough to be mistaken for a German 
by Germans; I have had much conference with 
Germans respecting pronunciation, and have 
studied many German orthoepical works. My 
directions may, I think, therefore, be followed 
with considerable confidence. 

II. Italian. For Italian, the spelling shews 
the pronunciation almost exactly, except in four 
important points, the double use of the three letters 
' e, o, z,' and the position of the accent. It is 
quite impossible to give complete rules for over- 
coming these four difficulties. All elementary 
Italian books and dictionaries should have the 
broad sounds tie ae, do do, dz distinguished in some 
way from the fine ai ai, da oa, ts ; learners other- 
wise fall into difficulties which they can never 
correct. Although I resided eighteen months in 
Italy, and was at one time able to speak the 
language fluently, I have not attempted to grapple 
with these difficulties on my own responsibility, 
but have always consulted the excellent work of 
Valentini. In Petronj's (Paitrao-nyee'zJ Pocket 
Italian Dictionary, Rosteri's (Roastae'ree'z) Pocket 
Italian Interpreter, and New Italian Grammar (all 
in English), these distinctions are always carefully 
marked. Based upon these helps and my own 
familiarity with the language, the following 
Alphabetical Key will most probably always lead 
the student correctly. 

III. French. There is this peculiarity about 
French spelling, that though it is quite impossible 
to guess the spelling of a word from its sound, the 
reverse process of telling the sound from the 
spelling is tolerably certain, and admits of reduc- 
tion to rule, which will generally, not always, 
suffice. Although I have been familiar with 
French from childhood, have resided many months 
at various times in France, during which I 
diligently studied the pronunciation, and have in- 
dustriously worked through many French treatises 
on the subject, I have been very glad to rely for 
the following Alphabetical Key on an admirable 

little work by Theriat, cited below, and now 
apparently out of print. With this help, I hope 
that my Key will prove useful even to those who 
have considerable acquaintance with the language. 
But a pronouncing dictionary or vocabulary is still 
necessary, and for those who can read French, I 
recommend Adrien Feline's " Dictionnaire de la 
Prononciation de la langue Fran9aise, indiquee au 
moyen de caracteres phonetiques, precede d'un 
memoire sur la Reforme de 1'Alphabet, Paris, 
1851," 8vo, double columns, 383 pages, a work I 
find constantly useful. The following is a com- 
parison of his symbols with the Glossic. 

1. a aa 13. u ue 25. 1 I 

2. a ah 14. u oo 26. j. hj 

3. a ahn' 15. u oen 27. y y 

4. e ai 16. p p 28. f / 

5. e ae 17. b b 29. v v 

6. oe 18. mm 30. w w 

7. e eo 19. t t 31. s s 

8. i ee 20. d d 32. z z 

9. i_ aen' 21. n n 33. h sh 

10. o ao 22. k k 34. j zh 

11. 6 oa 23. g g 35. r r' 

12. o oan' 24. g ny' 

These Alphabetical Keys were originally written 
and stereotyped for separate use, and hence they 
have been constructed independently of the pre- 
ceding pages, with a separate key to the especially 
foreign sounds, which was continually referred to. 
This Key is therefore retained, and although the 
full explanations already given may have rendered 
it not so necessary as before, yet the reader may 
find it convenient to have a -statement of all the 
new sounds he has to learn put before him at once, 
with a reference to the other fuller accounts. 

Sec. XIV. 




Six Vowels, heard in Provincial English. 

[1.] ae is a with a higher larynx and narrower 
throat, a somewhat broader sound of ai in air, 
p. 32a. It has no resemblance to aa. It is very 
common in German, Italian, and French. Those 
who have a difficulty in pronouncing it may use ai 
long and e short. 

[2.] ah is aa with the back of the tongue de- 
pressed, a thicker, broader sound of aa, producible 
from au by opening the corners of the lips (p. 33). 
Common in French, common (but not acknow- 
ledged) in German, quite unknown in Italian. 
Those who have a difficulty in pronouncing it may 
use aa. 

[3.] ao, confined to the diphthong 'oar"= 
ao-u-(r'} in received English, but used provincially 
before all consonants, p. 3oa. Common in German, 
Italian, and French before all consonants. Those 
who have a difficulty in sounding it may use oa 
long and o short in German and French, and au 
long and o short in Italian. 

[4.] ue may be immediately sounded by trying 
to say ee or i when the lips are placed for oo, p. 29 a. 
Common in French (where it must be rightly 
pronounced to be intelligible), and German (where 
it may be called ee or i, that being a vulgar native 
pronunciation), but unknown in Italian. In 
French it forms a diphthong with the following 
vowel, generating a sound much like an attempt 
to pronounce w and y at the same time, giving the 
greater predominance to the w, see p. 49 &, and 
UI in the French Key, p. 210*. 

[5.] eo may be immediately sounded by trying 
to say ai when the lips are placed for oa, p. 31. 
Common in French (where it must be rightly pro- 
nounced to be intelligible), and in German parts of 
Germany (where it is always long, and may be 
called ai, that being a vulgar native pronuncia- 
tion), but unknown in Italian. At the end of 
words -le, -tc, -me after consonants are pronounced 
in French with the faintest possible indication of 

this sound, which is written eo in Glossic. See 
p. 94. 

[6.] oe is produced by trying to say ae (instead 
of ai, as in the last case; when the lips are placed 
for oa, p. 3 la. Common in French (where it is 
distinguished from eo by careful speakers, but must 
not be confounded with any other sounds), and in 
German (where it is always short, and may be 
called e or ae, the latter being a vulgar native 
pronunciation), but unknown in Italian. Very 
like English er with untrilled r, but the lips are 
not rounded for er as they are for oe, 

Four Nasal Vowels, peculiar to the French. 

[7.] aen' ', produced by keeping the uvula away 
from the pharynx, as in diagrams 22, 23, 24, all 
the time that the speaker tries to say ae or a. Not 
to be confounded with ang, which consists of a, a 
glide, and ng, whereas aen' is one simple vowel on 
which a note of any length can be sung. But this 
aen' is sometimes heard during the glide, in 
passing from a to ng, when the vowel is continued, 
even while the uvula is relaxed, as in diagram 24 
for the ng. Practice saying ae-aen' -ae-aen' , &c., in 
one continuous emission of breath, feeling the 
motion of the uvula. Examine the effect of 
closing the mouth and nostrils alternately, by the 
hand only, while saying aen'. See p. 400. 

[8.] ahn', produced by keeping the uvula away 
from the pharynx, as in diagrams 22, 23, 24, all 
the time that the speaker tries to say ah (or au, 
but try not to round the lips) . Differs from aang 
as ang from aen'. Exercise ah-ahn'-ah, &c. as in 
[7]. Never call this ong or ang. See p. 40a. 

[9] oan' , uvula as in diagrams 22, 23, 24, all the 
time that the speaker tries to say oa. Exercise 
oa-oan' -oa-oan' &c., see [7]. Never say ong. Dis- 
tinguish clearly between ahn' and oan'. English 
speakers are apt to call both ong. See p. 40. 

[10.] oen' , uvula as in diagrams 22, 23, 24, all 
the time that the speaker tries to say oe (or u.) 



Sec. XIV. 

Exercise oe-oeri '~oe-oen' &c., see [7], Never say 
wig. See p. 41#. 

Six German Consonants, of which two are pro- 
vincial English, and the other four may be 
pronounce^ with received English sounds. 

[11.] M, lips open, tongue almost as for oo, 
diagram 5, hut even a little closer to the uvula, so 
tha't the breath escapes as a hawking, rasping hiss. 
The Scotch ch in ' Loch '=lokh. Never say k. 
See p. 83<z. 

[12.] gh, the same as kh (see [11]) with the 
voice laid on, producing a harsh guttural buzz. 
This may be always called g in German, that 
being the pronunciation of one district. See p. 83. 

[13.] ky'h, an attempt to say both y and kh at 
once, tongue very nearly in the position for ee 
(diagram 1 and 8), or ai (diagram 2 and 9). The 
sound is almost yh, as in English Hugh Theu, and 
this sound may always be used for ky'h. The 
Scotch ch in ' nicht'=^neky'ht. Never say sh or 
ch, which are common English errors. See p. 81#. 

[14.] gy'h, the same as ky'h, [13], with the voice 
laid on, so that it is very nearly y, but a little 
harsher ; and y is a vulgar German pronunciation. 
This may be always called g in German, that 
being the pronunciation of many persons in North 
Germany. See p. 81a. 

[15.] f is an/^made with the lips in the position 
for w, as in diagram 12, but closer, taking care 
that the lower lip does not touch the upper teeth. 
I" is an attempt to say / without using the teeth. 
But / may always be used, that being a very 
general pronunciation. See p. 65. 

[16.] v 1 is a v made with the lips in the position 
for w, as in diagram 12, but closer, taking care 
that the lawer lip does not touch the upper teeth. 
It is-/', [15], with the voice laid on; that is, it is 
an attempt to say v without using the teeth. But 
v may be always used. Englishmen are cautioned 
against saying w. See p. 65. 

Two Liquid Consonants, peculiar to Italian and 

[17.] ly' is an attempt to pronounce I and y at 
the same time, so that the front of the tongue is 
as in diagram 20, and the back as in diagram 1. 
If in saying ' billion '==bil-yun we prolong the I 
till we begin to say y, we produce ly' as an inter- 
mediate glide, thus bil-ly'-yun. It is not ly. 
Common in Italian and in the pronunciation of 
elderly Frenchmen, but within the last 50 years it 
has been replaced by y in France. Never use y 
for ly' in Italian. This is called " 1 mouille " aeo 
mooyai (formerly mooly'ai) in French. See p. 8lb. 

[18.] ny 1 is an attempt to pronounce n and y at 
the same time, so that the uvula and front of the 
tongue are as in diagram 23, and the back as in 
diagram 1. If in saying ' onion *=un'yun, we 
prolong the n till we begin to say y, we produce 
ny' as an intermediate glide, thus un-ny'-yun. It 
is not ny. Common in both Italian and French. 
Beware of calling ' Boulogne ' Booloin, or Boolong, 
or Booloan, it is properly Soolaony'. This is called 
" n mouille " aen mooyai (formerly mooly'ai) in 
French. See p. 82. 

Two Consonantal Diphthongs, used finally, but 

not initially in English. 

[19.] ts ; if in saying pats we pause at the t, 
keeping the tongue as in diagram 16, and then 
explode from t to s, thus pat -ts, we produce the 
initial ts. Common in German and Italian, but 
unknown in French. See pp. 703 and 710. 

[20.] dz; if in saying ' pads '==padz, we pause 
at the d as long as we can sound the voice in that 
position, and then, while the voice is still sounding, 
come suddenly down on z, thus pad-dz (taking care 
not to drop from z into *, as Englishmen are apt 
to do), we produce the initial dz. Not uncommon, 
but not very common, in Italian ; unknown in 
German and French. See p. 97. 


[21.] In using the English sounds ai, oa in 
foreign languages be extremely careful never to 

Sec. XIV. 



add after-sounds of short ee and oo. This trick is 
quite unknown abroad, and is extremely un- 
pleasant, often unintelligible, to foreigners. 

Cautions for English Speakers of German, Italian, 
and French. 

[22.] The letters t, d, n, s, I, r, are pronounced 
in German, Italian, and French, with the tip of 
the tongue rather more forward than in English, 
so as to lie quite on the roots of the teeth, almost 
as much as for English th. See *', d\ p 700 ; w", 
p. 770; s, *',p. 703; l\ p. 73i; r", p. 74*. 

[23.] Vocal r is unknown in German, Italian, 
and French, and Englishmen are therefore cau- 
tioned against using it, as they will be considered 
to have omitted r altogether, and would hence 
become unintelligible. A strongly -trilled r 1 must 
always be used. Germans and French (not 
Italians) often use the Northumbrian burr or 

uvular trill l r (p. 83*) , but this is always considered 
erroneous, even by those who use it. Be careful 
never to introduce a trilled r' between the final 
00, w, of one word, and the initial vowel of the 
next. This is quite unknown abroad. 

[24.] The aspirate h is unknown in French and 
Italian, but is never dropped in German. The 
French so-called " h aspire " aash aaspeer'ai is a 
mere hiatus. 

[25.] Diphthongs in German are very close, 
but the first element being longer than in English, 
sound very broad. In French and Italian the 
vowels are rather slurred together than united into 
a glide to form a proper diphthong p. 45). When 
in Italian several vowels come together on one note 
in singing they are all to be distinctly heard, and 
are to be slurred together in this way. See 
Section XV, p. 213. No written vowel must be 
left out in speaking or singing Italian. 



Sec. XIV 


Only one un-English sotnid is absolutely neces- 
sary for speaking German intelligibly, namely, kh, 
the Scotch ch in loch [11]. The bracketed numbers 
refer to the explanations on p. 193, where it will be 
seen that 1 1 other new sounds, or combinations of 
sound, are also in use. Of these ts [19], and dz 
[20], are only un-English by being used at the 
beginning, instead of only at the end of syllables. 
For ae [1] we may use ai long, and e short ; for ao 
[3], o short ; for ue [4], ee long, and i short; for 
eo [5], ai long ; for oe [6], e short ; for ky' it, [13], 
f fh as h in hue ; f or either gh [12] or gyh L 14], 
dimple g ; and for /' [15] and v' [16], simple/, v. 
Persons so speaking will be always well and easily 
understood by Germans, although the sounds are 
frequently incorrect, or, more properly, vulgar. 

In the following alphabetical list, Italics mark 
the pronunciation in Glossic characters. 

A is long or short aa, never English ai, a, as Strasze 

shtr'da'su, Mann moan. 
A is long or short ae ( 1], as sprachen shprae-ky'hen, 

Manner mden'er' ; but may be miscalled ai, e, as 

shpr'di'yhen, men-er'. 
AA is always long aa, as Aal aal. 
AE is precisely the same as A, and is often used 

instead of it in capitals. 

AEU is precisely the same as AU. 

AH is always long aa, chiefly used before L, M, N 
R, as Pfahl p/'aal, Rahm r'dam, Ahnen da'nen 
Bahre. baa-r'u. 

AI is precisely the same as EI, and may be pro- 
nounced as ei. 

ATI is ou, taken as aa-oo, and the aa may be 
made long ; as Laut lout (scarcely to be distin- 
guished from English ' lout.') 

AIT may be always called oi as in North Germany ; 
it is professedly aa-ue [4], and is often confused 
with AI, as Hauser hoi'zer ', or haaue'zer' often 
hei-zer'. See [25]. 

B is b at the beginning of words or between the 
two vowels (lengthening the preceding vowel), 
but p at the end of words, as bat bdat, graben 
grda'ben, Grab i/rdap. 

BB is b, and shortens the preceding vowel, as Ebbe 

C before A, O, U, is k, in which case it is often 
replaced by K ; but before AE, E, I, UE, EI, it 
is ts, in which case it is often replaced by Z. 
Before any other letters but H and K, C is only 
used in foreign words, as Capital kaapeetaa'l, 
Geder tsai'der'. 

CH after A, 0, U, AU, is kh [11], and generally 
(not always) shortens the preceding A, 0, as 
machen maakh'en,, pochen paokh'en, p$kh'e>/, but 
Buch bookh. CH after AE, E, I, EI, EU, AEU, 
E, L, N ; that is generally, is ky ' h [13] (nearly 
yh}, and also often shortens the preceding E, I, 
as Pech paeky'h or peyk, ich eeky ' h or iyh, Dolch 
daolkyh or dolyh, manch maanky' h or maiiuyh, 
durch door'ky'h or door' 'yh. In the final syllable 
chen it is also ky'h, as Madchen mde'dky' hen or 
mai-dyhen, the only German syllable in which 
CH is initial. In foreign words from Greek it 
is kh, ky'h, according to the following vowel, 
sometimes k, and from French it is s/i, as Chaussee 
shoasai'. CHS is always ks, as sechs zdeks or zeks. 

CK used for KK, which is often written, is k, 
and shortens preceding vowel, as Miicke muek-u 
or mik'u, 

D is d at the beginning of words or between two 
vowels (lengthening the preceding vowel), but t 
at the end of words, as das daas, Ader aa'der\ 
stand shtaant. The Germans advance the tip of 
the tongue nearer the teeth than the English [22], 

E is generally ai [21] when long, and may be 
always so called, but is sometimes ae [1] long, 
and before a consonant is ae short, but may be 
called e short. When final and unaccented it is 
practically u, as English final A in ' idea.' When 
in a final syllable with L, M, N, K, it is indistinct, 
and may be called e, very lightly pronounced, 
and in case of el, en, the vowel is sometimes 
entirely omitted. Some German writers on pro- 
nunciation allow ER, ES, final to be ur\ 

us . Examples, heben, hai'ben, Eber ae-^r 01 

ai'ber', eine ei-nu, Adel da-del nearly da.-dl, 
offenen anf-enen or ofnen, Nudeln nwdeln (not 
noo'del-n, or noo-dlen, as Englishmen often say). 

EE always long ai [21], as Beet bait. 

EH always long ai [21], or long ae [1], the latter 
rare ; generally used before L, M, N, R, as Ehre 
di'r'u, compare Aehre de-r'u or di-r'u. 

Sec. XIV. 



El is ei taken as any that is aa-ee, and the first 
element may be long ; as rein, raayn or r'ein. 
See [25] 

E U is precisely the same as AEU, and may be always 
called oi as in North German, but is professedly 
aa-ue [4], and is often confused with AI or El, 
as Eule oi-l/t, or aane-lu, often ei'lu. See [25.] 

F always /, but in some districts/' [15] after p. 

FF always /"shortening preceding vowel, as Staffelei 

G may be always called g when at the beginning 
of syllables, or between two vowels, and k when 
at the end of words, except in the syllable ig, 
which may be Cdlled eekif h [13] or \yh. In 
the middle and South of Germany (that is, more 
generally) G at the beginning of words is called 
g, and in the middle of words gh [12] after 
A, 0, U. AU, and gy'h [14] after AE, E, I, El, 
EU, AEU, R L,'but at the end of words kh, 
kyh after these letters respectively, and lengthens 
the preceding vowel ; as tag taakh, or taak, 
woge v'd'i'ghu, or voa'qu, Zug tsookh, or tsook ; 
Sage zae-gy'hu, or zdi-gu; Siege zee-gy 1 hu, or 
zee'gu, feige fei'gy' hu, or fei'gu, augeln oi'gy'heln 
or oi-geln. 

GKJ is simple g, but shortens the preceding vowel, ; 

as Koggen rdog'en, or r'oye-n. 

H before a vowel h [24], as heiser hei'zer' ', except 
in TH, which see ; after a vowel, mute, length- 
ening the vowel. See AH, EH, IH, OH, UH. 

I is long and short ee (and short * in North of 
Germany, so that short i may always be used 
in place of the more difficult short ee), as Ver- 
giss-mein-nicht fer'gees'-mein-neeky'ht, or fer'- 

IE is long ee, except when final in a few foreign 
words where it is ee-u, or yu, as Liebe lee-bu, 
Lilie let-iee-u, or leelyu. 

IH is long ee, as in ihnen eenen. 

J is if ; in German Gothic print the capitals I J are 
not distinguished. 

K is k ; avoid middle German pronunciation of 
K, as k-h. when beginning a syllable, as komm 
k-haom, and say kaom or /com. 

L is I, as Luge lue'gy' hu or, intelligibly, lee'gu. 
LL is I, but shortens preceding vowel as lallen 

M is m t as Mutter moofer\ 

MM is m, but shortens preceding vowel as kammen 
kdetn'en or hew en. 

N is n except before K, when it sounds ng, as drin- 
nen dreen-en or drin-en, drinken dreengk'en or 

NG is always ng, as in English ' long,' and never 
ng-g as English ' longer ' : thus, lang langer, 
laang laeng-er* , or leng-er\ not laeng-ger', 01 
leng-ger.' Final NG is sometimes erroneously 
called ngk, as lang, laangk. 

is long oa and short ao [3], or short o (heard 
in North Germany), which may therefore always 
be used in place of the more difficult short 
no, as grosze groa'see, Ochs doks, or oks. 

6 when long is eo [5], and when short oe [6], but 
may be called ai when long and de (or e) when 
short, as these are common vulgar pronuncia- 
tions; thus, 'groszer' properly greo'ser\ vulgarly 
grdi-ser ; ' konnte,' properly koen-tu, vulgarly 
kden'tu or ken'tu. 

OE, (E the same as 0, usually employed in names 
as Goethe Geo-tu (vulgarly Gdi-tu like English 

OH is long oa as ohne oa-nu. 

00 is long oa as Boot boa't (never oo). 

P is p as Pass pdas. Confused with B in Saxony, 

PF properly pf [15], may be called pf (nevei 
simple /), as Pfaffe pf'aafu or pfdaf-u, never 

PP is p, but shortens preceding vowel as Pappe 

QU is kv' [16], and may be called kv, but must 
never be called kw, Quelle kv'ael-u or kvel'u 
(never kwel-u as in English ' queller '). 

E is properly r\ [23] with the tip of the tongue 
trilled, but is frequently made by trilling the 
uvula, a practice condemned by those who follow 
it. This r" never forms a diphthong with the 
preceding vowel, as in English eer. air, oar, oor, 
and ai, oa often occur before it, as Lehre lai'r'u, 
as well as short vowels, as sterben shtder ''ben or 
shter'-ben, murbe muer'-bu or mtr'bu. 

ER is r\ shortening the preceding vowel, as Pfar- 
rer pf'aar''er'. 

8 at the beginning of a syllable, before a vowel 
or between two vowels is always z (never *) ; 
at the end of a syllable it is always s. Tr 



Sec. XIV. 

German Gothic types, and sometimes in Roman 
types, a long f is used in the first two cases, and 
a short 8 in the second : Ex. faufeln zoi-zeln, 
genas genda-s. See sp, ss, at, tz. 

SCH is always M, and often shortens the preceding 
vowel, as rasch rdash, schiitteln shuet-eln or 

SP at the beginning of a syllable is most generally 
called shp, as spiel thpee'l, but in Hanover it is 
called sp, as speel. See p. 190* (5). 

SS is *, and shortens the preceding vowel, as 
kiissen kues-en or kls-en, unless in German 
Roman types it is used for SZ, which see. In 
German Gothic types SZ is often used for SS at 
the end of words and before consonants (never 
before vowels) as ' nusz ' for ' nuss ' noos. 

ST at the beginning of a syllable is most generally 
called sht as stehen shtaien or shtdin, but in 
Hanover it is called st. At the end of a sylla- 
ble it is always st as ist eest, or ist, and never 
sht. Seep. 190* (5). 

SZ is always s. and lengthens the preceding vowel, 
except when in German Gothic types it is used for 
SS, as is common at the end of words or before 
consonants. In German Roman types SS is often 
used for SZ, and when this is done, SZ is not 
used at all. Compare 'Flusz Fliisze' with 'Nuss 
Nusse ' that is floos jlue-s ee or flee-see, with noos 
nues'u or nis'u. 

T is t -with the tongue nearer the upper gums 
than for English t [22], In Saxony it is con- 
fused with D. 

TH is t lengthening the following vowel as That 
taat (never th or dh). See H. 

TSCH is ch, that is tsh, used at the end of words, 
as Deutsch doich or doitsh. 

TZ is ts, used at the end of a syllable after a short 
vowel (but the T is frequently omitted), as nutz 

TZSCH is ch, and is sometimes used at the end of 
words, as Retzsch Edech or Retsh (like "wretch"). 

U is long and short oo, but short uo may be said, 
as Putz pfiots or puots. 

U is long and short ue [4], but may be called 
long and short ee, or ee long and i short, as 
this is a vulgar pronunciation known all over 

Germany ; thus, ' Muller ' properly Muel'er', 
very often Meel-er' or Mtl-er' never Mul-u, 
Moo-lu, Meu'lu, as English people barbarously 
pronounce Prof. Max Miiller's name. 

HE is often used as the capital form of U. 
TJH is long oo, as Uhlan Oolda-n. 

TTJ is sometimes used as a capital form of U in 

V is by some German theorists called /' [15], but 
is most usually f (never v], as von fdon or 
fon (never von). Those Germans who call W v' 
[16], have the greatest difficulty in pronouncing 
a true v. 

W is v [16] throughout the middle and South 
of Germany. German theorists declare that v 
is always used in the North (though the present 
writer has never found a German who knew the 
sound of v), and hence Englishmen may always 
use this easier v (but never M>), as wer weisz 
rider" v'eis or vaer' veis (vaer may be called 
vairr', as in English 'vary' vai-rr'i). 

X is ks, but only occurs in non-German words. 

Y is always considered as a vowel, and to be, in 
the older German dipthhongs AY, EY, another 
form of I. In later spelling AI, El are used, 
and Y is confined to non- German words, being 
called long and short ee. 

Z is always ts [19], never dz [20] or simple 2, 
very common at the beginning of syllables as 
zuzuziehen tsoo-tsoo-tsee-n. 

ZSCH is ch, often used at the beginning of 
words, as Zschokke Chdok-u, or Ohok-u, Tshok-u. 

German words generally receive the accent on 
the root syllable of native words, and on the last 
syllable of those taken from French and Latin. 

Example of difficulties : Ach ! eine einzige iible 
feurige Miicke konnte wohl auch mien bose 
rnachen, was mir unendlich leid thate. Aakh ! 
ei'nu ei'ti-tseegy" hu ue^blu foi'r'eegtf hu muek'u 
koen'tu voal oukh meeky 'h boe - zu maakh'en, v'aas 
meer 1 oon-den' dleeky' h left tde^tu which would 
be intelligible if mispronounced ; Aakh ! ei'nu 
ei'ntsigu ee'blu foi-r'ign mifru ken-tu voal ouhk 
miyh bai-zu mdakh'n, vdas meer' oon-en'dliyh leit 
tdi'tu. (Ah! a single evil fiery gnat might indeed 
even me angry make, which to me infinite sorrow 
would do). See German Songs, pp. 217-224. 

Sec. XIV. 




Italian (or properly, Tuscan^ , may be pronounced 
intelligibly without introducing a single unusual 
English sound by simply using e for ae, o or au for 
ao. ly for ly ', and ny for ny\ For more correct 
speaking, study the vowels ae [1], on p. 193; 00, 
[3] ; the consonants ly' [17], ny' [18], and the 
consonantal diphthongs ts, & [19, 20]. Observe 
also the cautions [21, 23, 25]. 

Italian vowels are generally shorter than English 
long, and longer than English short vowels. 
They have precisely the same sound whether 
long or short, and any one may be made long 
in singing. Observe also that double consonants 
in Italian should be pronounced twice, to imitate 
the peculiar energy which they receive and which 
always distinguishes them from single consonants. 

In the following Alphabet, Italics mark the 
pronunciation in G-lossic. 

A is aa middle length, as raro r'aa'T'oa, fatto 
faat'toa, cassa kaas-saa. It is never indistinct, 
as final 'a' in English. Never allow an r or r' 
to be heard after it. The preposition "a" when 
before a consonant always runs on to it, and 
doubles it ; thus, a,\maal-loo-ee. Whenever a word 
ends in -a, with the accent on it, the following 
consonant is also doubled in correct Tuscan. 

B is b, never confused with p, as bardo baa-r'doa. 

BB is b-b, as if occurring in two words, as in 
English, Ba ballads ; as gabbia gaab'beeaa. 

C before A, 0, U, is k ; and before E, I is ch, 
but when CE, 01, CIA, CIO immediately follow 
a vowel, the t of ch -tsh is not so distinctly 
heard, so that to English ears the sound is 
nearly sh, but is really that modification of 
sh heard in prolonging the hiss of English 
"hatch, fetch, as long as possible, but pure ch 
is better than pure sh. Ex., acerbo aach m aer''boa, 
face faa'chat. 

CC before A, 0, U is k-k, as if in two words, 
as English boo-<-ase ; and before E, 1 is as English fa^-cAeese, as accendere aat- 
chaen'dair'ai, facce faat'chai. 

CCH, used only before E, I, is k-k, like CC before 
A, 0, U. 

CCI before A, 0, U is t-ch, like CC before E, I, 
as braccia braafrchaa, caccio kaat-choa ; other- 
wise it is t-chee, as abbracci aab-braat'chee, 

CH, used only before E, I, is k, as chiave kyaa'vai, 
cheto kai'toa. 

CHI before A, 0, U, is nearly chy, chiodo kyao-doa. 

CI before A, 0, U, is ch, simply (see C), as ciancia 
chaan-chaa; before E it is always chy, as cielo 
chyae'loa, as cieco chyai'koa, ciechesco chyaikae'- 
ciera chyai'r'aa. 

D is d with the tip of the tongue against the 
roots of the teeth [22], is never confused with 
t, as dato daa-toa. 

DD is d-d, as in two English words, as ma^-otfshes ; 
Ex., freddo fraid'doa. 

E is sometimes ai [22] and sometimes ae [1], the 
former is called ' chiuso ' kyoo'zoa close, and 
the latter ' aperto ' aapaer' 'toa open. The mean- 
ing of a word often depends on making this 
distinction of sound, which is not marked in 
spelling, and can be fully learned from a 
dictionary alone. The following rules (derived 
from Valentini) apply to numerous, very common 
cases, and should be studied by those who wish 
to pronounce Italian well. 

Use ai (close e) in words ending like the 
following passEG-GrlO paas-said-joa, dEGrNO 
dai'ny'oa, civilMENTE cheeveelmain'tai (only 
when adverbs), aliMENTO aaleemain-toa, bur- 
IESCO boor'lais-koa, caprETTO kaapr' ait'toa (only 
when diminutives), colpEVOLE koalpai-voalai, 
bellEZZA bail-laittsaa, avERE avai-r'ai (only 
when verbs in ere long), and cedEI, cedE\ 
tEnne, prEse, crEbbe, &c. ; credEVA, cedESSI, 
credESSERO, &c., chaidai-ee, chaidai', tain'nai, 
pr'ai-zai, kr'aib'bai, &c. ; kr 1 aidai-vaa, chaidais'see, 
kraidais-sair'oa, &c., in the past tenses of all 
verbs, in the monosyllables " me, te, se, ne, ce, 
ve, le, re, tre, fe," &c. ; "che," and its com- 
pounds " perche, benche," called mai, tai, sai, 
nai, chai, vai, lai, r'ai, tr'ai, fai, kai, pair'kai\ 



Sec. XIV, 

when E replaces a Latin I, as cetera chai-tai- 
raa, neve nai-vai, peace pai-shai, &c. The 
adverb "e" meaning 'and' is also ai, but 
when occurring before a consonant doubles 
it, as e lui ail-loo- ee; this is also the case for 
all words ending in -e in proper Tuscan. 

Use ae (open e} in other words ending as 
bELLO bael-loa (with its inflections " bella, 
belli, belle"), dENTE daen'tai, semENZA 
saimaen'tsaa, mestiERE maisteeae'r" ai (not verbs"', 
desidERIO daiseedae-r' eeoa, eccESSO ait-chaes'soa; 
generally when accented in the last syllable but 
TWO and in the monosyllable e ae, meaning ' is '; 
and generally when E stands for Latin E, JE, 
(E, as bene bae'nai, mesto maes'toa. 

F is /, as ferro faer-r'oa. 

FF is /-/, the hiss of / prolonged, and some- 
what relaxed in the middle, as in English 
sti/-/oot. Ex., affatto aaf-fctat-toa. 

G before A, 0, U is g ; before E, I is j' t as gara 
gaa-raa, gorgo goa-r'goa, guscio goo'shoa ; gesto 
jaes'toa, gigante jeegaan'tai. 

GG before A, 0, U is g-g, as in English bi^oat ; 
before E, I is d-j, as in English ba^/est; as 
distraggo deestr'aag'goa, fuggono fooff-yoanoa. 

GGH, only used before E, I, is g-g. as in English 
"big yeese, as sogghigno soag-gee'ny'oa [18]. 

GGI not before a vowel is d-jee, as oggi aod-jee [3] ; 
before A, O, U, d-j as scheggia skaid-jaa* 

GH, only used before E, I, is simple g, as piaghe 
pyaa'gai, laghi laa'gee. 

GHI before A, E, is almost gy, but the vowel ee 
is more distinctly heard, as it were gee, as 
ghiaccio gyaat'choa, ghiozzo gyaot'tsoa [3]. 

GI not before a vowel is jee ; before A, 0, U, 
is j, as gi&CQTQ jaachai'r' ai, Giacomo Jaa'koamoa, 
giugno joo'ny'oa. 

GL before A, O, U is always gl ; before E, I, it 
is gl in the following words ONLY : gleba glae'baa 
[1], Egle A.i'glai, glenoide glainao'eedai [3], 
negligere naiglee'jair' ai, negletto naiglaet-toa, 
glifo glee-foa, gliconico gleekao-neekoa, glitto- 
grafia gleet' toagr'aafee'aa, gleet' toagraa'feekoa, 
anglico aang'gleeJcoa / before I in ALL OTHER 
WORDS it is ly' [17 J, or nearly ly, as gli ly'ee, 
quegli kwai-ly'ee, scogli skao-lyee, cespugli 

GLI before A, E, 0, U is always ty [17], or nearly 

ly, as paglia paa-ly'aa, aglio aa-ly'oa, figliuccio 
fee-lyoot-choa, dagliene dan-ly'ainai, 

GN is always ny 1 [18], or nearly ny, never gn ; as 
gnocco 'ny'aok-koa, bisogno beezao'ny'oa, pugni 

GU not before a vowel is goo, but before A, E, I, 
0, is almost gw, the vowel being rather more 
distinctly heard, as it were goo, as guai gwaa-ee, 
sangue saang-ywai, tregua trae-gwaa. 

H is never pronounced as h ; it is now used only 
in the combinations CH, G-H, which see. When 
formerly written before vowels as ' ho hai, ha, 
havere,' it was entirely mute ; these words are 
now written * 6, ai, a, avere', and read ao, aa-ee 
aa, aavai'rai. 

I is always ee, except in the combinations CI, GI, 
CHI, GHI, which see, and generally before 
vowels, where it is y, or nearly ee. Final i 
makes the following consonant to be pronounced 
double in correct Tuscan. 

J final stands for II, and is called ee-ee, as studj 
stoo-dee-ee. At the beginning of words it is 
written for I, and pronounced nearly as y, but 
the vowel is more distinct, as if ee, as jeri yae'r'ee. 

L is always I, as lui loo-ee, except in GL which see. 

LL is always l-l, as in English sou^ess, as ballo 


M is always m, as mano maa-noa. 
MM is always m-m. as in English sham moans, as 

fiamma fyaam-ma. 
N is always n, except before C, G, followed by A, 

O, U, or before CH, GH, foUowed by E, I, in 

which cases it is nq, as vincere veen- chair 'at, 

fingere feewjair' at. but bianchi byaang-kee, see 

NG before A, O, U is always ng-g, as in English 

"finger," as lungo loong-goa, but before E, I 

is always n-j, as piange pyaan-jai, 
NGH only used before E, I is always ng-g as in 

English " stronger," as lunghi loong-gee. 

when close is oa (if anything rather more 
inclined to ud), and when open is ao (or very 
nearly o or au, which may be used for it). As 
in case of E, (which see), the meaning often 
depends on the distinction, although it is not 
marked in spelling and can be fully learned 
from a dictionary alone. The following rules 
(also derived from Valentini) apply to numerous 
very common cases, and should be studied by 
those who wish to pronounce Italian well. 

Sec. XIV. 



Use oa in words ending like the following : 
filatOJO fee-laatoa-yoa, biONDO byoatrdoa, buf- 
fONE boof-foa-nai, cONTE koan-tai, amORE 
aamoa'r'ai (English people should especially 
note this case, as they are apt to say u-mau-r'i), 
gelOSO jailoa'soa, with their inflections ; in all 
words where replaces Latin U, and IN ALL 


Use ao in words ending like the following : 
sciolto shaol'toa (unless they correspond to Latin 
ULTUS, as volto voaltoa, ' countenance '), 
glORIA glao'r' eeaa, oratORIO oar aatao'r eeoa ; 
aUORO '(Ml-lao-r'oa, confORTO koanfaor'-toa, 
appOSTO aap-paos-toa, galeOTTO gaaiai-aot'toa, 
cagnOLO kaany'ao-loa ; in all words where it 
follows U in an accented syllable, as uomo 
wao'moa ( nearly) ; in all words ending in 6 
(causing the following consonant to be doubled 
in pronunciation in correct Tuscan), as amo 
aamao- ; in all words where it replaces Latin 
AU, as poco pao-koa ; and generally (by no means 

always), where it replaces Latin 
inao "toa, but voce voa'chat. 

as moto 

P is always p, as pianta pyaan-taa. 

PP is p-p as in English slop-pail, as troppo traop'poa. 

QTJ is nearly kw, but the vowel is more distinct, 
almost koo, as quale kwaa'lai, or more nearly 

R is always r', very strongly trilled, even before 
a consonant, even more strongly than in Scotland, 
and always with the tip of the tongue, never 
with the uvula Carefully distinguish carne 
kaar^'nai 'meat,' from cane kaa'nai 'dog.' 

S has two sounds s and z, the s is a very sharp 
pure hiss, but the z has the voice held only for 
a short time, and either rapidly falls into a 
gentle s, as in English 'that's hi*!' dhats hizs, 
or at the beginning of words begins with a 
gentle s. 

Use a at the beginning of a word before vowels, 
and the sounds k, f, t, and in the middle of 
words after the sounds of I, m, n, r', sano saa'- 
noa\ scala skaa'laa, schermo skair^'moa sfinge 
sfeen'jai, spillo speel'loa, squama skwaa'maa, stelo 
stai-loa ; polso poal-soa, censura chainsoo'r'aa, 
verso vaer'"soa; also in words ending like 
amorOSO aamoar'oa'soa, bramoSIA braamoasee'aa, 
animosita aa-neemoa-seetaa- ; in the past tenses 
in -esi, -ese, -esero, and after the prefixes di-, 
ri-, corresponding to Latin de-, re-. 

Use z (very short or nearly sz) at the begin- 

ning of a word before the sounds b, d, gr, v, or ?, 
m, n, r', as sbaglio 8&6aa'Zy*oa, sdegno szdai-ny'oa, 
sgarbo szgaar'-boa, svanire szvaanee'r' ai, smorto 
szmaor''toa, snello sznael'loa, sradicare szraa i dee- 
kaa'rai ; and z (nearly zs) between two vowelb 
(except as before), as rosa raoz'sa, esatto aizaat 1 - 
toa, spasimo spaaz'seemoa, esito aez'seetoa; and 
simple z short, in the prefixes ' dis-, mis-, be- 
fore a vowel, or the sounds of /, d, g, v, or I, m, 
n, r\ as disonore deez-oanoa-rai, dis-detta deez- 
dait'taa, disgrazia deez-graa'tsiaa. 

SS is s-s as in English mis-sent, as assenza aas- 

SC before A, 0, U, is simply sk, but before E, I, it 
is a very strongly pronounced sh, as scena shoe'- 
naa, pesci pai-shee. 

SCI before A, 0, U, a very strongly pronounced sh, 
as sciocco shoak-ka, cresciuto kraishoo'toa. 

T is t with the tip of the tongue against the roots 
of the teeth, see D, as tasto taa'stoa. 

TT is t-t as in English boo-ree, as f&ttofaat'toa, 
quite different from fato faa'toa. 

U before a consonant, simple oo, as uno Unno 
oo-noa Oon-noa ; before a vowel nearly w, but 
the vowel sound it is more distinct, nearly oo ; 
after a vowel it is short and slurred on to it, so 
as to be counted as a diphthong, but sometimes 
forms a distinct syllable as : uovo wao'voa, Laura 
Laaoo'-r'aa, paura paa-oo-r'aa. See pp. 47, 49. 

V is v, never /, as in vico vee-koa. 

VV is v-v, as in English Tve vowed, as avvi aawvee. 

Z is either ts [19] or dz [20], and ZZ is either t-tt 
or d-dz. The ts sounds are far the most fre- 
quent. About 100 words, which must be learned 
from a dictionary, take dz ; of these the most 
frequent are : manzo maan'dzoa, garzone gaar '- 
dzoa-nai, amazzone aamaad-dzoa'iiai, azzurro 
aad-dzoor* V oa, brezza braed-dzaa, bizzarre beed- 
dzaar''r'oa, bozzo baoddzoa, caprezzo kaapraid'- 
dzoa, dozzina doad-dzee'-naa, gazza gaad dzaa, 
mezzo maed'dzoa, pozzo paod'dzoa 'a hill/ poat'- 
tsoa * a well,' razzo raad'dzoa, rozzo road'dzoa. 

No rules can be given for the place of the 
accent (when not written by a grave accent on 
the last syllable). In singing the musical accent 
marks it sufficiently. 

Most of the preceding rules and examples 
have been adapted from F. Valentini's Gruend- 
liche Lehre der italienischen Aussprache, Berlin, 



5. XIV. 


Or that used in Masses and Mediaeval Hymns, 
must be treated precisely like Italian. The classi- 
cal pronunciation of Latin, from one century "before 
to one century after Christ, differed materially 
from Italian, but much more materially from the 
pronunciation which till very recently was preva- 
lent in all, and is still prevalent in most, English 
classical schools. The classical pronunciation of 
the vowels and consonants was probably the same 
as the pronunciation of Italian, except as regards 
the letters H, C, G-, and occasionally Y, Z. The 
H was probably always pronounced as h in classi- 
cal Latin, except in the combinations CH, GH, 
PH, RH, TH, where it was usually omitted, so 
that these combinations sounded as k, g, p, r, t. 
Occasionally, however, purists may have pro- 
nounced them as k-h, g-h, p-ti, r-h, t-h. The 
C, G were always k, g. The principal distinction 
between classical and mediaeval Italian pronuncia- 
tion lay in the strict observance of long and short 
vowels, and long and short syllables (p. 103a), by 
the ancients, and in their use of a musical pitch 
accent (p. 104). Those who wish to enter upon 
a consideration of these points are referred to my 
practical " Hints on the Quantitative Pronuncia- 
tion of Latin, for the use of Classical Teachers 
and Linguists" (132 pp., Macmillan, 1874). But 
the singer has no concern with them. From the 
end of the third century A.D. the distinction of 
long and short vowels was lost in Latin, and the 
pitch accent had sunk to the ordinary English and 
Italian force accent (p. 104), the only remnants of 
the old pronunciation being the sounds of the 
letters and the position of the stress. This position 
requires even now a knowledge of the laws of 
quantity to fix, but it occasions no trouble to the 
singer, because it has been already fixed for him 
by the music. In the following examples of words, 
and in the Stdbat Mater, hereafter given at length, 
the long vowels, which are not usually marked in 
our present Latin orthography (itself modern) will 
be marked by doubling the initial capital, or by 
a, e, I, o, u. They probably sounded as da, ae, ee, 
do, do, and always formed long syllables. Other 
vowels are short, but if they are followed by two 
consonants in the same word, or one in one and the 
next in the following word, they formed long 
syllables. The old versification depended entirely 
upon these long syllables. The modern ecclesias- 
tical verse depends entirely on strong and weak 
syllables like English. In old verse there were 

confluent vowels, as in Italian (see introduction to 
Section XV) and this confluent character also 
referred to words ending in m, which was never 
pronounced before a vowel beginning the next 
word. In ecclesiastical Latin there were no con- 
fluent vowels, and final m was regularly pronounced. 
Double consonants must be distinctly pronounced 
twice, as in Italian. 

In the following Alphabetical Key, italics mark 
the pronunciation to be adopted, in Glossic charac- 
ters. The old length of the vowels is marked in 
all Latin words, and the length of da aa, ae ae, 
ee, ee, do ao, do, do, which may be used in singing 
ecclesiastical Latin, is also marked for convenience. 
No use is made of the substitute vowels di e, ee ?, 
da o, do no, which are more convenient for English 
organs. The pronunciation usually adopted in 
English schools for the examples, is subjoined for 
contrast and avoidance. 

A long or short, da, aa, never ai, a, never indistinct; 
rarus rda-roos, factum fdak'tdom, fata fda-tda 
(not rair'r'us, fak'tum, fai-tu, as in English 
schools) . 

AE, JE, long, de, aetas de'tdas, aestlvus destee'voos, 
musae mdo'sde (not ee'tas, estei'vus, meu'zi, as in 
English schools). If de'is found difficult, ai 
may be used, but there must be no suspicion of 
the vanish ary. 

ATT as aaw, that is, as aaod, audivi aawdee-vee (not 
audei-vei, as in English schools). 

B, always b, bacca bdak'kda, abies aa'bee-des (the 
original short a- becoming long under the ac- 
cent), abjectus dabydek'tdos (not bak'u, ab-ieez, 
abjek'tus, as in English schools). There is an 
old custom of pronouncing the prefix OB- as 
aop- before t and *, which may or may not be 
followed, as obtinuit doptee-ndo-eet or dobtee- 
noo-eet (not obtiweuit as in English schools). 

BB always bb, subbib5 sdob'beebdo (not sub-iboa as 
in English schools). 

C, before A, o, u, R, L (not before AE, OE, E, i, Y , 
as k, cano, cano kda-ndo (ecclesiastical pronunci- 
ation does not distinguish these words), collum 
kdol-ldom, cursus kdor'-sdos, crinis kr'ee-nees, 
clamo klda-mao (not kai'noa, kol-um, ker-sus, 
kr'ei'nis, klai'moa, as in English schools). 

C before AE, OE, E, i, Y, but not in the final syl- 
lables -do, cius, always ch, as Caesar Ghde'sdar\ 
coena chde'nda, cedo chde'ddo, circumcisus cheer 1 ' 

Sec. XIV. 



koomchee'soos, cynicus chee-neekoos (not See'zer, 
see'nu, see'doa, ser'kumsei'sus, sin'ikus, as in Eng- 
lish schools). 

C before -10, -lus, &c., see also T before these com- 
binations, ts, jaci5 yda'tsee-ao, concio, contio 
kaon-tsido (not jai-shioa, kon-shioa as in English 

CC before A, o, u, R, L, as k-k, before AE OE, E, i, Y 
as t-ch, before -10, &c., as t-ts, sacculus saak-- 
kooloos, occo dok'kdo, occulte dok-kool-tde, accrevi 
aak-kr de'vee, acclamo dak-klda'mdo, accendo 
aat-chaen'ddo, occisos aot-chee'saos, Accius, Attius 
Adt'tsee-oos (not sak-eulus, ok'oa, okul'tee, akr'ee-- 
vei, aklai'moa, aksen-doa, oksei'soas, Ak'sius or 
At'ius, as in English schools). 

CH as simple k (never ch), as chorus kdo-roos, 
Bacchus Bdak'koos (not kau'rus, Bak'us, as in 
English schools). 

D as d, do ddo, ad dad (not doa, ad, as in English 

J>D as d-d, add5 aad'ddo (not ad f oa, as in English 

E'long and short, as de, ae ; but if these sounds 
are found difficult, ai, e may be used, provided 
there is no suspicion of the vanish aiy, et det, 
etiam de-tsee-dam, eja de f yda, evocare de-vdo- 
kda-rde (not ee'shiam, ee-jaa, evoakair'ri, as in 
English schools). 

El, if found, must be treated as I ; but it is only 
an ancient form. 

ETJ, as aew, that is, aeoo ; Europa Aewrdo'pd (not 
Euroa-pu, as in English schools). 

F as/, fero fde-rdo, lucifer loo-cheefder 1 (notfeer'- 
roa, leu-si/er i as in English schools). 

FF as /-/, offa aoffae, officina aof-feechee-nda (not 
ofu, of-isei-nu, as in English schools). 

before A, o, u, B, L (not before AE, OE, E, i, y) as 
g; gaudium gaaw > dee-oom, gavisus gdavee'soos, 
gobio gdo-bee-do. gula goo'lda, gratia gr' datsee-da, 
gloria gldo'r'ee-da (not gau'dium, gaivei'sus, goa,'- 
bioa, geu-lu, grai-shiu, glau'r'iu, as in English 
schools) . 

before AE, OE, E, i, Y, as j, ger5 jde'rdo, gibbus 
jeeb'boos, gyrus jee'roos (not jeer-r'oa, jib-us, 
jeirrus, as in English schools). 

GG before A, o, u, B, L, as g-g; before AE, OE, E, i, Y 
as d-j, as aggregavi dag-gr'degda'vee, agger 
dad-jder 1 (not ag'r 1 igai'vei, aj-er, as in English 
schools) . 

GH, if found, is simple g. 

H before vowels, h ; after consonants in the same 
syllable, omitted; habeo haa-bde-do, mini mee-hee 
hujus hoo-yoos (not hai'bioa, mei'ei or mei'hei, 
heu-jus, as in English schools). 

I, long and short, ee, ee, but if ee is found too 
difficult, i may be used : ire ee'r'de, exitus 
aek'seetoos, clivi klee-vee (not eir-r i, ek-situs, 
klei'vei, as in English schools). 

J, a medieval letter, introduced to replace I when 
it acted as a consonant, always y, as Janus 
Yda-noos, jejunus ydeyoo-noos, jocus ydo-koos, 
jucunditas yookoon'deetdas, judicium yoodee'- 
tsee-oom (not Jai'nus, jijeu-nus, joa'kus, jeukun-- 
ditas,jeudish'ium, as in English schools . 

K, always k, but not used except in one or two 
words, as kalendae kdalden'dde (not kulen 'dee, as 
in English schools). 

L, always I, laetus Ide-toos (not lee'tus, as in English 
schools) . 

LL, always l-l, as illaudatus eel-laawdda-toos (not 
ilaudai'tus, as in English schools). 

M, always m, even when final, as mecum mde-koom 
(not mee'kum, as in English schools). 

MM, always mm, as immunis eem-moo-nees, gemma 
jdtm-mda, (not imeu-nis, jem-u, as in English 

N, always n except before c, G, when these have 
the sound of k, g, in which case it becomes ng : 
narn ndam, nanis nda'nees, junctus yoongk'toos, 
jungo yoong'gao, but jungere t/oon'jder' ae (not 
nam, nai'nis,jungk % tus,jung-goa,jun-juri, as in 
English schools). 

NN, always n-n, as Cannae Kdan-nde (not Kan-i, 
like " canny," as in English schools). 

0, long and short, always do, ao, but those who 
find these sounds too difficult may say oa, o, 
without, however, any suspicion of the vanish 
oa-w : ovum do-voom, ovis, ovis do'vees, do-vees 
(these, of course, are medieval mispronuncia- 
tions), obolum^ do'baoloom (not oa'vum, oa'vis, 
ob-oalum, as in English schools). 

OE, (E, often interchanges with AE, M, andjhas the 
same sound : Camoenae, Camaenae; or Camenae 
Kdamde'nde (not Kumee-ni, as in English schools) . 

P, always p, pater paa'taer\ Appius Adp-pee-oos 
(notpai'ter, Ap-ius, as in English schools). 



Sec XIV. 

PH, either simply/?, or p-h ; but/, which came in 
later, may be also used in words from the Greek, 
thus Philippus Peeleep'poos or Feeleep'poos, but 
triumphaMs tree-oompda'tdos or -p-hda-- (not 
Filip-us, trei'umfai'tus, as in English schools). 

PP, always p-p, as mappa mdap'paa (not map'u, as 
in English schools). 

QU, always kdo- or kw- as in Italian: quantum 
kwdan-toom (not kwon'tum, as in English schools). 

E, always r* very strongly trilled, as in Italian, as 
mare maa'r'ae, marceo mdar^'chde-oa, servo saer 1 '- 
vda (not mair'r'i, maa'shioa, servoa, as in English 

EH, simply r\ as Rhenus R'de'ndos (not Ree'nus, 
as in English schools). 

ER, very distinctly doubled as in Italian r'-r' : 
terris tder'-r'ees (not ter'-is, as in English schools). 

S, always s, never z, or sh, or zh : aves da'vdes, 
musas mdo-sdas, v5s vdos, nostrds naos-trdos, op- 
posuit dop-pao'sdo eet, repositorium reepdo'see- 
tdo'r'ee-dom, occasio aok-kda- see-do, mentior 
mden-tee-dor 1 (not ai'veez, meu-zas, voa-s, nos'tr'oas, 
opozh'euit, ripoz'itau'rium, okai'zhioa, men'shiaur, 
as in English schools). 

SC, before A, o, u, n, L, simply sk ; before AE, OE, 
E, i, Y, a strong sh : scapulae skda-poolde, scena 
shde'nda (not skap'euli, see'nu, as in English 
schools). The old pronunciation was always sk. 

SCH, always sk: schola skdo-laa, schema skde'mda 
(not skoa-lu, skee-mu, as in English schools). 

SS, distinctly s-s, as missus mecs-soos (not mis-us as 
in English schools). 

T, always t, except in the terminations -tius, -tio, 
&c., where it becomes ts : totalitas todtda-leetdas, 
nuntiare noon-tsee-da-rde, ambitio dambee'tsee-do 
(not toatal-itas, nunshiairr'i, ambish'ioa, as in 
English schools). 

TH, always t, the Italians cannot pronounce th : 
theatro tae-da'tr do, thesaurus tdesaawr' oos ^not 
thiai'troa, thisau-rus, as in English schools). 

TT, a distinct t-t, attulit dat'tooleet (not at'eulit or 
ach'eulit, as I have heard occasionally in English 
schools . 

U, long or short, do, do, or if this is too difficult, 
do, uo, as mutus moo toos (not meu'tus, as in 
English schools). This is a mediaeval letter, 
introduced as the consonant of which Y was the 
vowel. In mediaeval print and manuscript we 
generally find U for the consonant and V for 
the vowel, but in modern books the converse 
usage prevails. 

V, always as English v, as vivo vee'vdo (not vei'voa, 
as in English schools). This was the original 
Latin letter, used for the vowel do or do (see U) 
and for the related consonant, which some con- 
sider to have had the sound of w, and others 
(with whom I agree) of v' (p. 646). 

W, not used in Latin, not a Latin letter ; if found 
in mediasval Latin, to be treated as V. 

X, always ks, never gz or ksh : examen eksda-maen, 
exeunt eks'ee-oont (not egzai'men, ek'shiunt, as in 
many English schools. 

Y, long and short, to be treated precisely like I, 
that is, as ee, ee, originally introduced to repre- 
sent the sound of a Greek vowel, probably ue : 
Cyrus Chee-rdos, Cybele Chee'bdelae (not Seir-r'us, 
Sib'ilee, as in English Schools). 

Z, always dz [20] as in the less usual Italian form, 
originally introduced to represent the sound of a 
Greek letter, the pronunciation of which is dis- 

Sec. XIV. 




The French language offers great difficulties to 
an English speaker. It has six new non-nasal 
vowels, ae [1] of the explanations on p. 193, flA [2], 
ao [3], ue [4], eo [5], oe [6], and although a 
speaker would remain intelligible who confused ae 
with <?, ah with aa, ao with o, and oe with eo, he 
becomes very difficult to understand if he confuses 
ue with either eu or oo (the first is better than the 
last), or eo and oe with er (untrilled r). It is 
therefore absolutely necessary to acquire the sounds 
of ue and either eo or oe. French has four nasal 
vowels, utterly unlike any English sounds aen' [7], 
ahn' [8], oan' [9], and oen' [101. If these are 
called ang, ong, oang, ung, respectively, the result 
is supremely barbarous, but since the sound ng 
does not occur in French, these sounds could not 
be mistaken for any others, and hence would bo 
more intelligible than an, on, oan, un. Observe 
the apostrophe after the n', which entirely alters 
its meaning in, Glossic. Besides this, the frequent 
use of the sound of zh (which we certainly know 
in English division, measure divizh'un mezh'ur, but 
not at the beginning of words), occasions a diffi- 
culty. The consonant ny 1 [18] and the occasional 
initial gz, complete the list, so far as the mere 
analysis of sounds is concerned. But the method 
in which these sounds are connected into syllables, 
and the syllables into words, and words are run on 
to each other, is so different from anything we 
have in English, that no attempt can be made to 
describe it in the limited space which can here be 
allowed. Learners are recommended to study the 
meaning of some easy piece of French, so as to be 
familiar with the appearance of the words, and 
then to listen with the greatest attention while 
it is read out to them very many times by natives, 

without themselves attempting to imitate the 
sounds, till their ears are thoroughly familiar with 
them. By attempting to imitate too early and not 
listening sufficiently, pupils scarcely hear any- 
thing but their own failures, and generally pro- 
nounce wretchedly. No language is so badly pro- 
nounced by English school girls as the French they 
are made to talk to one another. 

The orthography of the French language bears 
very little relation to its sound. It is best there- 
fore to consult a French pronouncing dictionary. 
Tardy* 's Explanatory Pronouncing Dictionary of the 
French Language, edited by J. C. Tarver, London, 
with the pronunciation in French letters is out of 
print. The new and cheap edition of Nugent s 
Pocket French Dictionary, and Meadows's dearer 
French Dictionary, mark the pronunciation of 
French words in English letters, which may be 
interpreted by referring in them to words con- 
tained in the following key. 

Many of the following rules and examples have 
been adapted from Le Phonographe ou la Prononda- 
tion Franqaise rendue facile a tons les etrangers, par 
M. et Mile. Theriat, Paris, 1857, a valuable work' 
of which the present writer has vainly endea- 
voured to procure a second copy. The follow- 
ing rules will therefore be found useful even to 
persons well accustomed to read French . 

There is no strong accent in any French word 
thus, ' complete complete,' komplee-t koarfplaet, 
have a totally different effect to English ears as 
regards accent. In the following examples no 
place of the accent will be marked, and the reader 
should try to make the syllables as even in force 
as possible, never exceeding tht amount of dif- 
ference heard in such English words as White- 



Sec XIV. 

hall, turnpike, primrose, Redhill, breasthigh, retail, 
wholesale. See p. 1060. 

When no quantity is marked the vowel may be 
of medium length, and made longer or shorter at 
the fancy of the speaker. When long and short 
marks are printed, long and short vowels must be 
spoken. These marks are generally put over the 
first letter of any combination as de, de, den', but 
in case of eo both letters have the short mark, to 
shew that extreme brevity has to be observed. 

A generally aa, long or short, but frequently ah 
before S even when the S is mute, as il parla 
eel pdar'-laa, agenda aazhaen'daa, pasur pahsai, 
cassette kahsaet, pas pah. See the following 

A has the same value as A. 

A is generally a h [2], as lache lahsh, but many 

Frenchmen always use aa. 
AEN, not before a vowel, is ahn' [8,] as Caen 

Kahn' but before a vowel is aa or aan, as 

Caennais or Caenais Kaande. 

AI is ae [1], as aise dez, semaine seomaen, irai-je 
eeraezh; EXCEPT 1) in gai gai, geai zhai, lait lai, 
mai mat, malaise malaisement maalaizai maalai- 
zdimahn', papegai paapzhai, quai kai, raisine 
raizeenai, je, tu sais, il sait sai, Toquai taokai, 
vaisselle vaisael, 2) in the beginning of words, 
but at the end of a syllable, when the next 
syllable does not begin, with R, LL, as aise aizai, 
3) in verbs, as j'ai zhai, j'allai zhaallai. 


AI is generally ae [1] long, as fraiche fraesh, game 
gden ; EXCEPT before N followed by any vowel 
but an unp renounced E, and even in that case 
if L or R follow the E, as chaine chainette ! 
shden shainaet, il enchainera ahn' shdinr aa. 

AI not before a vowel is aa-ee, as caique kaa-eek ; | 
before a vowel is almost aa-y or ei-y, as ai'eul | 
aa-yoel [6], faience faa-'/ahn's or fei-yahns. 

AIE is 1) ae [1], when final as vraie vr'ae, (EXCEPT 
gaie gai, la paie pae-ee, taie tae-ee,} and in the 
middle of words not being parts of verbs, as 
gaiete gaetai, 2) ae-ee final in verbs as je paie 
pae-ee, que j'aie zhae-ee 3), ai-ee as a diphthong 
in the middle of substantives, as paiement paiee- 
mahn' 4), ai-ee as two syllables in the middle of 
verbs as je paierai pai-eerai. 

AIENT 1) as the termination of the third person 
plural of the imperfect indicative and conditional 

is ae [1], even in singing and in verse, as par- 
laient paar'lae, 2), as the termination of the 
third person plural of the present indicative or 
subjunctive it is ae-ee, as a diphthong in speak- 
ing, and ae-yeo in singing, as qu'ila aient keelz- 
ae-ee or - ae-yeo. 

AIL final or before H, aa-ee as a diphthong, or 
nearly ei, as travail traavaa-ee nearly traavei, but 
older speakers say aaly 1 [17] ; in other cases it 
is AI-L. 

AILL 1) before an unpronounced final E, ES, 
ENT is aa-ee as a diphthong, as medaille 
maidaa-ee, Versailles Vaersaa-ee, <*[u'ils travail- 
lent keel traavaa-ee, in singing traa-vaa-yeo, &c., 
2), before any other vowel aa-y or nearly ei-y as 
vaillant vaa-yahrt nearly v ei-y ahn' , faillir faa- 
yeer, nearly fei-yeer\ Older speakers say 
vaaly'ahn' faaly'eer'. 

AIM 1) before vowels Al-M, 2), otherwise aen' [7], 
as faim faen'. 

AIN 1) before vowels AI-N, 2), otherwise aen' [7], 
as ainsi aen' see, les saints lae-saen'. 

AM 1) before a vowel or M is A-M, 2) otherwise 
ahn' [8], as Adam Aadahn\ dam dahrf, quidam 
keedahn', Samson Sahn'soan', EXCEPT damner 
daanai and its derivatives. 

AN 1) before a vowel or N is A-N", 2) otherwise 
ahn' [8], as sans sahn' '. 

AON is 1) aa-oan' [9] in le fort de Laon Laa-oan\ 
Pharaon faa-raa-oan' ', 2) oan' [9] in Saint-Laon 
Saen-Loan', taon toan' or tahn' , 3) ahn' [8] in 
Craon Krahn', faon fahn', Tp&on pahn' , la ville de 
Laon Lahn', Saint-Haon Saen'tahn', 4) aa before 
another N, as Craonne Kraan, paonne paan, 
Laonnaise Laanaez. 

ATI is almost always da, [21], as autant oatahn\ but 
sometimes ao [3], as Aurore Aor'aor' . 

AW only found in f pund in foreign words is treated 
as ATI. 

AY is 1) aa-ee as a diphthong not before vowels in 
baye baa-ee, Biscaye biskaa-ee, and fia-y before 
vowels as Bayard Baayaar', Mayenne Many aen, 


&c., 3) ae-ee as a diphthong, or ae-y before 
vowels, in je paye theo pae-ee, layette laeyaet, 
and many words, 4) ai-ee in two syllables in 
pays pai-ee, paysanne pai-eezaan, abbaye aabai-ee 

Sec. XIV. 



B, BB are generally b, as babil baabee, abbe, aabai, 
Abbeville Aabreel ; but B is not pronounced in 
plomb, aplomb, surplomb, ploan' [9], aaploan' 
suer'ploari, and Colomb koaloan', Lefebvre 

C is 1) Jc before consonants, and before A, 0, U, 
EXCEPT in cicogne see'/aony' [18], prune de 
reine-claude gldtfd, czar gzaar* and its deriva- 
tives, second seogoan and its derivatives ; 2) 
and also k when final, as bee back, EXCEPT in 
accroc uakroa, almanach aalmaanaa, bane bahn' 
[8], bec-jaune bai-zhoan, broc broa, clerc klaer\ 
eric kree, echoes aishae, escroc aiskroa, estomac 
aistoamaa, franc fr'ahn' [8], instinct aen'staen' 
[7], jonc zhoan [9], lacs lah [2] ' nets,' Saint 
Marc Saen' Maur' [7], pore poar, tronc tr'oan' ; 
3) A- before E, I, Y, M, (E, as ceux seo [5], 
cieux see-eo ; 4) sh in words taken from the 
Italian where they are pronounced ch, as ver- 
micelle vaer meeshael, violoncelle veeoaloan'shael 

only used before A, 0, U, is always $, as fa9on 
faasoan' [9 J. 

CO is k in places where the second C would be k, 
and ks where the second C would be s, and t-sh 
in words from the Italian where they would be 
t-ch. as accord aakaor\ acces aaksae [1], Piccini 

CH is 1) sh in all old French words, as chercher 
shaer'shai [1], 2) k in most words taken re- 
cently from Latin, Greek, or modern languages, 
EXCEPT Reichstadt R aish-staad, punch poan'sh 
[9], Chiron Sheer 'oan' [9], chirurgie sheer uer'- 
zhee [4], and its derivatives, catechisme kaatai- 
sheezmeo [5]', drachme draagmeo. 

D is 1) d generally, as donner daonai, 2) unpro- 
nounced when final in the nasal terminations 
AND, END, OND, or when preceded by several 
vowels or by R, as grand grahn' [8], froid fr'waa, 
sourd soor', and in Madrid Maadree ; 3) t when 
one of the words in (2) is run on to the following 
vowel, as grand homme grahn' -t-dom [3], froid 
accueil frwaa-t-aak-oe-ee [6], but grande ame 
grahn* d-ahm [8, 2], 

DD is 1) d-d (as in ba(f bucks') after E, and in most 
foreign words, as reddition raed-dee-syoan' [9], 
Adda Aad-daa. 

E 1) is very frequently not pronounced at all, and 
when pronounced may be eo or oe, for authori- 
ties differ ; Ex. Je vous aime mieux que lui, 
zheo [5] vooz-aem [1] myeo-k lue-ee [4J, or zhvooz- 

Aem ; ce que je lui demande seo keo-zh lue-ee-d 
mahn'd ; je ne le retrouve pas zheo-n leo-r' troov 
pah [2], que je me repente keo zheo-m raipahn't 
[8]. In all these cases it is fully pronounced as 
eo in singing, where it is never mute, and may 
be lengthened or have as much force on it as we 
please even in cases where it must be mute in 
speaking, with the sole exceptions of the termina- 
tion AIENT, and of E ending a word which is 
run on to the following beginning with a vowel, 
as frere aine fraer' [1 J ainai. In poetry it counts 
for a syllable where it is pronounced in singing. 
The general rule in speaking is, " omit E when 
its omission will not bring three consonantal 
sounds together ; otherwise sound it as eo." The 
complete study of all the cases is extremely em- 
barrassing. Final-ite, -bre, -sme, &c., must have 
eo [5] as aimable aimaableo, Septembre Saeptahn'- 
breo, rhumatisme ruemaateesmeo, and NEVER a* in 
English 'amiable, September, rheumatism.' 2) 
E is ae [1] before final consonant, followed or 
not by an unpronounced E, as belle baet, duel 
due-ael, Joseph Zhoazdef, il est eel ae ; EXCEPT 
avec aavaik, clef klai; 3) E is ae also in the 
middle of a word before several consonants, 
EXCEPT ennui ahn'nue-ee [8, 4] solennel saolaanael, 
indemnite aen' daamneetai [7] .; 4) E is ai [21] 
in the verbal terminations ez, er, and many other 
cases, which cannot be here enumerated. (The 
rules for E occupy six royal octavo pages, in 
double column, with small print, in Theriat's 
book,of which the above is a very meagre abstract) 
E is 1) properly ai [21], as bonte boan'tai, 2) ae 
before a consonant, followed by unpronounced 
E or eo, as college kaolaez/i, orfevre fror'faevreo, 
3) before the sound of r, in the middle of a word, 
as misericorde meezaer'eekaor'd [1, 3], 4) ae [1] in 
j'etais, etant zhaetde aetahn, preteur praetoer\ 
preture praetuer'. 

E is 1) properly ae [1] as deces daisde, breve brdev, 
2) ai before two consonantal sounds which can 
begin a syllable, as reglement raigleomahn [5,8], 
il lechera eel laishraa. 

E is 1) properly de [1] as guepe gdep, pret prde, 
2) ai [21] before MI, TI, TU, as blemir blaimeer'. 
vetir vaiteer 1 , vetu vaitue, and in the verbs feler, 
gener, meler, fdilai, zhdinai, mdilai ; when the 
next syllable has not an unpronounced E, and 
in some other cases. 

El is 1) ae [1] at the end of words, before a 
consonant and mute E, before any consonant 
but GrN, M, N, in the middle of words, as neige 



Sec. XIV. 

naezh, pleinement pldenmahn' [8], Abeilard 
Aabaelaar' [1] ; 2) ai [21] in other cases, as 
eider aidder', peineux painoe [6], j'enseignerfti 
zhahn'sainy'rai [8, 18.] 

EIL final is de-ee forming a diphthong, as conseil 
koan'sae-ee [9], soleil saolae-ee, vieil vi/ae-ee. 

EILL "before E mute final, is ae-ee [1] forming a 
diphthong, but before any other vowel ai-y, as 
abeille aabae-ee, merveilleux maer'vaiyoe. 

EIM not before a vowel is aen' [7] as Rheims 

BIN not before a vowel is aen' [7], as dessein 
daisaen' '. 

EM not before a vowel is 1) akn' [8], as empire 
ahti'peer', emmenager ahn'mainaazhai, remmener 
rahn'mnai, except in sempiterne saen'peetaer'nael 
[7], and most foreign names, as Wiirtemberg 
Vtter'taen'6aer' [4), 2) aem [1] at the end of 
names as Jerusalem Zhairuezaalaem, and before 
n, as belemnite bailaemneet, EXCEPT indemnite 
aen' daamneetai, solemnel saolaanael, and its de- 

EN 1) generally a Tin' [8], and when a vowel or N" 
follows ahn'-n as enfle ahnflai, enivrvahn'neevr'ai, 
ennui ahn'-nue-ee, 2) occasionally aen' [7], espe- 
cially in the syllables IEN, YEN, not before a 
vowel or N, as bien by aen' , chretien kr'aityaen', 
in the syllable PENT A, as pentateuch paen'- 
taateok, pentagone paen'taagoan, appendice 
aapaendees, precenteur praisaen'toer [6], Ma- 
rengo Mnaraen' goa, examen aigzaamaen\ Mentor 
Maen'tdor, and many proper names, 4) it is aen 
[1] before NE, NENT mute, as chienne shy a en ; 
5) it is also often aen in foreign names and words, 
as amen aamaen, Beethoven Baitoavaen [German 
Bai-t-hoa-fen] ; 6) sometimes aan, before n, as 
couenne kwaan, hennir aaneer, nenni naanee. 

ENT in the third person plural of verbs is left 
unpronounced in reading, but sounds eo [5] in 
singing. See AIENT. 

EU, 1) has two sounds eo [5] oe [6], but different 
orthoepists differ in their discrimination of the 
words possessing them ; and Tarver does not 
distinguish them at all. It is safest for an 
Englishman to use oe short and eo long as in 
German; 2) EU is we [4] in j'eus eu, ils eurent 
zhue, ue, eelz-uer, and in final GEURE, as 
gageure goazhuer' . 

EUIL final, oe-ee as a diphthong, as fauteuil 
Joatoe-ee [6]. 

F 1) almost always /; as un osuf oen'-n-oef [10, 6,] 
un beuf oen' boef; 2) v in NEUF (the numeral, 
not the adjective) before a vowel or mute, as 
neuf hommes noev-aom ; 3) is mute in NEUF 
(the numeral) before a consonant, as neuf 
femmes noe faam, also in le boeuf gras leo bue- 
grda [5, 6], une clef uen Mat [2], des cles dae 
klai [1] ; un chef-d'oeuvre shai-doevreo [5], un 
cerf, des cerfs sder', un nerf de boauf oen'naer deo 
boef, des nerfs dae naer' ; un ceuf frais oen'-n-eo 
frde> des oeufs frais daez-eo-frde. 

FF is always /simple, as difficile deefeeseel. 

G 1) before A, 0, U, and before any consonant but 
N, S, T, is ff, as gage gaazh, fatigue faateeg, 
globe glaob [1], Eughien Akn' ff aen' [8,1] ; 2) it 
is g before N at the beginning of a word, aa 
gnomonique gnaomaoneek [3] ; and in a few new, 
and chiefly technical words, the most usual being 
agnat aaf/naa, stagnant staagnahn' ; 3) it is g in 
foreign words ending in g, as whig weeg, bang 
bahn'ff [8], pouding poodaen'g [7], and also in 
joug zhoog (but not in conversation unless a 
vowel follows) ; 4) it is k in brig br'eek, bourg 
boor'k, except as a termination, as faubourg 
foaboor ; 5) it is zh before E, I, Y, as gene zhaen ; 
6) it is unpronounced before S and T, as sangsue 
sahn'sue [8,4]; vingt vden't [7] (observe only 
quatre vingt kdatreo vaen' without t] ; when final 
after a nasal vowel, as long loan' [9], poing 
pwaen' [7], and in the following words Clugny 
Kluenee, Compiegne JZoan'pyaen, signet seenae, 
and a few other names 

GG is g before A, 0, U. and gzh before E, T, as 
aggraver aagr' navai, suggerer suegzhaer'ai. 

GN is always ?/' [18], except in the cases under G, 
Nos. 2 and 9, as signe seeny\ 

GUE final is </, as ligue leeg ; but observe briguer 
breegai, droguer droyai, and arguer aar'gue ai [4]. 

GUI is generally gee ; but gue-ee [4] forming a 
diphthong in a few words as aiguille aic/ue-ee, 
Guise Gue-eez, linguiste laen'gue-eest, ambiguite 
ahn'beegue-eetai, aiguiser aiaue-eezai, inextinguible 

H is never pronounced in French, but, when the 
preceding vowel is not cut off before it, it is said 
to be aspire aaspeer, t, as la hauteur laa outoer 
[6] des haricots dae aar'eekoa, ies homards lae 

I is generally ee, but letween two vowels, or aftei 
a consom.nt in the same syllable it may be con 
sidered y. as chanteiiez shahn'teoryai [5], 

Sec. XIV. 



1L after A, E, EU, (E, 0, OU, has the same effect 
as simple I. See tnose combinations. 

ILL in the middle of words, following A, E, EU, 
(E, OU, or any consonant, or CU, GU, QU, has 
the same effect as simple I ; that is. is ee or eey, 
except in a few words. See those combinations. 

ILLE final following any consonant except V, acts 
as simple I. and is called ee or eey, as famille 
faamee, except in Achille, codicille, distille, 
instille, mille, tranquille, and a few other words 
where it is eel. 

1M before B or P is aen' [7], as impossible 
aen ' paoseebieo [5] ; otherwise generally eein as 
immense eem-mahn's [8]. 

IS 1 not before a vowels. or //, is regularly aen j [7]. as 
bassin baame-t. instinct nenstaen ; otherwise 
generally een colline k>iotee . innocent eeuaosahn' 


J is always zh, as in juste zhutst, and never un- 

K is always k, but is only used in foreign words. 

L is generally /, but is unpronounced in the 
terminations -anld. -ault, -aulx. ' -eulx, -ould, 
-emit, as Arnauld Aarnoa, faulx foa, and in 
chenil sheouee, baril bar'ee, courtil koor'tee, coutil 
kootee, tnsilfuezee [4j, gentil zhalm'tee [8], sourcil 
aoor'.-ee, and a few others. 

LL is generally ', but in an increasing number of 
words I- 1, as illegal eel-laigaal. See also ILL 

M is m except when it helps to form a nasal vowel 
see AIM, AM, EIM, EM, IM, OM, UM. YM 
and is sometimes mute. Observe the words 
automne oat.aon [3], eondamner koan'daaitai [9], 
Eeims Rden's [1]. Abraham Anbraa-aam, Adam 
A>Hl,t/m' [8]. 

MM generally m, but m-m in initial IMM as 
immodere eem-maodairai, and in AM MA, in 
Gramrnont Gr dam-moan' [9], and a few other 
words, and never helps to form a nasal vowel. 

N is n, except when it helps to form a nasal vowel 
- see AN. AIN T , EIN EN. IN, ON. UN, YN. 
It is unpronounced in final ENT, which see. 

NN is generally //, sometimes n-n, and does not 
help to form a nasal vowel except in ennoblir 
ahn'naobleer [8, 3J, ennoie ahn'/iwaa, ennui 
aJin'Hiir-tf (with a diphthong), and their de- 

is generally ao short [3], and da [21] long a? 
hoiiime nrn, chose shorn. See combinations of 
O with other letters below. 

is always da [21]. as apotre aapoatr'eo [6], 
fantome fahntoam [8]. 

OA is generally O-A, but is waa in foarre fwaar', 
joailler zhwaa-eeyai, and its derivatives. 

OE is wae [1] in moello mwael, and its derivatives. 

OE is wae [1] in Noel Nwael, and waa in coeffe 
kwaaf, goelette gwaalaet, and their derivations. 

OE is waa in ipoele pwaal, and its derivatives. 
(E is ae [1] or ai [21] in foreign words only. 
(EIL is oe-ee [6], as a diphthong in this one word. 
(EILL is oe-eey [6 , as ceillade oe-eeyaad. 
(EU is oe [6] or eo [5], precisely, as EU which see. 

01 is regularly waa, as roi rwaa, but in a few 
words it is occasionally pronounced wai [21]. It 
was often ae [1], but in these words AI is now 
generally written, as foible (or faible) fdebleo [5]. 

OIN 1) not before a vowel is waeiC [7], as loin 
Iwam ; 2) before a vowel is waan, as avoine 
aavwaan, moineau tnwaanoa. 

OM 1) not before a vowel is oniS [9], as nom 
ttoan', comte koan" tj except before N as autom- 
nale oataomnaal, omnibus aomneebues ; 2) before 
a vowel aom, as Rome Rnom. 

ON 1) not before a vowel is oari [9], as non noan' ; 
2) before a vowel (ton [3]. as colonie kaolaonee. 

00 generally oa-ao as cooperer koa-aopair'ai, but in 
foreign words da as Waterloo Vaataer'loa. 

OU always oo, long or short, as fou foo, poule 
pool, or w before a vowel, as douane dwaan, but 
is never MO, and never ou. 

OU always do long, as gout goo. 

OUI, OUIL final. OUILL before a vowel, wee or 
we y (properly oo-ee as a diphthong), as oui wee, 
fouiller fweeyai. 

OY, not before a vowel, the same as 01, waa ; but 
before a vowel some speakers say aniy [3], or 
ivaoiy, as royaume nvaot-t/otun ; but others prefer 
ioaay as rwaa-yoam. 

P is p when pronounced ; it is not pronounced in 
a final syllable after M, as champ shahu' [8], 
prompt proan' [9], temps tahn, compte kant % 



Sec. XIV. 

and also in bapteme baataem [11, corps kdor [3], 
coup koo, drap draa, galop gaaloa, loup loo, 
sculpteur skueltoer [4,6], trop troa, and some 

PH is always /, as phrase fraaz. 

PP is always p, except in appetence appeter, where 
it is p-p, as ap-paitahn's [8], ap-paitai. 

Q always k, never mute, but is always followed by 
U, except when final as coq kaok [3], cinq saen'k 

QU generally &, as qualite kaaleetai. qui &<?0 / but 
occasionally 7m>, as in quadr- kwaadr 1 - (except 
quadrat ka-adraa, quadrille kaadree], adequat 
aadaikwaat, aquarelle aakwaar' ael, equateur 
aikwaatoer [6], quoi ku-ac, quartz kwaar'ts, 
loquace laokwaas, and some other not very 
common words. 

R always r' when pronounced, with a smart 
trill of the tip of the tongue; the pronuncia- 
tion with the uvular trill is very common, but 
is considered a fault, and not allowed at the 
Theatre Fra^ais. It never forms a diphthong 
with the preceding vowel as In English dear. 
R final is not pronounced in the terminations 
-ER (in the infinitives of verbs , -IER, IERS, 
except cher shaer' [1], fier fyaer\ adjective, hier 
ee-aer, Thiers Tyaer '. At the Theatre FranQais 
the final -R in the termination of verbs is run 
on to the following vowel, as aimer une fille 
aemaer'-uen [4] feely' [17], but the usual pro- 
nunciation leaves it mute, as aemai uen fee. 

EH is always r\ as rhubarbe ruebaarb. 

RR is generally r\ but in a few words r'-r' as il 
courrait eel koor'-r'de fl], arrogant aar'-r'oagahn' 
[8] ; the habit of saying r'-r 1 is increasing. 

S is s at the beginning of words, and, when 
pronounced at all, at the end of words, as aloes 
aaloa-aes [1], as das, bis bees, cens sdhn's [8], gens 
zhdhn's, helas aildas, lis lees (but lee in fleur de 
lis), mars maar's, ours oors, vis vee, except 
obus aobuez [4]. In plus, sens, tous, S is some- 
times heard and is sometimes mute. S is gene- 
rally z between two vowels, as rose rdoz [3], 
besoin beozwden' [7], and before B, D, G, R, V, 
as shire zbeer\ Sganarelle Zgaanaar 1 ael, Israel 
Eezr 1 aa-ael, svelte zvuelt ; and in trans, followed 
by a vowel, as transaction trahn'zaaksyoan' 
[8, 9], (except transir tra hn' seer 1 , &c.) S is 

generally not pronounced at the end of words or 
before another consonant, but it runs on to a 
following vowel as z,as trois hommes tr'wda-z-aom. 

SC initial before E, I, Y, is simple s, as scene saen, 
sceptique saepteek [1], unless a vowel precedes, 
and then it is often s-s, as ascendant a-us-sahn'- 
dahn' [8] 

SCH, used in non-French words only, is sh. 
SH, used in non-French words only, is sh. 

SS almost always simple *, but s-s in sessile saes- 
seel [1], and a few unusual words. 

T initial is always t. In those words where it 
becomes sh in English it is s in French, as 
essential aisahu'syael [8 f l]. patience paasyahn s, 
condition koan'deesyoan' [9]. T final is most 
frequently not pronounced, but observe brut 
br'uet [4], but buet, un fait oen [10] faet [1] 
'fat faat, huit ue-eet [4 ] (diphthong), vingt 
vaen't [7.]. (but vingt sous vnen sooj. 

TH is always t, as the tai. 

TT is almost always t, but is t-t in litteral leet- 
taeraal [1], and a few uncommon, chiefly non- 
. French, words 

U is always long or short ue [4], as connu kaonue 
[3,] except occasionally in G-U, QU, and always 
in UM, UN ; see those groups. 

U is always ue long [4] . 

TJEIL, UEILL are oe-ee [6,] or oe-eey, as accueil 
aakoe-ee, cercueil sder, koe-ee, ecueil aikoe-ee, 
orgueil aorgoe-ee, recueil reckon ee, nous cueillous 

HI is ue-ee [4], forming a diphthong, so that ue 
becomes nearly a consonant, resembling w and y 
pronounced at the same time. It is better to 
pronounce tie distinctly as a separate vowel than 
to substitute w, which is the usual very bad 
English mispronunciation. Thus lui lue-ee (not 
loo-ee or IweeJ, puis ptie-ee (not poo-ee or pweej. 

UM is 1) oen [10] in humble oen'bleo, parfum 
paar'foen' ; 2) oan [9 , in rumb roanb, Humboldt 
Oan'baold (in Germany ffuom'baolt), lumbago 
loan'baagoa; 3) aom [3] in factotum /aaktaotaotn, 
album aalbnom. te Deum. tai Daiaom. and other 
Latin words ; 4) uem [4] before vowels, as 
allumette aaluemaet, fumeron fuemr oan\ 

UN not before vowels, generally oen' [10], as brun 

Sec. XIV. 



br'oen', Lundi Loen'dee ; in a few words oan' [9], 
as Dunkerque Doan'kaerk, Undine Oarideen, 
&c. ; before vowels uen [4] as unite ueneetai. 

UY now only used before vowels, ue-eey [4], the 
fie-ee forming a diphthong, see UI, as appuyer 
napue-eeyai, La Bruyere Laa Brue-eeyaer . 

V is always v, and always pronounced, as vive 


W is only used in foreign words, and is generally 
v, as Weber Valbaer [1], waggon vaagoari [9], 
but sometimes tv, as whig weeg, whist weest, 
Windsor Wnendzoar [7]. It is not pronounced 
in Newton Noetoan' [6], New York Noe Yaork. 

X is generally ks, as sextuple saekstuepleo [1, 4, 5], 
" " "I"I. . ~*[3]; but XC, 

XS, are also ks, as exces aiksae [1], X is gz in 

boxeur baoksoer' [6], onyx aoneeks [3] : 

Xenophon Gzainoafoan 1 [9], aiijzahri pleo [8, 5], 
exameri aigzaamaerf [1], hex.a,wetoeaiffzaamaetr'eo 
[1, 5], coexister koa-aigzeestai. X is s in final 
six sees, dix ^m-, and in soixante swaasahnt [8]. 
X is z in six, dix, when run on to a vowel, as 
six ans seezahn', dix oeufs deezeo [5], and dixhuit 
deezue-eet [4] (diphthong), deux apotres deozaa- 
poatreo, deuxieme, dixieme, &c. X final is not 
pronounced in faix fde [1], paix pde (but Aix 

AeksJ , faulx/0 [21], taux toa, chevaux sheovoa, 
&c., Bordeaux Baor'dda, &c. ; cheveux sheovoe 
[6], heureux eor'oe, &c., voix vwaa, croix krwaa* 
epoux ijt?00, doux doo, perdrix paerdree, prix 
pr'ee, reflux reqflue [5, 4], and a few others. 

Y is ee, and is treated precisely like Y. 

Z is always z, as gaz gaaz, except in German 
final TZ, and Spanish final Z, when it becomes 
s, as seltz saelz [1], Cruz Kr'ues [4]. Z final in 
the -EZ of verbs is not pronounced, as soyez 
swaoyal or swaayai, and in assez aasai, chez 
shai, nez n, rez r'at, riz r'ee. 

ZZ is <fz in almost all Italian words used in French, 
as mezzo maedzoa. 

Example of difficulties. Et puis une vieille 
carogne et un enfant borgne out vendu de mauvais 
vin au peuple bete devant la foule ; y etes-vous, 
mon ami ? Ai pue-ee (diphthong) uen vyai-ee 
kaar 'ao^y 1 ai oen'-n-ahn'fahn' baor mj oan' valiri '- 
due-d moavae vueri oa poepleo baet deovalut It/a fool , 
ee aet-vou, maon-aamee ? And then an old hag and 
a child, one-eyed, have sold of (some) bad wine to 
the people stupid before the crowd ; there are you 
(do you understand), my friend ? 


The final consonant, though it may be mute at 
the end of a word which closes a sentence, or pre- 
cedes a word beginning with a consonant, is very 
frequently elective when a vowel follows ; thus 
chez lui ou chez elle shai lueee oo shaiz ael. This 
is called a " liaison" lee-aizoari , or " connection," 
and is, of course, most important in all French 
speaking and singing, and for French versification 
(p. 214a, at bottom). But unfortunately no general 
rules can be given to distinguish those words which 
will form a liaison. The diversity of usage may be 
seen by such examples as: pas un pahz oen\ pas 
un ami pahz oerin aamee, cent &mis.sahn't aamee, 
cent pas et un sahn' pah ai oen\ mon pere moan' 
paer , mon ami maon aamee, de son sang deo soan' 
saJm ', sang et eau sahn'k ai oa, and so on. Gener- 
ally C runs on as Jc, avec elle aavaek ad ; D as t, 
grand homme grahn't oam ; G as k, rang eleve 
r' ahn" 1 k ailvni ; S as z, les orgues Inez aor'g ; X as z, 
six hommes seez aom. 

Tn the above Alphabetical Key the case of mute 

and connected final consonants is merely indicated. 
But to know what words are to be treated in thie 
way and what are not, reference must be made to 
a dictionary which pays particular attention to 
the subject. John Bellows in his beautiful little 
" Dictionary for the Pocket, French and English, 
English and French, both divisions on the same 
page," second edition, 1877 (London, Truebner), 
indicates every case where the final consonant 
is pronounced by adding no mark ; where the final 
consonant is pronounced before a vowel, but not 
otherwise, by one turned period, as chez- ; and 
where the final consonant is never pronounced at 
all, by two turned periods, as coup". But space did 
not allow him to distinguish the cases where the 
consonant is occasionally connected and occasion- 
ally unconnected with the following vowel. More 
information on this difficult point will be found in 
Feline's Pronouncing Vocabulary (p. 1926), and 
in Littre s great French Dictionary. But in soma 
cases usage is not entirely fixed. 




Arrangement. In order to exemplify the pre- 
ceding Alphabetical Keys, a few songs have been 
selected by Mr. Curwen in German, Italian, and 
French, to which I have added the pronuncia- 
tion in Glossic, and also a verbal translation into 
English, which, at Mr. Curwen's request, has also 
been put into Glossic. The single system of 
spelling thus used serves to make the difference 
between English and foreign pronunciation dis- 
tinct to the eye. The arrangement is as fol- 
lows : 

I. Left hand column, Original Orthography. 
The words of the songs are arranged according 
to the plan of their versification, without any of 
the repetitions which occur in the music, and, for 
ease of reference, the alternate lines are numbered. 
No particular order or classification has been at- 
tempted, but the German songs are placed first, 
then the Italian, and lastly the French. The 
name of the composer, and, when known, that 
that of the writer is added to the title, both in 
the native orthography. 

II. Right hand column, Pronunciation in Glossic. 
The indications of the preceding Alphabetical Keys 
are carried out without making any of those Eng- 
lish substitutions, which are indicated at the begin- 
ning of each of those tables. These substitutions 
may of course be made by the singer, but they 
necessarily disfigure the pronunciation. They 
may be made with the least bad effect in German, 

and then in Italian. French with false nasal 
vowels, sounds very bad indeed. It will be 
observed that the position of the accent is indi- 
cated in German and Italian, where it is strong-ly 
marked by the speaker, but not in French, where 
it is less strongly marked, and is variable. The 
length of vowels is indicated by the positions oi 
the accent mark ( ) after a long vowel, or after the 
| first consonant following a short vowel, and ia 
I strictly observed in German The same position 
i of the accent mark in Italian marks the long and 
| short vowel as usually felt by English speakers, 
but as already observed (p. 147) the Italian vowels 
are naturally of medial length, and their actual 
length varies with the expression. When, how- 
ever, they alter their length they preserve their 
quality. Thus aa, ee, oa, when short* never become 
the English a, i, o. 

1. In German, aa, ee, are used in closed syl- 
lables to guide the reader, as it would be quite 
| wrong to say haand eekyh for hdand eekyh; in- 
deed, decidedly worse than to say hand iyh. 

In German also it will be found that many 
words seem to vary their final consonants at 
pleasure. The theory of German pronunciation 
is that b, d, </, gy'h, z, never occur at the end 
of words, but are always changed into ;?, t, k, 
kyh, *, respectively, however they may be writ- 
ten. But in practice, when the words ending- with 
any of the former consonants run on to woras be- 

Sec. XV. 


ginning with any of them, or with a vowel, tho 
former consonants are retained, but in other cases 
they are altered. Englishmen, however, may 
follow their own custom a of pronunciation in this 
sase without offending a German ear, which would 
be scarcely conscious of the alteration. Through- 
out a large section of Germany speakers and writers 
seem unable to distinguish^ from b, t from d, ky'h 
from gyh, and occasionally k from g, but they 
usually distinguish 5 from z. 

The German versification resembles the English 
so closely as to occasion no difficulty to the reader 
who observes the place of the accent. 

2. In Italian it is always possible for an Eng- 
lishman to use i, e, o, uo, for ee, ae, do, do, in closed 
syllables, but it adds much to the beauty of the 
pronunciation not to do so. In open syllables he 
may use du for do, but ae must have a so and quite 
distinct from di, and da (not du or do} must be pro- 
nounced, where marked, before r'. 

A difficulty arises from the confluent vowels 
which take the place of English diphthongs, but 
are in Italian pronounced much more distinctly 
separate. When these occur within the same 
word as in " rio," ree-od, " ei,'' ai'ee, the short 
mark indicates that the od or ee forms only one 
acknowledged syllable with the previous ee, and 
that the two are sung to one note of music without 
" attacking " the od or ee separately, so that there is 
no cessation of voice between the ee and the 3d. In 
the frequent cases where ee, do, come first, y and w 
are written, as the sounds are almost the same, but 
they are by no means quite the same in Italian, as 
in English. Thus gwaer'-r'aa poassyai'dai would 
be more properly and fully written goo-aer'-r'aa, 
poas-see-ai'dai. This Italian slur has been already 
considered when the elements both occur in the 
same word, on p. 45a. 

When these confluent vowels are in different 
words, ending one and beginning the other, the 
mark v _ x is used to indicate the union, thus destine 

in, daistee'noa f een y speme un spae'mai oon. In 

this case the two vowels although usually pro- 
nounced quite distinctly, are sung to a single 

musical note (unless there is a pause in the sense) 
and are reckoned as a single syllable in the verse 
(even when there is a break in the sense, so 
that there is an absolute silence between them in 
reading), but they very rarely form anything ap- 
proaching to a real English diphthong like ei, 
oi, ou. Thus in Diserto sulla Terra, v. 2, Col 
rio destino in guerra, Koal ree-oa daistee'noa ^,een 
gwaer'-raa, there are only seven syllables, which 
ought to be pointed out by slurs in music. (The 
English edition of the music gives, by mistake, 
two notes to ...noa^een.) Again (ibid. v. 3', 
e sola speme un cor Ae soa-laa spae-mai^oon 
cao'r' has only six syllables. (In the music the 
...mai^oon fall to one semiquaver.) Thus, for 
these two cases, the music is properly divided : 

koal ree'oa dai - stee noa^een gwaer 

r'aa ae soa- laa spae'tnai^oon kao'r'. 

In other respects Italian versification offers no 
difficulty to English speakers. 

3. French versification is founded upon an older 
system of pronunciation which prevailed when its 
laws were established, and which is carried out in 
music. In modern French speaking the final -e, 
-ent, of so many French words, is not pronounced 
at all, although it may count as a syllable in the 
verse. Even on the stage, in declaiming tragic 
verse, these " mute <?'s " are still really mute, in 
most cases, though their presence is occasionally 
indicated, and are always present to the mind of 
the speaker. In singing on the other hand, 
these -e, -ent (except in the termination -aient), 
are always pronounced, and may have a very 
long and forte note assigned to them. They 
must therefore be attacked by singers just as 
if they were written " eu " in French letters. 
Whether they should be called eo or oe (the two 
sounds of French " eu,") is a matter of dispute 



Sec. XV 

among Frenchmen ; I seem generally to hear eo, 
which I have therefore written, and many French- 
men agree with me. Others do not distinguish 
consciously between eo and oe. Both sounds, when 
final bear so close a resemblance to our final -u or 
-er (when no trill r is added to the vocal r), that 
either sound (carefully avoiding to trill the r) may 
be used for it by Englishmen. Thus in "Ou 
vou ez-vous aller ?" " dites, ma jeune belle,'' which 
in prose would be deet, maa zhoen bael, is sung to 

dee - teo maa zhoe - tieo bael - eo. 
(In the English edition one note only is wrongly 
assigned to " belle," clearly on account of the 
English translation.) As Englishmen in singing 
French songs try to avoid pronouncing the " mute 
e " as much as possible, and thus produce a very 
strange effect on ears accustomed to French sing- 
ing, they should be very careful, to observe this 
characteristic usage. 

To this pronunciation of final -e (not of -ent] 
there is one remarkable exception. If a vowel 
follows, the e is perfectly mute, being entirely 
elided. This is the only case in French poetry in 
which a word is allowed to end with a written 
vowel when the next word begins with one. 
Hence, there are no " confluent " vowels between 
words in French singing or versification as there 
are in Italian. Open vowels do occur, however, 
occasionally, but then there is generally some 
written, but unpronounced consonant interposed, 
or the word changes its sound. Thus, " la voile 
ouvre son aile," elides the " e " of " voile," before 
the "ou" of "ouvre;" the "son,' which would 
end with a pure vowel as soan' changes its pro- 
nunciation and becomes saon, so that the line is 
sung to the notes above written as | laa : vwaal \ 
oo-vreo saon : ae-leo j. The word "un" before 
a vowel becomes oen'n in the same way. Many 
consonants not usually pronounced at the end of 
words are brought to life again by a following 
vowel. There are very few cases of an open 

vowel in the examples, which are generally far 
from classical, and in most of those cases the con- 
sonant is written : (La Manola, v. 28, raipoan'dee : 
wee; v. 12, Zhootaa Aaraagoanaizaa ; v. 18, 
Maadree(d) ae. Partant pour la Syrie, v. 21 ; fee 

In colloquial French the final -0, mute, is almost 
always (not always) omitted, but an emphatic ut- 
terance calls it faintly to life. In reading poetry 
(as distinguished from singing) this vowel is also 
omitted, but as the line would then be too short by 
one or more syllables, many French readers seek to 
supply the missing syllable by lengthening the 
consonant preceding the omitted -e. In the pro- 
nunciation marked below, the Italic eo points out 
these cases. In rending the poetry, then, omit the 
eo and dwell somewhat on the preceding consonant, 
or make a little pause after it, as dit laazhoenn 
baell, for ' dite? la jeun? belL?. 

In the alphabetic table the length of the vowels 
is marked as assigned by M. Theriat. In M. 
Tarver's edition of Tardy's dictionary the length 
of the vowels is also much dwelled upon. In 
M. Feline's dictionary almost every vowel is 
indicated as short, and the tendency of modern 
French pronunciation is to shorten all vowels. In 
these examples I have left the length of the 
vowels unmarked, because in listening carefully 
when they were read over to me by two French 
gentlemen, I found no certainty in the use of 
long and short. In singing, of course, the 
length of the vowel is determined by that of 
the musical note assigned to the syllable, and the 
extreme variability of French usage in this respect 
has been taken so much advantage of by musical 
composers, that when a French song is sung to 
English words, it is often extremely difficult to get 
out our syllables, hampered with numerous conso- 
nants, with sufficient rapidity, and when we do so, 
the alteration of rhythm, quantity, and accent, makes 
the result much more unintelligible than usual. 
Even in Italian translations of French operas (as 
Gounod's Faust) the same evil is greatly felt. 

Sec. XV. 



The French syllable is supposed theoretically to 
terminate in a vowel whenever the next consonant 
or consonants can be pronounced without the 
preceding vowel. Thia plan may therefore be 
always followed in singing. But the actual 
usage of Frenchmen (as laid down by the late 
M. Jobert, in his " Colloquial French,") is to 
run the vowel on to the following consonant 
wherever it is practicable, and, of course, also 
to unite that consonant with the following vowel ; 
thus : belle bael-eo, not bae-leo. French singers 
also seem to me to follow this practice where 
convenient for them. English singers are there- 
fore at full liberty to use either plan, in any word 
as it may best suit them. In speaking, however, 
and reading, they should follow the latter plan, 
and call pacifique paas-eef-eek, and not paa-see-feek. 

As already indicated no proper diphthongs occur 
in French (pp. 45, 49), but 00, ?, occasionally 
run on to the following vowel, and are then 
written w, y y in these examples, as : soit swaa, 
oui wee, yeux yeo, for which sooaa, odee, eeeo, would 
be more correct. In the case of ue this notation 
had to remain as lui lueee, suis sueee, nuit nueee, 
Juanetta zhueaanaetaa ; and similarly for ee final, 
as : gouvernail goovaernaaee, cueillir koe-eeyeer'. 

French singing has altogether a different style 
from English. The pronunciation given is not 
intended to do more than enable a Frenchman to 
recognise his' own language in an Englishman's 
mouth. To acquire the true French delivery in 
talking or singing, is a labour of many years to 
an Englishman, and complete success is very rare 
indeed. Frenchmen find the same difficulty with 
our language. 

III. Bottom of page, Translation. This transla- 
tion is arranged to serve as a glossary for those 
quite unacquainted with German, Italian, and 
French. It follows the original, line for line, 
and word for word, in the same order, which is^ 
of course, often not the English order. When, 
However, the foreign order of the words threatens 
to render the passage unintelligible, a little pre- 
fixed figure points to the English order, thus : 

" Maigloeckchen," v 11, luoks z dhem 3 fren-dlili 
l at, means luoks at dhem fren'dlili. 

Sometimes the literal translation of a word 
would be unintelligible or misleading, and in 
that case another interpretation is added in par- 
enthesis preceded by a hyphen, as (ib. v. 1.) : 
Mai-bel (lili ov dhi val'ij, which shows that what 
is translated "May-bell" (a translation necessary 
for the whole thought of the little poem), is the 
name of a flower which in England is called " lily 
of the valley." 

Sometimes it is necessary to use more than one 
word to translate what is either one word, or is 
written as one word in the original, such words are 
then connected by a hyphen, as (ib. v. 3) : ZUDQ 
tsoom is rendered too-d/ti, and allzumal aal'tsoomaa'l 
is rendered aul-at-wuns. 

Sometimes it is necessary to insert a word in 
English for which there is no foreign equivalent in 
the text, although it is implied by the usage of the 
language. Such a word is inserted in parentheses 
which are not hyphened to another word, as in 
" Wie kann ich froh," v. 3, dhat too-mee soa deer 
(iz) , and ibid v. 8, hoo (iz) faar hens ! where there 
is no German word corresponding to iz. 

Sometimes, on the contrary, a word, such as the 
definite article, is found in the original where no 
equivalent word would be used in English, and in 
this case it is duly translated and placed in square 
brackets, as in " In diesen heiligen Hallen " v. 2, 
[dhi'] ven-jens, in German, die Rache dee Eaakh-u. 

Finally, sometimes it might prove difficult to 
make sense of several words, or of a whole phrase, 
and in this case an equivalent is added in hy 
phened parentheses placed after the last word, 
while a hyphen is also placed before the first word 
of the phrase. Thus: "Maigloeckchen," v. 21, 
-Nou hoaldz-it au'lsoa mee -not moar-fnoa long'ger) 
-too hous-fat hoa'mj -(Nou ei, too, Jean stai noa long'- 
ger at hoa-mj, shews that the whole long phrase 
from -Nou to -(Nou is reconstructed in the last 
parenthesis, and also that within the long phrase, 
two short ones have required re -writing, for not 
moar means noa long-ger, and fro hous means at hoa'm 



Sec. XV. 

By these simple means the real meaning of the 
passage is so fully indicated that it has hot ap- 
peared necessary to add a free translation. 

In the mode of rendering the English into 
Glossic, I have been more exact than would be 
necessary for ordinary purposes. The place of the 
accent is marked in every word, and the position 
of the accent mark shows whether the vowel 
is long or short. The trilled r' is everywhere 
distinguished from the vocal r which forms a 
diphthong with the preceding long vowel, and 
with er forms a peculiar indistinct sound already 
spoken of. But vocal r is never written except 
where it may be followed in speech by a trilled r'. 
The diphthongs ei, oi, ou, eu, are left unanalysed. 
The final a, and often the initial a, is generally 
pronounced obscurely like u or er (without any 
permission to trill) but it has been preserved as in 
ordinary glossic. The final el, em, en, when not 
acknowledged to be simply the vocal consonants I, 
m, n, are written in this manner, whatever the 
original vowel may have been, as " -al, -ol; -om } 
-um, -em ; -an, -en ;" and er replaces all " ur, er, 
ir," and unaccented " -ar, -er, -ir, -or, -our, 

or." The final unaccented "-age" of "pillage,'' 
is written -ej, as pil'ej, &c. The unaccented 
" e," when not before " r, ' or in the same 
syllable with a consonant, is written i, as beloved 
biluvd, rejoiced rijoi'st. See Glossic Index. 

The names of foreign composers are given with 
the proper native pronunciation in the column 
of pronunciation, but in the translation they 
are fitted with thoroughly English sounds. The 
French take the liberty of pronouncing all names 
which occur in French speaking according to tho 
rules of French orthography. There is no fixed 
rule in English. Thus we say Han-dl, Moazaccrt, 
for the German Hen-del, Moa-tsaart, sometimes 
even Wag-ner for Vaa-yhner, and so on. While 
other names, as Goethe Geo-tu, Miiller Mueler, 
often entirely puzzle the speaker, although such 
thoroughly English sounds as Gai-tu, Mil'er, would 
bo perfectly intelligible to every German. It does 
not appear that Men-dlsen is more objectionable 
than Jon-sen, although, of course, there is no 
objection to using Men- dels -zoa-n at full length. 
This conception of anglicising the pronunciation 
of foreign names is carried out in Section XVi 

Sec. XV 






1 Maiglockchen und die Blumelein. 

Musik von Mendelssohn. 
Maiglockchen lautet in dem Thai, 
2 Das klingt so hell und fein : 

" So kommt zurn Reigen allzurnal, 
4 Ihr lieben Blumelein !" 

Die Blumchen blau und gelb und weiss, 
6 Die kommeii all herbei, 

Vergissmeinnicht, und Ehrenpreis, 
8 Und Veilchen sind dabei. 

Maiglockchen spielt zum Tanz im Nu, 
1 Und alle tanzen dann. > 

Der Mond sieht ihnen f reundlich ogu, 
12 Hat seine Freude d ran. 

Den Junker lleif vordross das sehr, 
i4 Er kommt in's Ttfal hinein. 

Maiglockchen spielt zum Tanz nicht mehr 
16 Fort sind die Bliimelein. 

Doch kaum der Reif das Thai verliisst, 
18 Da rufet weider schnell 

Maiglockchen zu dem Friihlingsfest, 
20 Und lautet doppelt hell. 

Nun halt's auch mich nicht mehr zu Haus, 
22 Maiglockchen ruft auch mich. 

Die Bliimchen gehn zum Tanz hinaus, 
24 Zum Tanze geh' auch ich. 

1 Maay gloek'kyhen uond dee Blue'mulaayn. 

Moozee'k faon Men- dels- zoan. 
Maaygloek'ky'hen loHet in darm Taa-1, 
2 Daas kleengkt zoa hel uont faayn : 

" Zoa kaomt tsoom R'aaygy'hen aal"tsoomaa'l, 
4 Ee-r' lee'ben Blue-mulaayn !" 

Dee Blue'mky'hen blaaw uond gelb uond v'aays, 
6 Dee kaonren aal' her'baay, 

Fer'gees-maaynneeky'ht', uond Ai'r'enpraay '8, 
8 Uont Faaylky'hen zee'nd daabaay. 

Maay gloek'ky 'hen shpee'lt tsoom Taants eein 
10 Uond aal-u taan-tsen. daan-, [Noo, 

Der Moa-nd zee-t ee-nen frorndliky'h tsoo, 
12 Haat zaaynu Froi'du draan. 

Dai-n Juong-ker Raayf ferdraos- daas zai'r', 
14 Er' kaomt eens Taa-1 heenaayn. 

Maay gloek'ky' hen shpee It tsoom Taants neeky'ht 
1 6 Faor' t zeend dee Blue mulaay n . [marr' 

Daokh kaawn der Raayf daas Taa'l ferles't, 
18 Daa roo'fet v'ee'der' shnel 

Maaygloek'ky'hen tsoo dai'm Frue leengksfes't, 
20 Uond loi'tet daop'elt hel. 


Noo'n hel'ts aawkh meeky'h neeky'ht marr' tsoo 
22 Maay gloekky' hen roo-ft aawkh meeky'h. 

Dee Blue'mky'hen garn tsoom Taants heenaawa, 
24 Tsoom Taan-tsu gai aawkh eeky'h. 


.1 Mai-bel and dhl Flou-rrets. 

Meu-zik bei Men-dlsen. 

Mai bel-(liH of dhi val'i cheim/s in the val'i, 
Dhat soundz soa br'eit and fein-(el'igent) : 
" Soa kum too-dhi daan'sing aul-at-wuns 
Yeo deer flou rr'ets." 

Dhi nou-rr'ets bloo and yel-oa and wheit, 
6 Dhai kum aul hidh'er-bei, 

Faurget'-mee-not and spee'dwel, 
6 And vei'oalet aar dhair-bei. 

Mai-bel plaiz faur-dhi daans in-a twingkling, 
1 And aul daans dhen, 

Dhi Moon luoks 2 dhem 3 fren - dlili ! at, 
12 (It) haz its joi dhairr'at'. 

3 Dhi 4 skweir 5 Hoar-fraust 2 anoi'd ! dhat 6 soar 

14 He kums in'too-dhi val'i hens-in, 
Mai-hel plai-z faur-dhi daans -not moar-(noa 

16 -Foa-rth aar- (gon awai' aar) dhi flou'rr'ets. 

-Hauever skai'rsli dhi Hoa-rfr'aust dhi val'i leevz 
- (Yet az soon az dhi hoa'rf raust haz left dhi vaH ) , 
18 ^hen 3 kauls->,inverts^ 4 again 5 kwik'li 

2 Mai-hel too dhi spr'ing-feest 
20 And cheimz dnb'li br'ertli-(klee*rli), 

-Non hoaldz-it au'lsoa mee-not moar-(noa long-, 
ger -too hous- at hoa - m)-(Nou ei, too, kan 
stai no long-ger at hoa-m). 
22 Mai-hel kaulz au-lsoa mee, 

Dhi flou'rr'ets goa too-dhi daans hens-out, 
24 Too-dhi daans goa au'lsoa ei. 



Sec. XV. 


2. Ich wollt' meine Lieb' '. 

Musik von Mendelssohn. 
Ich wollt' meine Lieb ergosse sich 
2 All in ein einzig Wort, 

Das gab' ich den lust' gen Winden, 
4 Die triigen es lustig fort. 

Sie tragen zu Dir, Geliebte, 
6 Das lieberfiillte Wort, 

Du horst es zu jeder Stunde, 
8 Du horst es an jedem Ort. 

Und hast du zum nachtlichen Schlummer 
10 Geschlossen die Augen kaum, 

So wird mein Bild dich verfolgen, 
12 Bis in den tiefsten Traum. 

3. Wie kaun ich froh. 

Musik von Mendelssohn. 
Wie kann ich froh und lustig sein ? 
2 Wie kaun ich gehn mit Band und Strauss ? 

Wenn der herz'ge Junge, der mir so lieb, 
4 1st iiber die Berge weit hinaus ! 

'S 1st nicht der frost' ge Winter wind, 
6 'S ist nicht der Schnee und Sturm und Grauss, 

Doch immer kommen mir Thranen in 's Aug', 
8 Denk' ich an ihn, der weit hinaus ! 

Der lange Winter ist vorbei, 
10 Der Friihling putzt die Birken aus, 

Es grunt und bliiht und lacht der Mai, 
12 Dann kehrt er heim, der weit hinaus ! 


2. Eeky'h v' aolt maaynu Lee-b. 

Moozee k faon Men-delszoa-n. 
Eeky'h v'oalt' maaynu Leeb ergoes'u zeeky'h 
2 Aal een aayn aayntseegy h V'aor't, 

Daas gae-b eeky'h dain luos-teegy'hen Veen den, 
4 Dee tr'ue-gy'hen es luos'teegy'h faor't. 

Zee tr'aa-ghen tsoo Deer', Gelee ptu, 
6 Daas lee berfuel'tu V'aor't, 

Doo heo-rst es tsoo yai der Shtuon-du, 
8 Doo heo rst es aan yardem Aor't. 

Uont haast doo tsoom naeky'h'tleeky'hen 
10 Geshlaos'en dee Aawghen kaawm, [Shluorrrer 

Zoa v'eert maayn Beeld deeky'h ferfaol'gy'hen, 
12 Bees een dain tee-fsten Tr'aawm. 

3. V'ee kaan eeky'h froa. 

Moozee-k faon Men dels-zoa-n. 

V'ee kaan eeky'h froa uond luos teegy'h zaayn ? 

2 V'ee kaan eeky'h garn meet Baand uont 

Shtraaws ? [leep, 

V'en der' her'-tsgy'hu yuong-u, dair' meer' zoa 

4 Best ue-ber dee Ber'-gy'hu v'aayt heen-aaws. 

S-eestneeky'htder' fr'aos'tgy'hu Veen 'terv Sent, 
6 S- eest neeky'ht der' Shnai uont Shtuor'm uond 

Daokh eenver' kaom'en meer' Trai nen een -s 

8 Dengk eeky'h aan ee'n, dair' v'aayt heen-aaws ! 

Der' laang-u Veen-ter eest faor'baay, 
10 Der Frue-leeng puotst dee Beer' -ken aaws, 

Es grue'nt uond blue't uond laakh't der Maay, 
12 Daan kai'r't er haaym, dair' v'aayt heen-aaws ! 


2. Ei wuod mei luv, 

Meu'zik bei Men-dlsen. 
Ei wuod mei luv wuod-poa'r itseli 
2 Aul in-too a sing-1 werd, 

Dhat 1 wuod- 3 giv 2 ei too-dhi mer'-i windz, 
4 Dhai wuod-bair it mer'-ili foa'rth. 

Dhai kar'-i too dhee, biluvd, 
6 Dhi luv-fil-d werd, 

Dhoxi hee-rr'est it at evri our, 
8 Dhou heerr'est it at evri plai'8. 

And hast dhou faur-dhi nei'tli slunrber 
10 Shut dhi -(eur) eiz skai-rsli -(only lately), 

Soa - in dhat kai-s) wil mei invej dhee perseu- 
12 "Ontil- in-too -(soa faar az) dhi dee-pest dr'ee-m. 

3. Sou kan ei chee'rfuol ? 

Meu zik bei Men dlsen. 
Hou kan ei chee rfuol and mer'-i bee ? 
2 How kan ei goa widh r'ib en and noa-zgai ? 

When dhi chaa rming euth, dhat too mee soa deer 
4 Iz oa-ver dhi mou-ntenz faar hens ! (iz) 

It iz not dhi fr'os ti win -ter- wind, 
6 It iz not dhi snoa and staurm and hor' er, 

Yet ever kum too-mee tee - rz in too-dhi ei, 
8 Thingk ei on him, hoo (iz) faar hens ! 

Dhi long win-ter iz paast, 
10 Dhi spr'ing deks dhi berches out, f [dhi] ^ai, 

[Dhair] 2 groa-z-gr'ee'n 3 and 4 bloomz 5 and 6 laafs 
12 Dhen Viternz J hee hoa'm, hoo (iz) faar hens ! 

Sec. XV. 





4. Isis und Osiris. 

Musik von Mozart. 
Isis und Osiris, schenket 

Der Weisheit Geist dem neuen Paar ! 
Die ihr der Wand'rer Schritte lenket 
Starkt rait Geduld sie in Gefahr ! 

Lasst sie der Priif ung Friichte sehen ' 
Doch sollen sie zu Grabe gehen, 
So lohnt der Tugend kiihnen Lauf , 
Nehmt sie in eurem Wohnsitz auf ! 

5. In diesen heiligen Hallen ! 

Musik von Mozart. 
In diesen heil'gen Hallen, 

Kennt man die Rache nicht, 
Und ist ein Mensch gef alien, 

Fiihrt Liebe ihn zur Pflicht. 
Dann wandelt er an Freundes Hand 
Vergniigt und froh ins bess're Land ! 

In diesen heil'gen Mauern, 

Wo Mensch den Menschen liebt, 

Kann kein Verrather lauern, 
Weil man dem Feind vergiebt. 

Wen solche Lehren nicht erfreun, 

Verdieuet nicht ein Mensch zu seyn. 


4. Oa JEe'sees uond Oasee'rees. 

Moozee-k faon Moa-tsaar't. 
Oa Ee'sees uond Oasee-r'ees, sheng-ket 
2 Der Vaayz'haayt Gaayst daim noi-en Paa - r'. 

Dee ee'r' der' V'aan-dr'er' Shr'eet'u leng-ket, 
4 Miter' kt meet Geduol'd zee een Gefaa-r ! 

Laast zee der Prue-fuong Frueky'h'tu zaren ! 
6 Daokh zaol'en zee tsoo Graa-bu gai-en, 

Zoa loa'nt der Tuo'ghent kue-nen Laawf 
8 Narmt zee een orr'em V'oa'nzeets aawf. 

5. Een dee'zen haayleegy' hen Haal'en. 

Moozee'k faon Moa tsaar't 
Een dee'zen haaylgy'hen Haal-en, 
2 Kent maan dee Raakh'u neeky'ht, 

Uond eest aayn Mensh gefaal-en, 
4 Fue'r't Lee'bu ee-n tsoor' Pfleeky'ht. 

Daan v'aan-delt ai*r' aan Froi-ndes Haant 
6 Fer'gnue'ky'ht uont fr'oa eens bes-r'u Laant ! 

Een dee'zen haay Igy'hen Maawer'n 
8 Voa Mensh dain Mensh'en lee'pt, 

Kaan kaayn Fer'r'ai'ter laawer'n, 
10 V'aayl maan daim Faaynt fergee'pt. 

Warn zaol'ky'hu Lai T' en neekv'ht erfroi'n, 
12 Ferdee'net neeky'ht aayn Mensh tsoo zaayn. 

4. Oa Ei'sis and Oasei'rr'is. 

Meu-zeik bei Moazaa rt. 

Oa Ei'sis and Oaserrr'is giv, 

2 3 0v- [dhi] 4 wiz-dum l (the) 2 Spir -it too-dhi neu 

2 Hoo *yee 6 ov-dhi 7 won'der'erz 4 (dhi) 5 steps 3 geid, 
4 Str'eng'kthen with pai'shens dhem in dai'njer ! 

J Let 2 dhem 6 ov-dhi "tr'ei'el *(dhi) 5 fr'oots 3 see! 
6 Yet, -shal dhai too gr'arv goa-(if dhai must 

Soa-^in dhat kai'Si riwau-rd 4 ov-[dhi] 5 ver-teu 

!(dhi) 2 boald 3 koa rs, 10 

8 Tai'k dhem in eur dwel-ing-plai-s up! (tai'k up 

=risee'v). I 12 


5. In dhee z hoa'li haulz. 

Meu-zik bei Moazaa'rt. 

In dheez hoali haulz, 
2 2 Noa - z : wun [dhi] 4 ven*jens 3 not, 

And if (dhair) iz a man fau'ln, 
4 2 Lee - ds x luv 3 him in too-[dhi] deu-ti. 

Dhen 2 wau - ks J hee at (a)-fr'endz hand, 
6 R'ijoi'st and glad in too-dhi better land. 

In dheez hoa'li wau'lz, 

Whair man [dhi] man luvz, 

Kan noa tr'arter lour, 

Bikau-z J wun 3 dhi 4 en'imi 2 faurgivz. 

Hoom such dokir'inz not r'ijors, 

Dizer'vz not a man too bee. 



Sec. XV. 


6. Der Erlkonig. 

Gedicht von Goethe, Musik von Schubert. 

Wer reitet so spat durch Nacht und Wind ? 
2 Es ist der Vater mit seinem kind. 

Er hat den Knaben wohl in dem Arm, 
4 Er fasst ihn sicher, er halt ihn warm. 

" Mein Sohn, was birgstdu so bang deinGesicht?" | 
6 " Siehst. Vater, du den Erlkonig nicht ? 

" Den Erlenkonig mit Kron' und Schweif ? " I 
8 " Mein Sohn, es ist nur ein Nebelstreif." 

" Du liebes Kind komm, geh mit mir ! 
10 " Gar schbne Spiele spiel' ich mit dir ! 

" Manch' bunte Blumen sind an dern Strand. 
12 " Meine Mutter hat manch' gulden Gewand." 

" Mein Vater, mein Vater, und horest du nicht, 
14 " Was Erlenkonig mir leise verspricht ? " 

" Sey ruhig, bleibe ruhig, mein Kind ; 
16 " In diirren Blattern sauselt der Wind ! " 


6. Der JSr'l-keo'neeky'h. 

Gedeeky'h't faon Geo'tu, Moozee'k faon Shoo'ber't 
V'ai-r' r'aaytet zoa shpae't duor'ky'h Naakht 

uond V'eent ? 
2 Es eest der' Faaier' meet zaaynem Keent. 

Er' haat dai-n Knaa'ben v'oa'l een dai-m Aar'm, 
4 Er' faast een zeeky'lrer', er' helt een v'aar'm. 
"Maayn Zoa'n, v'aas beer'ky'hst doo zoa baang 

daayn Gezeeky'ht ? " 
6"Zee - st, Faaier', doo dai-n Er'1-keo'neegy'h 

neekyht ? 
"Dai-n Er'len-keo-neegy'h meet Kr'oa-n uont 

Shv'aayf ? " 
8 " Maayn Zoa - n, est eest noo'r' aayn Nai'bel- 


" Doo lee'bes Keent, kaom, gai meet mee r' ! 
10 " Gaar' sheo'nu Shpee'lu shpeel' eeky'h meet 

dee-r' ! 
" Maanky'h buoniu Bloo men zeend aan dai'm 

12 " Maaynu Muot'er' haat maanky'h guol'den 

" Maayn Faa'ter', maayn Faa'ter', uont heo'r'est 

doo neeky'ht, 
14" V'aas Er'-lenkeo'neegy'h mee'r' laayzu fer'- 

" Zaay r'oo'eeky'h, blaaybu r'oo'eeky'h, maayn 

16 " Een duer'-en Blet'er'n zorzelt der' V'eent! ' 


6. Dhi Er'lking-(k\n.g ov dhi au-lder gr'oa'v.) 
Poa'em bei Gai tu, meu'zik bei Shoo'bert. 

Hoo r'eidz soa lai't thr'oo neit and wind ? 
2 It iz dhi faa-dher widh hiz cheild. 

Hee haz dhi boi wel in dhi- (hiz) aarm, 
4 Hee hoa Idz him sarfli, hee hoa'ldz- (keeps) him 

"Mei sun, whei hei'dst dhou soa fr'ei'tend dhei 

6 " See-st, faa-dher, dhou dhi Er-lking not ? 

" Dhi Er Iking widh kroun and skaarf ? " 
8 " Mei sun, it iz oa-nli a fog-str'ip." 


" Dhou dee-r cheild, kum, goa widh mee ! 
10"Ver'-i beu'tifuol gai-mz -plai ei-(ei wil plai) 
widh dhee ! 

" Men-i kul'urd flourz aar on dhi str'and. 
12 " Mei mudh-er haz men-i (a) goa-lden r'oa-b."- 

"Mei faa-dher, mei faa-dher, andhee-rr'est dhou 

14 " What Er-lking too-mee in-loa-toa-nz pr'om-- 

isez ? " 

" Bee kwei-et, r'imai-n kwei-et, mei cheild, 
16 '* In dr'ei lee-vz r'us'lz dhi wind.' 









Der Erlkoniy Fortsetzung. 


Willst, feiner Knabe, du mit mir gehen, 
Meine Tochter sollen dich warten schb'n ; 
Meine Tochter fiihren den nachtlichen Reihn, 
Und wiegen undtanzen und singen dich ein." 

Mein Vater, mein Vater, und siehst du nicht 


Erlkonigs Tochter am diistern Ort ? " 

Mein Sohn, mein Sohn, ich seh' es genau, 

Es scheinen die alten Weiden so grau ! " 

Ich liebe dich, mich reitzt deine schone 

TTnd bist du nicht willig, so branch' ich 


Mein Vater, mein Vater, jetzt fasst er mich an ! 
Erlkb'nig hat mir ein Leids gethan ! " 

Dem Vater grauset's er reitet geschwind 
Er halt in Armen das achzende Kind, 
Er reicht den Hof mit Miihe und Noth 
In seinen Armen das Kind war todt ! 

Der Erl-keo-neekyh Faor't-zets'uong. 

" V'eelst, faayner' Knaa-bu, doo meet 

18 "Maaynu Toeky'h'ter' zaol'en deeky'h v'aar'-ten, 

sheo'n ; 
" Maaynu Toeky'lrter' fue-r'en darn neky'h't- 

leeky'hen R'aayn, 

20 " Uond v'ee-gy'hen uont taan-tsen uont zeeng-en 
deeky'h aayn.'' 

" Maayn Faa'ter', maayn Faa'ter', uond zee st 

doo neeky'ht daor't, 
22 " Er'1-keo'neeky'hs Toeky'h ter' aam dues'ter'n 

" Maayn Zoa*n, maayn Zoa'n, eeky'h zai es- 


24 " Es shaaynen dee aal'ten V'aayden zoa 
gr'aaw ! " 

"Eeky'h lee'bu deeky'h, meeky'h r'aaytst 

daaynu sheo'nu Geshtaal-t, 
26" Uond beest doo neeky'h v'eel'eeky'h, zoa 

br'aawkh eeky'h Gev'aaH '. ' 
" Maayn Faa'ter', maayn Faa-ter', yetst faast er' 

meeky'h aa-n ! 

28 " Er'1-keo'neeky h haat mee'r' aayn Laayts 
getaa-n! " 

Dai-m Faa'ter' gr'aawzet-s er r'aaytet ge- 

shv cent 

30 Er' helt een aar'nien daas eky'h'tsendu Keent 
Er' r'aaky'ht dai-n Hoa'f meet Mueu uondi 

32 Een zaaynen Aa/*men daas Keent v'aar' toa't! 


Dhi Er'lking Kuntin-euai'shen. 

" Wilt, fein-(jen-tlj boi, dhou widh mee goa, 
18 " Mei dau'terz shal dhee tend beu-tifuoli ; 

" Mei dau'terz (wil) lee'd dhi nei'tli daans, 
20 " And (wil) r'ok and daans and sing dhee in-(too 

" Mei faa dher, mei faa'dher, and seest dhou not 

22 "Erlkingz dau'terz at-dhi gloo-mi piai-s ?" 

" Mei sun, mei sun, ei see it per-fektli ; 
24 (i Dhair shein dhi oa-ld wil'oaz soa gr'ai ! " 

" Ei luv dhee, me atrak ts dhei beu-tifuol form, 
26 " And aart dhou not wil ing, soa- (in dhat kais) 

(wil) euz ei foa'rs ! " 
" Mei faa-dher, mei faa-dher, ! nou 3 see - zez 2 hee 

5 mee 4 on ! 

28 " Erlking -haz too mee a mis*cheef dun-(haz. 
kild mee) ! " 

(Too) - 3 dhi 4 faa dher 2 hor'-ifeiz- 1 it-(dhi faa-dher 

shud-er/) hee r'eidz swif-tli 
30 Heehoa - ldzin(hiz)aarmzdhi gT'oa-ningcheild 
Hee r'ee-chez dhi faarm-hous widh-lai'ber and 

nee'd-(pain and dif ikelti) 
32 In hiz aarmz dhi cheild woz ded ! 



Sec. XV. 


7. Der Wanderer. 

Musik von Schubert. 

Ich komme vom Gebirge her, 
i Es dampft das Thai, es braust das Meer. 

Ich wandle fort, bin wenig froh, 
t Und immer fragt der Seufzer wo ? 
Immer, wo ? 

> Die Sonne diinkt mich hier so kalt, 

Die Bliithe welk, das Leben alt, 
J Und was sio reden, leerer schall ! 

Ich bin ein Fremdling iiberall. 
10 Wo bist du ? mein geliebtes Land! 

Gesucht, geahnt, und nie gekannt ! 
12 Das Land, das Land so hoffnungsgriin, 

Das Land wo meine Rosen bluhn, 
14 Wo meine Freunde wandeln gehn, 

Wo meine Todten auferstehn, 
16 Das Land das meine Sprache spricht 

O Land ! wo bist du ? 

18 Ich wandle still, bin wenig froh, 
Und immer fragt der Seufzer, wo ? 

20 Immer, wo ? 

Im Geisterhauch tont's mir zuriick : 

22 " Dort wo du nicht bist. ist das Gliick ! " 

7. Der Vaan'derer. 

Moozee-k faon Shoo'ber't. 
Eeky'h kaonru faom Gebeer'-gv'hu harr', 
2 Es daampft daas Taa-1, es br'aawst daas Mai-r'. 
Eeky'h v'aan'dlu faor't, been v'arneeky'h fr'oa, 
4 Uond eenrer' fr'aa-kht der' Zorftser', v'oa? 
Eenver'. v'oa? 

6 Dee Zaon-u dueng-kt meeky'h hee-r' zoa kaalt, 

Dee Blue-tu v'elk, daas Lai-ben Salt, 
8 Uond v'aas zee r'ai den, lai'r'er' Shaal! 

Eeky'h been aayn Fr'enrdleeng ue'ber'aal. 
10 V'oa beest doo ? maayn gelee-ptes Laant ! 
Gezoo-kht, ge-aa-nt, uond nee gekaan-t ! 
12 Daas Laant, daas Laant, zoa haof-nuongz-gr'ue'n, 

Daas Laant v'oa maaynu R'oa'zen blue'n, 
14 V'oa maaynu Fr'orndu v'aan-deln gai'n, 

V'oa maaynu Toa-ten aawf-er'shtai-n, 
16 Daas Laant daas maaynu Shpr'aa'khu 

Oa Laant! v'oa beest doo ? 

18 Eeky'h v'aan-dlu shteel, been v'arneeky'h fr'oa, 
Uond eem'er' fr'aa'kht der' Zorftser', v'oa? 

20 Eenrer' v'oa ? 

Eem Gaayster'haawkh teo'nt-s mee'r' tsoo- 
ruek : 

22 "Daor't v'oa doo neeky'ht beest eest daas Gluek'!" 


7. DM Won-derer. 

Meu-zik bei Shoo'bert. 
Ei kum from-dhi mou'nten-land hidh'er, 
2 [Dhair] 3 vai - perz x dhi 2 val'i, [dhair] 3 roa'rz ! dhi 

2 see. 

Ei wau-k foarth, am -lit'l joi-us-(ver'-i sad), 
4 And ever aasks dhi sei, whair ? 
Ever, whair ? 

6 Dhi sun seemz-too mee heer soa koa'ld, 
Dhi bios uni fai ded, [dhi] leif oa-ld, 

8 And whot dhai spee-k, em ti sound ! 

Ei am a str'arnjer evr'i- whair'. 
10 Whair aart dhou ? mei biluv d kmrtr'i ! 
Saut, foarfel't, and never noa-n ! 

12 Dhi kun-tr'i, dhi kun'tr'i, soa hoa-p-gree-n- (soa 

gree-n widh hoa-p). 
Dhi kun-tr'i, whair inei r'oa-zez bloa, 
14 Whair mei fr'endz wau'king goa, 
Whair mei ded-wunz r'eiz-agarn, 
16 Dhi kun-tr'i dhat mei lang-gwej spee-ks 

Oa kun-tr'i! whair aart dhou ? 

18 Ei wau-k sei-lent, am lit'l joi us, 

And ever aasks dhi sei. whair ? 
20 Ever, whair ? 

-In-dhi goast-breth-'az if spoa-kn bei spir'-its) 

soundz-it too-mee bak : 
22 " Dhair whair dhou not aart, iz [dhi] hap-ines !" 

Sec X7. 



&. Adelaide. 


Musik von Beethoven. ! 

Einsam wandelt dein Freund im Friihlingsgarten, I 
2 Mild vom lieblichen Zauherlicht umflossen, 

Das durch wankende Bliithenzweige zittert, j 

4 Adelaide ! 

In der spieg elnden Fluth. im Schnee der Alpen, ; 
6 In des sinkenden Tages Goldgewolke, 

Im Gefilde der Sterne strahlt dein Bildniss I 

8 Adelaide ! 

Abendliiftchen im zarten Laube fliistern, 
10 Silberglockchen des Mays im Grase sauseln, 

Wellen rauschen und Nachtigallen floten, 
12 ' Adelaide ! 

Einst, Wunder ! entbliiht auf meinem Grabe, 
14 Eine Blume, der Asche meines Herzens ; 

Deutlich schimmert auf jedemPurpurblattchen, 
16 Adelaide ! 


8. Aadailaa-ee'dii 

Moozee-k faon Bart-hoa-fen. 

Aaynzaam v'aan-delt daayn Fr'oind eem 

Fr' ue -leengzgaa'r' ten, 
2 Meeld faom lee'bleeky'hen Tsaawber leeky'ht 

Daas door'ky'h v'aang'kendu Blue 'ten- tsv'aay - 

gy'hu tsit'er't, 
4 Aadailaa-ee'du 1 

Een der' shpee-gy'helnden Floo't, eem Shnai 

der' Aal-pen, [ku, 

6 Een des zeeng-kenden Taa-ghes Gaol'd-gev'oel'- 

Ee'm Gefeel'du der' Shter' nu shtr'aa'lt daayn 

8 Aadailaa-ee'du ! 

Aa-bendluef-tky'hen eem tsaar -ten Laawbu 

10 Zeel'bergloek-ky'hen des Maayz eem Graa-zu 


V'el en raawshen uond naak'teegaal'en fleo'ten, 
12 Aadailaa-ee-du ! 

Aaynst, oa V'uon'der' ! entblue't aawf maaynem 

14 Aay-nu Bloo'mu, der' Aaslru maaynes Her'-- 

tsens ; 
Dortleeky'h sheem-er't aawf yai'dem Poor'- 

16 Aadailaa-ee-du ! 


Meu-zik bei Bee't-hoa'ven. 

Sol-iter'i wau-ks dhei fr'end-(luver) in-dhi 

2 Jen'tli boi-dhi luvli maj'ik-leit surou'nded 

Which thr'oo nod'ing nour-br'aa nchez tr'emblz 
4 Ad ilaid ! 

In dhi mir'-ur'ing flud, in-dhi snoa ov-dhi Alps, 
6 x ln 4 ov-dhi 5 sing-king 6 dai 2 (dhi 3 goa - ld-kloudz 

In-dhi feeld ov-dhi staarz beemz dhei im-ej, 
S Ad-ilaid \ 

Ee'vning-lit'1-airz in-dhi ten-der foa'liej whis - 

10 -Sil-ver-lit-1 belz ov [dhi] Mai-(lil-iz ov dhi 

val'i) in-dhi gr'aas r'us-1, 
Wai'vz br'aul, and nei'tdnggailz peip, 

12 Ad-ilaid! 

Heerr'aa-fter, oa wurrder-(mir'akl), (wil - 

blos'um-up upon' mei gr'ai'v 
14 A flour, from) dhi ash-(ded-r'imarnz) ov mei 

haa'rt ; 
Klee-rli (wil) shein upon* evr'i per'pl-lit'1-leef, 

16 Ad-ilaid ! 



Sec. XV.. 


9. LebewohL 

Musik von Schubert. 

Schon naht, um uns zu scheiden, 
2 Der letzte Augenblick, 

In's Paradies der Freuden 
4 Kehr' ohne mich zuriick ! 

Der Tod kann Freiheit geben 
6 Hit milder Freundeshand ; 

Geh' ein zu neuem Lebeu 
8 In jenes bess're Land. 

Nicht lang' sind wir geschieden 
10 Bald werd' ich bei dir sein, 

Die kurze Frist hienieden 
12 Denk' ich in Liebe dein. 

Leb'wohl denn, bis der Morgen 
14 Des neuen Tags erscheint, 

Der, fern von Erdensorgen, 
16 Auf ewig uns vereint. 

9. Lai-buv'oa-l. 

Moozee-k faon Shoo'ber't. 

Shoa'n naa't, oom uons tsoo shaayden, 
2 Der' let'stu Aawghenbleek-, 

Een-s Paar'aadee-s der' Fr orden 
4 Karr' oa'nu meeky'h tsoor'uek- ! 

Der' Toa-t kaan Fr'aayhaayt gai'ben 
6 Meet meel'der' Fr'orndes-haan't ; 

Gai aayn tsoo nor em Lai -ben, 
8 Een yai-nes bes-r'u Laan-t. 

Neeky'ht laang zeend v'ee-r' geshee den, 
10 Baald v'er'd eeky'h baay deeV zaayn. 

Dee kuor' 'tsu Fr'eest hee-nee'den, 
12 Dengk eeky'h een Lee-bu daayn. 

Lai'bv'oa-1 den, bees der' Maor'-gy'hen 
14 Des noi'en Taa-khs er'shaaynt, 

Dai-r', fer'n faon Er'-denzaor'-gy'hen 
16 Aavvf ai-v'eegy'h uons fer'aay'nt. 


9. Fair'wel-. 

Meu-zik bei Shoo'bert. 

Aulr'edi aproa-chez, in-au-rder us too sep'ur'ait, 
2 Dhi laast moa-ment, 

In-too-dhi par'-adeis ov joiz 
4 R iter-n widhou't mee bak ! 

[Dhi] J deth 2 iz-ai'bl-too 4 fr'ee-dum 3 giv 
6 Widh jen-tl frendz-hand. 

Goa in, faur dhi neu leif , 
8 In-too dhat bet - er-land. 

Not long -aar wee-(shal wee bee) sep'ur'aitod, 
10 Soo'n shal ei widh dhee bee, 

Dhi shaurt in*tervel-ov-teim heer-biloa , 
12 -Thingk ei- ei shal thingk) in luv ov-dhne 

Fairwel* dhen, til dhi mau-rning 
14 Ov dhi neu dai apee'rz, 

Which, faar from erth-sor'oaz 
16 Faur ever us eunei'tR. 

Sec. XV. 





1. Diserto sulla Terra. 

Musica di Verdi. 

Diserto sulla terra 
2 Col rio destino in guerra 

E ( sola speme un cor 
4 Al Trovator. 

Ma s'ei quel cor possiede, 
6 Bello di casta fede, 

E' d'ogni re maggior 
8 II Trovator. 

2. II balen del suo sorriso. 

Musica di Verdi. 

II balen del suo sorriso 
2 D'una stella vince ii raggio ; 

11 fulgor del suo bel viso 
4 Novo infonde me corraggio. 

Ah! 1'amor, 1'amore onde ardo 
Le favelli in mio favor, 

Sperda il sole d'un suo sguardo 
La tempesta del mio cor. 



1. Deesaer^'toa sool'laa Taer'r'aa. 

Moo-zeekaa dee Vaer'-dee. 

Deesaer' -toa sooHaa Taer' -r'aa 
2 Koal r'ee-oo daistee-noa_een gwaer'-r'aa 

Ae soa'laa spae-mai_oon kao - r' 
4 Aal Troa-vaatoa-r'. 

Maa s-ai-ee kwail kao-r' poassyardai 
6 Baelioa dee kaas-taa fardai 

Ae d-oa-ny'ee r'ae- maad-jyoa-r' 
8 Eel Troa-vaatoaV. 

2 Eel baalai'n dail soo'oa soar 'r 'ee'zoa. 

Moo-zeekaa dee Vaer'-dee. 

Eel baalai-n dail soo-oa soar'-r'ee-zoa 
2 D-oo-naa stai'1-laa vee-n-chai_eel r'aa'd-jyoa; 

Eel foolgoa'r' dail soo oa bael vee-zoa 
4 Nao'voa^eenfoa-ndai mai koar'-r'aa - d-jyoa. 

Aa! 1- aamoa-r', 1- aamoa-r'ai_oa-ndai_aa-r'-doa, 
Lai faavael'lee een mee'oa faavoa-r', 

Spaer'-daa eel soa'lai d-oo-n soo-oa sgwaar'-doa 
Laa taimpaes-taa dail mee-oa kao'r'. 


l.Dizer-ted upon'-[dhi] Erth. 

Meu-sik bei Verdi. 
Dizer-ted upon'-[dhi] Erth, 
2 -Widh-[dhi] gil-ti-(kr'oo-el) fait in- at) waur 

- Conten-ding agai-nst kr'oo-el fai't) 
3 Iz 4 ^the) 5 oa - nli 6 hoa-p ! a 2 haart 
4 Too-dhi Tr'oo'baadoo-r. 

But if-hee dhat haart pozes-ez, 
6 Beirtifuol widh chai-st farth, 

3 Iz 5 dhan- 6 ever'i 7 king 4 gr'ai'ter 
8 l l)hi 2 Tr'oo - baadoo r. 

2. Dhi Lei-tning ov-[dhi] her Smeil. 

Meu-zik bei Ver-di. 
Dhi lei'tning ov-[dhi] her smeii 
2 4 0v 5 a 6 staar ^ong-kerz (serpaa-sez) 2 dhi 3 rai, 

Dhi br'ei'tnes ov-[dhi] her beu'tifuol fais 
4 2 Neu Unfeu'zez 4 (in;-mee 3 kur' - ej. 

Aa! 2 dhi 3 luv, dhi luv, whens- 4 (widh- which) *ei 

6 burn, 

6 8 (Too) 9 her Jmai-'speek 10 in n mei 12 fai-ver, 
'-Mai^disper-s 2 dhi 3 sun 4 ov 5 wun [her] 6 luok 
8 8 Dhi 9 tem-pest 10 ov n mei 12 haart, 
-(Mai dhi sun ov wun ov her luoks 
Dispers dhi tern-pest ov mei haart). 



Sec. XV. 

3. Stride la Vampa. 

Musica di Verdi. 
Stride la vampa 
2 La folia indomita 
Corre a quel foco 
4 Lieta in sembianza. 

IJrli di gioja 
6 Intorno eccheggiano, 

Cinta di sgherri 
8 Donna s'avanza. 

Sinistra splende 
10 Sui volti orribili 

La tetra fiamma 
12 Che s'alza al ciel. 

Stride la vampa, 
14 Giunge la vittima, 

Nero vestita, 
16 Discinta e scalza. 

Grido feroce 
18 Di morte levasi, 

L'eco il repete 
20 Di balza in balza. 

Sinistra splende 
22 Sui volti orribili 

La tetra fiamma 
24 Che s'alza al ciel. 


3. Str'ee'dai laa Vaam'paa, 

Moo'zeekaa dee Vaer' 
Str'ee'dai laa vaanrpaa 
2 Laa faoHaa eendao-meetaa 
Koar'-r'ai^aa kwail fao'koa 
4 Lyae-taa^een saimbyaan tsaa. 

Oor'-lee dee jyao-yaa 
6 Eentoar'-noa_aik-kaid jyaanoa, 

Cheen-taa dee zgair'-r'ee 
8 Daon'naa s- aavaan'tsaa. 

Seenee'str'aa splaen-dai 
10 Soo'ee voal'tee_oar'r'ee'beelee 

Laa tae'tr'aa fyaaui'maa 
12 Kai s- aal'tsaa^aal chyaei. 

Str'ee'dai laa vaanrpaa 
14 Joon-jai laa veet'teemaa, 

Nai'r'oa vaistee'taa, 
16 Deesheen-taa_ai skaal'tsaa. 

Gr'ee-doa fairoa'chai 
18 Dee maor''tai lae'vaasee, 

L-ae'koa_eel reepae-tai 
20 Dee baaKsaa een baal'tsaa. 

Seenee'str'aa splaen-dai 
22 Soo - ee voal'tai_oar'r'ee-beelee 

Laa tae'tr'aa fyaanvmaa 
24 Kai s-aal -tsaa_aal chyae'l. 


3. Krak'lz dhi Flai'm. 

Meu'zik bei Verdi. 
Kr'ak Iz dhi flai'm, 
2 Dhi kr'oud untai md- (ruf , roo'd' 

R'unz too dhat feir 
t Glad in apee'rr'ens. 

Shouts ov joi 
6 Ar'ou-nd ek'oa, 

Sur'oun-ded bei gaardz 
8 (A.) lai'di 2 [herself] ^dvaan-sez. 

Il-oa'mend sheinz 
10 On-dhi kou-ntenensez hor''ibl 

Dhi hid'yus flai-m 
12 Which 2 itself l r'ai-zez too-[dhi] hern. 

Krak'lz dhi flai-m, 
14 Ar'ei'vz dhi vik tim, 

-Blackly kloa'dhd-(dr'est in blak) 
16 Unger't and shoo'les. 

Kr'ei feer'oa-shus 
18 Ov deth r'ai'zez- itself, 

Dhi- ek-oa 2 it Vipee'ts 
20 Fr'om r'ok too r'ok. 

II oa'mend sheinz 
22 On dhi kou'ntenensez hor''ibl 

Dhi hid -y us flai'm 
24 Which 2 itseH Varzez too- [dhi] hevn. 

Sec. XV. 




4. Soave Imagine. 

Musica di Mercadante 

Soave imagine 
2 D'arnor, di pace, 

Tu spiri all' anima 
4 Dolce vigor. 

Se tal delizia 
6 M'invidi, o Cielo, 

E' troppo barbaro 
8 II tuo rigor. 

5. Lascia cliin pianga. 

Musica di Handel. 
Armida dispietata 
2 Colla forza d'abisso, 

Rapimmi al caro ciel 
4 De' miei contenti. 

E qui con duolo eterno 
6 Viva mi tiene. 

In tormento inferno. 
8 Signor, deh per pieta, 

Laseiami piaugere. 
10 Lascia ch' io pianga 

La dura sorte, 
12 E che sospiri 

La liberta. 
14 II duol infranga 

Queste ritorte 

16 De' miei martiri 

Sol per pieta. 


4. Soa-aa'vai Eemaa'jeenai. 

Moo zeekaa di Maer'kaadaan'tai. 

Soa-aa- vai_eemaa- j eenai 
2 D- aamoa-r', dee paa-chai, 

Too spee-r'ee^aall aa-iieemaa 
4 Doa'lchai veegoa-r'. 

Sai taal dailee-tsee-aa 
6 M- eenvee - dee,_oa chyaeHoa, 

Ae traop-poa baa-rbaar'oa 
8 Eel too-oa reegoa-r'. 

5. Laa'shyaa k-ee'oa pyaan'gaa. 

Moo-zeekaa dee Haerrdel 
Aar'mee-daa dee-spyaitaa'taa 
2 Koal-laa faor' tsaa d- aabees-soa 

Raapeem-mee_aal kaa*roa chyae'l 
4 Dai myai'ee koantaen'tee. 

Ai kwee koan dwao'loa_aitaer' - noa 
6 Vee'vaa mee tyae-nai, 

Een toar'main-toa^eenfaer' noa. 
8 Seeny'oa r', dae! paer' pyaitaa, 

Laa'shyaamee pyaan'jairai. 
10 Laa-shyaa k- ee oa pyaang-gaa 

Laa doo-r'aa saor -tai, 
12 Ai kai soaspee - -r'ee 

Laa leebaer'taa'. 
14 Eel dwaol eenfr'aan-gaa 

Kwai-stai r'eetaor'-tai 
16 Dai myai'^e maar'tee-r'ee 
Soal paer' pyaitaa*. 

4. Sweet Im'ej. 

Meu-zik bei Merkadan-ti. 
Sweet im-ej 
2 Ov luv, ov pee-s, 

Dhou br'ee-dhest too-dhi soa'l 
4 Swee't vig - er. 

J If 5 such Milei-t 

6 4 Mee 3 en-viest- 2 dhou, Oa hevn, 
3 Iz 4 too 5 baa 4 rbur'us 

8 [Dhi] 

r'g er. 

5. A.IOIC dhat ei mai-wee'p. 

Meu-zik bei Han-dl. 
Aarmee-daa pit'iles 
2 Widh-dhi foars ov abis- (hel) 

Kar'id-mee of-foa - rsibli from-dhi deer hevn 
4 Ov mei konten-ts (hap-ines). 


And heer widh disee-t iter-nel 
6 Alei-v mee keeps, 

In tau-rment infer-nel. 
8 Ser, alas ! faur pit'i 

Alou mee too-wee-p. 

10 Alou- dhat ei mai-wee-p 
Dhi- (mei) haa-rd lot, 

12 And dhat (ei mai-sei-faur 
[Dhi] lib-erti. 

14 (Mai) [dhi] disee-t br'aik 

Dheez bondz 
16 Ov mei suf-ur'ingz 

Oa-nli faur pit'i- 



Sec. XV. 


6. Non piu Andrai. 

Musica di Mozart. 

Non piii andrai, farfallone amoroso, 
2 Notte e giorno d'intorno girando, 

Delle belle turbando il riposo, 
4 Narcisetto, Adoncino d'amor. 

Non piu avrai questi bei pennachini, 
6 Q,uel cappello leggero e galante, 

Quella chioma, quell' aria brillante, 
8 Quel vermiglio, donnesco color. 

Tra guerrieri puoi far Bacco, 
10 Gran mustacchi, stretto sacco, 

Schioppo in spalla, sciabla al fianco, 
12 Collo dritto, muso franco, 

Un gran casco, o un gran turbante, 
14 Molto onor, poco contante. 

Ed in vece del fandango 
16 Una marcia per il fango, 

Per montagne, per vafioni, 
18 Con le nevi, e i sollioni, 

Al concerto di tromboni, 
20 Di bombarde, di cannoni, 

Chi le palle in tulli i tuoni 
22 A 1'orecchia fan fischiar. 

Cherubino, alia vittoria ! 
24 Alia gloria militar ! 




6. Noan pyoo aandr aa'ee, 

Moo-zeekaa dee Moa'tsaar't. 
Noan py oo_aandr' aa'se, f aar' f aal-loa -nai_aamoa - 
r'oa-zoa, [doa, 

Naot'tai_ai jyoa-r'noa d-eentoa-r'noa jeer'aan-- 
DaiHai baeHai toor'baan-doa^eel r'eepao'zoa 

Naar'cheesaet toa,_Aadoanchee-noad-aamoa-r'. 
Noan pyoo_aavr'aa-ee kwai'stee bae-ee pain- 
naakee-nee, [tai 

Kwail kaap-pael'loa laid-jae'r'oa_ai gaalaan*- 
Kwail'la kyao-maa, kwaiH- aa-r'yaa br'eel- 


Kwail vaer'mee-ly'oa,doannai - skoakoaloa-r'. 
Tr'aa gwair'-r'yae-ree pwao'ee t'aar' Baak-koa, 
10 Gr'aan moostaak'kee, str'ait'toa saak'koa, 

Skyaop'poa_een spaaHaa, sb.yaa-blaa_aal 

12 Kaol'loa dr'eet'toa, moo-zoa fr'aang-koa, 

Oongr'aankaas-koa,_ao_oongraantoor'baan t tai. 
14 Moa-ltoa_oanoa-r', pao-koa koantaa'ntai. 

Aid een vai'chai dail faandaang'goa, 
16 Oo'naa maar'-chyaa paer' eel faang-goa, 
Paer' moantaa-ny'ai, paer' vaal-loa-nee, 
18 Koan lai narvee,_ai_ee soal-leeoa - nee, 
Aal koanchaer' -toa dee tr'oamboa-nee, 
20 Dee boambaar'-dee, dee kaan-noa-nee, 
Kai lai paaHai_een toot-tee twao-nee 
22 Aa 1-oar'aik'kyoa faan feeskyaa'r'. 

Kair'oobee-noa. aal'laa veet-toa'-r'iaa ! 
24 Aal'laa gloa'-r'iaa meeleetaa-r'. 


6. No moar d/iou-wilt-goa. 

Meu-zik bei Moazaart. 

Noa moar dhou-wilt-goa, but-erflei anrur'us, 
2 Neit and dai [ov] ar'ou-nd ser-kling, 

4 0v-[dhi] 5 beu - tiz ^ister'bing 2 dhi 3 r'ipoa'z, 
4 Lit-1-Naarsis'us, lit'1-Adoa-nis ov luv. 

Noa moar dhou-wilt-hav dheez beuiif uol ploomz, 
6 Dhat hat leit and galaa-nt, 

Dhat hed-ov-hair, dhat air bril-yent, 
Dhat vermil-yen, lardi-leik-(efem-raet) 

Amung- wor'-ierz dhou-kanst maik-(plai-dhi- 
paart-ov) Bak-us, 

10 Gr'ai't moostaa-shoaz, teit bag (nap sak , 

Mus-ket on shoa'lder, sai-ber at-dhi seid. 
12 Nekstr'ait,fiz-(ridik-eulus werdfaur fai's) boald, 

A gr'ait hel'met, aur a gr'ait terben, 
14 Much on'er, lit'l r'edi-muni. 

And in plai-s ov-dhi fandang-goa- daans 
16 A maarch thr'oo dhi mud, 

Thr'oo mountenz, thr'oo laarj-vaHz, 
18 Widh-dhi snoaz, and dhi dog-daiz, 

Too-dhi kon-sert of tr'omboa-nz, 
20 Ov bum-berdz, ov kan-enz, 

Which dhi baulz in aul toanz 
22 3 Too 4 dhi 5 ear ^ai'k 2 his. 

Ker'oobee-noa, too-[dhi] vikiur'i ' 
Too-Tdhil 2 gloa-r-r'i 'mil'iter'i ! 

24 Too- [dhi] 2 gloa 




7. Non e ver ? 

Musica di Tito Mattel. 

Non e ver P 
2 Quando assiso a te vicin 

Ti parlai, ben mio, d'amor, 
4 Ti ricordi, angel divin, 

Palpitaro i nostri cor. 
6 Ah ! No, non e ver ! No, nd. 

No, none ver! Ah! 
8 Tu dicesti, ti sovvieu ? 

" Per la vita io t'amero ! " 
10 Ma mentisti, indegna, appien, 
Non fu il cor che tel detto. 
12 Ah ! N6, non e ver ! No, no ! 


7. Noan ae vai-r ? 
Moo-zeekao dee Tee-toa Maat-tae g ee. 

Noan ae varr ? 
Kwaan-doa aas-see-soa_aa tai veechee-n 

Tee paar'laa-ee, baen mee-oa, d- aamoa-r', 
Tee reekaor'-dee, aan-jel deevee-n, 
Paalpeetaa-roa^ee naos-tr'ee kao'r' ? 
Aa ! nao, noan ae vai-r' ! Nao, nao ! 

Nao, noan ae vai'r' ! A a ! 
8 Too deechai-stee, tee soav-vyae-n ? 

" Paer' laa vee-taa_ee-oa t- aamairao- ! " 
10 Maa maintee-stee,_eendai-ny'aa,_aap-pyae-n, 

Noan foo^eel kaor' kai tail dait-tao-. 
12 Aa ! nao, naon ae varr' ! Nao, nao. 

8. Pur dicesti. 

Musica di Antonio Lotti. 

Pur dicesti, bocca bella ! 
Quel soave e caro " si ! " 

Che fa tutto il mio piacer. 
Per onor di sua facella 
Con un bacio Amor t'apri, 

Dolce fonte del goder. 

8. Poor' deechai-stee. 
Moo'zeekaa dee Aantao'nee-oa Laot'tee. 

Poor' deechai-stee,_oa boak-kaa baeMaa ! 
Kwail soa-aa-vai_ai kaa-r'oa " see ! " 

Kai faa toot'toa eel mee-oa pyaachai-r'. 
Paer' oanoa'r' dee soo^aa faachael'laa 
Koan oon baa'chyoa_Aamoa r' t- aapree*, 

Doa'lchai foa'ntai dael goadai r'. 


7. Not iz-fit) tr'oo? 

Meu-zik bei Tee-toa Mataree. 

Notiz (it) tr'oo? 
"When see-ted too dhee neer 

(To) dhee (ei)-spoa-k, 2 guod-(deer) ^ei, ov 
luv; [divei-n, 

-Dhee r'imeindest-(dust dhour'ekolek't), ai-niel 
3 Pal-pitated [dhi] ^ur 2 haarts ? 

Aa ! noa, not iz-(it) tr'oo ! Noa, noa. 

Noa, not iz-(it) troo ! Aa ! 
8 Dhou sai'dest, dhee dust-dhou-r'imei-nd-(dust 

dhou rimenvber) ? 
"Thr'oo [dhi] leif ei dhee wil-luv!" 

10 But dhou-didst-lei, unwerdhi wun, toa-teli, 
Not woz dhi haart dhaat too-dhee-it sed ! 
12 Aa ! no, not iz-(it) tr'oo ! Noa, noa. 

8. Never-dhi-les dhou- sai'dest. 

Meu-zik bei Antoa-nio Lot'i 

Never-dhi-les dhou-sai'dest, Oa mouth beirti- 

2 Dhat swee-t and dee-r " yes ! " 

Which mai-ks aul [dhi] mei plezh-er. 
4 Faur on-er ov hiz feir, 

Widh a kis Luv 2 dhee J oa-pend 
6 Swee-t fou-nten ov dilei't ! 



Sec. XV. 


9. Possenti Numi. 

Musica di Mozart. 
Possenti Numi, Iside, Osiri, 
2 Date a que'petti senno^e valor ! 

I vostri lumi la coppia miri 
4 E non 1'alletti ombra d' error ! 

Del bei sentier giunga alia meta, 
6 se a lei fier destin lo vieta, 

Numi, o date degna merce 
8 Delia virtude lor e fe. 

10. Qui sdegne non s'accende. 

Musica di Mozart. 
Qui sdegno non s'accende 
2 E soggiornar non sa, 

La colpa non offende, 
4 Trova Terror pi eta ! 

Fraterno amor unisce i cor, 
6 In pace i di passiam cosi. 

L'inganno.qui non ride 
8 Nel mascherare il ver : ' 

Fra noi ciascun divide 
10 L'affanno ed il piacer. 

In pace i di passiam cosi. 
12 Finche si vien d'Osiri in sen. 

9. Poas-saen'tai Noo'mee. 

Moo-zeekaa dee Moa-tsaar't. 
Poas-saen-tai Noo-mee,_Ee-seedai,_Oasee-r'ee, 
2 Daa-tai_aa kwai paet-tee sai-nnoa_ai vaaloa-r ! 

Ee vaos-tr'ee loo-mee la kaop'pyaa mee-r'ee 
4 Ai noan 1- aal-laet'tee^.oa - mbr'aa d-air'r'oa-r' ! 

Dail bael saintyae-r' joong-gaa_aaHaa mae'taa, 
6 Ao sai__aa lae-ee fyae-r daistee-n loa vyae-taa, 

Noo'mee, oa daa'tai dai-ny'aa mair'char 
8 DaiHaa veer'too'dai lao r' ai fai. 

10. Kwee zdai'ny'oa noan s- aat-chaen'dal. 

Moo'zeekaa dee Moa'tsaar't. 
Kwee zdai ny'oa noan s- aat-chaen'dai 
2 Ai soad-joar'naa-r noan saa, 
Laa koal-paa noan oaf -faen dai, 
4 Trao'vaa 1- air'r'oa-r pyaitaa- ! 

Fraataer''noa^,aamoaT' oonee*shai_ee kao*r', 
6 Een paa-chai_ee dee paas-syaa-m koasee-. 

L- eengaan-noa kwee noan ree'dai 
8 Nail maaskairaa-rai_eel vai-r' : 

Fraa noa'ee chyaaskoo'n deevee'dai 
10 L- affaan-iioa_aid eel pyaacharr'. 

Een paa'chai^ee dee paas-syaa'm koasee', 
12 Feenkhai- see vyae-n d- Oasee-r"ee_een sai-n. 


[See Jermen Songz, n. 4, p. 219.] 
9. Pou-rfuol Dee-itiz. 

M^u-zik bei Moazaa*rt. 
Pou'rfuol Dee'itiz, Ei-sis, Oasei'rr'is, 
2 Giv too dhoaz br'ests sens and kur' -ej. 

[Dhi] 5 eur 6 leits 2 dhi 3 kup-l 1 mai- 4 see, 
4 : And 7 not 9 it 2 mai 8 aleu-r 3 (dhi) 4 shad-oa 5 ov 
6 er'er ! 

Ov-dhi beu tifuol paath mai-it-r'eecb. too-dhi 

goal- (end), 
6 Aur Hf 6 too 7 it-(dhi pair) 2 fee-rs 3 fai't 5 it-(diris) 

4 faurbid-z, 

Dee-itiz, oa giv wer-dhi r'iwau-rd 
8 ^v-dhi 3 ver-teu 2 dhair and fai'th. 


[See Jer'men Kongz, n. 5, p. 219.] 
10. Hee'r ang'ger 2 not "^itself l inflai'mz. 

Meu-zik bei Moazaa'rt. 
Hee-r ang-ger 2 not 3 itsel-f J inflai mz, 
2 And too dwel not noaz-(kan-ot dwel), 

[Dhi] fault- (sin) not ofen-dz, 
4 2 Feindz [dhi] 'er-er 2 pit'i ! 

Fr'ater-nel luv eunei ts dhi haarts, 
6 In pee's dhi- v our) dai-z wee-paa-s dhus. 

-[Dhi] disee-t 3 heer 2 not Uaa-fs 
8 In-dhi maa-sking-ov dhi tr'ooth- (disee-t moks 

men not hee - r bei konsee-ling tr'ooth) 
Amung- us eech-wun, shai rz 
10 [Dhi] sor-oa and [dhi] joi. 

In pees dhi darz wee-paa-s dhus, 
12 Until --itsel'f kumz-(wun kumz) ov Oasei-rr'is 
in'too buoz'em. 

Sec. X7. 



ll.Stabat Mater. 

Rossmius cantum invenit. 

Stabat Mater dolorosa 

Juxta crucem lacrymosa 
3 Dum pendebat Filius. 

Cujus animam gementem, 

Contristantem et dolentem 
6 Pertransivit gladius. 

quam tristis et afflicta 
Fuit ilia benedicta 
9 Mater Uunigeniti. 

Quae moerebat et dolebat, 
Et tremebat cum videbat 
12 Nati poenas inclyti. 

Quis est homo qui non fleret, 

Christ! Matrem si videret 
15 In tantS supplicio ? 

Quis non posset contristari 

Piam Matrem contemplari 
18 Dolentem cum Filio ? 

Pro peccatis suae gentis 

Vidit Jesum in tormentls, 
21 Et flagellis subditum. 

Vidit suum dulcem Natuin 

Morientem desolatum 
24 Dum emisit splritnm. 



11. Staa'baat Mda'taer 1 . 
Raossee-nioos kaan-toom eenvae'neet. 

Staa'baat Maa-taer' dao'laor'ao'saa 
Yooks-taa kr'oo'chaem laa-kr'eemao'saa, 

3 Doom paendae'baat Feeleeoos. 
Koo'yoos aa-neemaam jaemaen-taem 
Kaon-tr'eestaan-taem aet daolaen'taem 

6 Paer'tr'aansee-veet glaa-dioos. 

Ao! kwaam tr'ees'tees aet aaffleek'taa 
Foo'eet eel-la bae-naedeek'taa 
9 Maa-taer' Oo neejae-neetee, 
Kwae maer'ae-baat aet daolae-baat 
Aet tr'aemae'baat koom veedae-baat 
12 Naa-tee pae-naas eeng-kleetee. 

Kwees aest hao'mao kwee nao-n flae-r'aet 
Krees-tee Maa-tr'aem see veedae-r'aet 

15 Een taaniao soopplee'tseeao ? 

Kwees nao-n paos-saet kaon-tr'eestaa-r'ee 
Pee'aam Maa'tr'aem kaon'taemplaa-r'ee 

18 Daolaen-taem koom Fee-lee-ao? 

Prao- paekkaa-tees soo-ae jaen-tees 
Vee'deet Yae-soom een taor'maen'tees, 

21 Aet flaajael'lees soob'deetooni, 
Vee-deet soo-oom dool-ch^em N 
MaoT'ee-aen-taem dae-saolaa-toom, 

24 Doom aemee'seet spee-reetoom. 


11. _3 Woz-* standing ^(dh 
Rossee - ni 2 (dhi)- 3 voa-kel- 4 meu-zik ^nven'ted. 
3 Woz- 4 standing 1 (dhi)- 2 Mudh-er fuol-ov-gr'eef, 
Neer (dhi)-kros, fuol-ov-tee-rz, 
3 Wheilst 3 woz- 4 hang-ing 1 (her)- 2 Sun, 
2 Hoo-z-(dhi Mudherz) 3 soa-l 4 groa-ning 
5 Aflik-ting 6 and 7 gree-ving 
6 IO Haz-"paat- 1 throo 8 [a]- 9 soa-rd. 

Oa! hou sad and aflik'ted 
Woz that bles-ed 

9 Mudh-er ov-(dhi)-0a-iili-bigot'n, 
Hoo woz-moo-rning and woz-gr'ee-ving 
And woz-tr'em-bling when (shi)-woz-see-ing 
12 3 Ov- 4 (her)- 6 Sun Mhi- 2 pai-nz [ov]- s sel-ibraited. 

Hoo' iz (dhi)-man ^oo 3 not 2 wuod- 4 wee-p 
6 Kreists 6 Mudh-er Hf 2 (hi)- 3 shuod 4 see 

15 In soa-grai't pun-ishment- aflik-shen) ? 
a Hoo- 5 not 2 wuod- 3 bi- 4 ai-bl 6 too- 7 bee- 8 aflik'ted 
n (Dhi)- 12 pei'us 13 Mudh-er 9 too- 10 kon-templait- 
at kon-templai-ting), 

18 Gree-ving widh (her) -Sun ? 

Faur (dhi)-sinz ov-hiz pee pi 

(Shi)-sau' Jee-zus in tau'rments, 
21 And bei skerjez subdeu d, 

(Shi)-sau- her swee t Sun 

Dei -ing faursarkn 
24 Wheil (hi)-eemit-ed (hiz)-breth. 


Sec XV. 


Stabat Mater Supplementum. 

EEja, Mater, fons am5ris ! 

Me sentire vim dolSris 
27 Fac et tecum lugeam. 

Fac ut ardeat c5r meum, 

In amandd Christum Deum, 
30 Ut sibi complaceam. 

Sancta Mater, istud agas, 

Crucifix! fige plagas 
33 Cordi meo valide. 

Tu! Nat! vulnerati, 

Jam dignati pro me pat!, 
36 Poenas mecum divide. 

Fac me vere tecum flere, 

Crucifixo condolere, 
39 Donee ego vixero. 

Juxta crucem tecum stare 

Me libenter sociare 
42 In planctu desidero. 

VirgS, virginum praeclara, 
Mihi jam non sis amara 

45 Fac me tecum plangere. 

Fac ut portem Christ! Mortem, 
Passionis fac consortem, 

48 Et plagas recolere. 


Staa'baat Maa'taer 1 Soop'plaemaen room. 

Ae-yaa ! Maa-taer', faons aamao'r'ees ! 

Mae saentee-r'ae veem daolao-r'ees 
27 Faa'k, aet tae'koom loo jae-aam. 

Faa'k oot aa-r'dae-aat kao r ! mae oom 

Een aamaan-dao Kr'ees'toom Dae'oom 
30 Oot see-bee kaomplaa-chae-aam. 

Saangk-taa Maa'taer', ees-tood aa-gaas, 
Kr'oo'seefeek-see fee-jae plaa'gaas 

33 Kaor'dee mae-ao vaa-leedae. 
Too'ee Naa-tee vool-naer'aa-tee, 
Yaam deegnaa-tee pr'ao mae paa'tee, 

36 Pae-naas mae-koom dee-veedae. 

Faa'k mae vae-r'ae tae-koom flae'r'ae, 
Kr'oo-seefeek'sao kaon-daolae r'ae, 

39 Dao'naek ae'gao veek-saer'ao ; 

Yooks'taa kr'oo'chaem tae'koom staa'r'ae, 
Mae leebaen'taer sao'tsee-aa-r'ae 

42 Een plaangk-too daesee'daer'ao. 

Veer'-gao veer'-jeenom praeklaa-r'aa 
Mee-hee yaam nao - n sees aamaa'r'aa 

45 Faa'k mae tae'koom plaan jaer'ae, 

Faa'k oot paor''taem Krees'tee maor'*taem 
Paas'seeao'nees faa-k kaonsaor'-taem, 

48 Aet plaa'gaas r'aekao'laer'ae. 


8 Woz-^stdnding l (dhi] 2 Mudher Kuntin'euai'shen. 

Hoa' ! Mudh-er, fount ov-luv ! 

2 Mee too-fee 1 (dhi)-foa'rs ov-gree-f 
27 ^au-z, and widh-dhee- mai-ei-moorn. 

Kau-z dhat mai-bern 2 haa'rt ^ei 

In luv ing Kr'eist God, 
30 Dhat himself- (ei mai-pleez. 

Hoali Mudh-er, dhis doo-, 

5 0v- 6 (dhi> - 7 Kr oosifeid - 8 Wun 2 fiks 3 (dhi)- 

4 str'eips 

33 [Too]- n haa'rt 9 too- 10 mei ^ao-rsibli, 
6 0v- 7 dhei [ov] 9 Sun [ov]- 8 woo-nded, 
( 10 Hoo n haz) 12 aulr'ed-i 13 dai'nd 16 faur 17 mee 

14 too- 15 suf'er 
36 4 (Dhi)- 5 pai-nz 2 widh- 3 mee Miverd^shai-r). 

Kau-z mee tr'oo li widh-dhee too-wee'p, 
(Dhi)-Kr'oo-sifeid-Wun too-gr'ee-v widh, 

39 Az-long-az ei shal-liv ; 

Neer (dhi)-kros widh-dhee- too-stand, 
Mee wil-ingli (widh-dhee) too-asoa'shiait 

42 In lam'entai-shen (ei -dizei'r. 



8 Ver-jin 3 ov-ver-jinz 
4 Too- 5 mee 6 nou 2 not : bee 3 bit'er, 

Kau z mee widh-dhee too-lumen't, 
Kau-z dhat (ei)-mai-kar'-i Kr'eists deth, 
Ov-(hiz -pash-en kauz-(mee-too-be) asoa'shiet, 

And (hiz -str'eips too-kuHivait-unetr. 



Stabat Mater Supplementum. 

Fac me plagis vulnerari, 

Cruce hac inebriari 
51 Ob amorem Filii. 

Inflammatus et accensus 

Per te, Virgo, sim defensus 
54 In die judicii. 



Fac me cruce custodm, 
Morte Christ! praemuniri, 

Confoveri gratia. 
Q,uando corpus morietur, 
Fac ut anima donetur 

Paradisi gloria. 

A Am en ! 

In sempiterna saecula, 

Staa-bdat Maataer' Soop-plaemaen'toom. 

Faa*k mae plaa-jees vool-naer'aa'r'ee, 
Kr'oo'chae haa k eenae'br'eeaa'r'ee 

51 Aob aamao r'aem Fee-lee-ee. 

Een-flaammaa-toos aet aatchaen-soos, 
Paer' tae-, Veer'-gao, seem daefaen-sooa 

54 Een dee-ae yoodee-tsee-ee. 

Faa'k mae krocrchae koos-taodee'r'ee, 
Maor'-tae Kr'ees-tee prae-moonee-r'ee, 

57 Kaonfaovae'r'ee gr'aa'tseeaa. 

Kwaan-dao kaor'-poos mao'r'eeae'toor', 
Faa-k oot aa'neemaa daonae'toor 

60 Paa-r'aadee-see glao-r'eeaa. 

Aa-mae'n ! 

Een saenvpeetaer'-naa sae'koolaa, 
Aa-mae-n ! 


8 Woz-^standing l (dhi)-*Mudh-er Kuntin-euai-shen. 

Kau-z mee widh- hiz)-str'eips too-be-woo'nded, 

3 Kros 1 widh- 2 his too-be-inee'briaited 
51 On-ukou-nt-ov (dhi)-luv ov-(eur)-Sun. 

Inflarmd and set-on-feir, 

Bei dhee ? Verjin, mai-ei-bee difen'ded 
54 In (dhi)-dai ov-juj-ment. 



Kau-z mee bei-(dhi)-kros too-be-gaa'rded, 
Bei- dhi)-deth ov-Kr'eist too-bee-proatek ted, 

Too-bee-much-cherisht bei-gr'ai's. 
When (mei)-bodi shall -dei 
Kau'z dhat (mei)-soa*l mai-bee-prizen-ted 

4 0v- 5 par'-udeis I <f 

Ai-men- ! 

Lrtoo everlaasting ai'jiz, 
Ai men- ! 



(C. XV. 




1. Ou voulez-vous aller ? 

1. Oo voolai-vooz aalai ? 

Musique de Gounod. 

Muezeek deo Goonoa. 



Dites, la jeune belle, 
Ou voulez-vous aller? 
La voile ouvre son aile, 
La brise va souffler ! 


Deeteo, laa zhoeneo baebo, 
Oo voolai-vooz aalai ? 
Laa vwaal oovr'eo saon aeleo, 
Laa br'eezeo vaa sooflai ! 


L'aviron est d'ivoire 
Le pavilion de moire, 
.Le gouvernail d'or fin. 
J'ai pour lest une orange, 
Pour voile une aile d'ange, 
Pour mousse un seraphin. 


L-aaveeroan' ae d-eevwaarVo, 
Leo paaveeyoan' deo mwaar'eo, 
Leo goovaer'naaee d-aor' faen'. 
Zh-ai poor' laest uen oar'ahn'zheo, 
Poor' vwaal uen aeleo d-ahn zheo, 
Poor' moos oen' sair'aafaen'. 


Est-ce dans la Baltique f 
Sur la mer pacifique ? 
Dans 1'ile de Java ? 
Ou bien dans la Norwege, 
Cueillir la fleur de neige ? 
Ou la fleur d'angsoka ? 


Ae-seo dahn' laa Baalteekeo ? 
Suer' laa maer' paaseefeekeo ? 
Dahn' 1-eeko deo Zhaavaa ? 
Oo byaen' dahn' laa Naor'vaezhco, 
Koeyyeer' laa floer' deo naezheo ? 
Oo laa floer' d-ahn'saokaa ? 


" Menez-moi," dit la belle, 
'A' la rive fidele, 
" Ou Ton aimo tou jours." 
Cette rive, ma chere, 
On ne la connait guere, 
Au pays des amours. 


" Meonai-mwaa," dee laa baeleo, 
" Aa laa r'eeveo feedaeleo, 
" Oo 1-oan aimeo toozhoor'." 
Saeteo r'eeveo, maa shaerVo, 
Oan' neo laa kaonae gaerVo, 
Oa pai-ee daez aamoor'. 


1. Whidh-er wish-eu (too) goa ? 

Meu-zik bei Guon'oa. 

Sai, dhi-(mei) yung beu-ti, 
2 Whidh-er wish-yoo (too) goa ? 

Dhi saii oa-pnz its wing, 
4 Dhi br'ee-z iz-goa'ing (too) bloa. 

Dhi-oa-r iz ov-ei-vur'i, 
6 Dhi flag ov wau'terd silk, 

Dhi helm ] ov- 3 goald 2 peur. 
8 Eihav faur bal-est an or'-enj, 

Faur sail a wing ov-ai-njel, 
10 Faur kab'in-boi a ser'-af. 

Iz-it in-too dhi Bau-ltik ? 
12 Upon- dhi 2 see iPasif-ik ? 

In'too dhi-eil ov Jaa'vaa ? 
14 Aur wel-(else in-too [dhi] Nau rwai, 

(Too) gadh-er dhi flour ov snoa ? 
16 Aur dhi flour ov-Aashoa-kaa-(" Jonesia 
Asoka" Joanee zhia Asoa-ka, dhi fei 'nest 
flou-rr'ing shr'ub in India). 

"Tark-mee," sez dhi beu-ti, 
18 Too dhi 2 shoar ^aiihfuol, 

" Whair wun luvz au'lwaiz." 
20 Dhat shoa-r, mei deer, 

-Wun not it noaz haardli-(is skai-rsli noa-n) 
22 In-dhi kmrtr'i ov luvz. 

Sec. XV. 




2. Serenade (Berceuse). 
Poesie de Victor Hugo, musique de Gounod. 

Quand tu chantes bercee 
2 Le soir entre mes bras, 

Entends-tu ma pensee 
4 Qui te repond tout bas ? 

Ton doux chant me rappelle 
6 Les plus beaux de mes jours ; 

Ah ! chantez ma belle, 
8 Chantez, chantez, toujours. 

Quand tu ris, sur ta bouche 
10 L' amour s'epanouit, 

Et soudain le farouche 
12 Soupqon s'evanouit. 

Ah! lerirefidele 
14 Prouve un coeur sans detours ; 

Ah ! riez. ma belle, 
16 Riez, riez toujours. 

Quand tu dors calme et pure, 
18 Dans 1'ombre, sous mes yeux, 

Ton haleine murmure 
20 Des mots harmonieux ; 

Ton beau corps se revele 
22 Sans voile et sans atours, 

Ah ! dormez, ma belle, 
24 Dormez, dormez toujours. 


2. Snir'ainaad (Baer'soez). 

Poa-aizee deo Veektaor' Ue-goo, muezeek deo 


Kahn' tue shahn'teo baer'sai-eo 
2 Leo swaar ahn tr'eo mae braa, 

Ahn'tahn' tue maa pahn'sai-tfo 
4 Kee teo r'aipoan' too baa ? 

Toan' doo shahn' muo r'aapaeLw 
6 Lae plue boa deo mae zhoor' : 

Aa ! shahn'tai, maa baelew, 
8 Shahn'tai, shahn'tai toozhoor'. 

Kahn' tue r'ee, suer' taa boosht'o 
10 L-aamoor' s- aipaanoo-ee, 

Ai soodaen' leo faar'oosheo 
12 Soopsoan' s- aivaanoo-ee. 

Aa ! leo r'eer eo feedaeleo 
14 Proov oen' koer' sahn' daitoor' ; 

Aa! r'ee-ai, maa baebfl, 
16 R'ee-ai, r'ee-ai too-zhoor'. 

Kahn' tue daor' kaalm ai puereo 
18 Dahn' 1- oan'breo, soo inaez yeo, 

Taon aalaeneo maer'muerVo 
20 Dae moaz aar'maonieo ; 

Toan' boa kor' seo r'aivaeleo 
22 Saan' vwaal ai saan'z aatoor, 

Aa ! daor'mai, maa baeleo, 
24 Daor'mai, daor'mai toozhoor'. 


2. Ser'-inaid (R'oking Song, Lul-ubi). 
Poa-em bei Vik'ter Heugoa, meu-zik bei Guon'oa. 

When dhou sing-est, rokt 
2 (In) dhi ee - vning, bit wee TI mei aarmz, 

Hee-rr'est dhou mei thau't, 
4 Which (too) dhee r'iplei'z aul-(kweifi loa ? 

Dhei soft song (too) mee r'ikau'ls 
6 Dhi moa-st beu-tifuol ov mei daiz ; 

Aa ! sing, mei beu'ti, 
8 Sing, -sing for'-ever (goa on singling). 

When dhou laa'fest, upon- dhei mouth 
10 [Dhi] luv itsel'f ekspan-dz, 


And sud-enli [dhi] fee - rs 
Suspish-en [itself] van-ishes. 

Aa! [dhi] 2 laa-f 'farthfuol 
14 Pr'oo'vz a haart widhout weilz : 

Aa ! laa-f, mei beu'ti, 
16 Laa-f, -laa-f for' ever- (goa on laa-fing). 

When dhou slee'pest, kaam and peur, 
18 In dhi shaid, under mei erz, 

Dhei br'eth mermerz 
20 [Ov-dhi] 2 werdz ^aarmoa-nius ; 

Dhei beu-tifuol fig-eur 2 itsel-f ^'iveeiz 
22 Widhou-tkonsee-lment and widhout adau-ra. 

Aa ! sleep, my beu-ti, 
24 Sleep, -sleep for' ever- (goa on slee-ping). 



Sec. XV 


3 Robert ! toi que faime ! 
Poesie de Scribe, musique de Meyerbeer. 

Robert ! toi que j'aime 

2 Et qui re9us ma foi ; 
Tu vois mon effroi, 

4 Grace pour toi-meme 
Et grace pour moi ! 

6 Non, non, non, non. 

Grace pour moi, pour toi. 

3 Quoi ? ton coeur se degage 

Des sermens les plus doux ! 
10 Tu me rendis hommage, 

Je suis a tes genoux ! 
12 Grace pour toi-meme 

Et grace pour moi. 

14 Non, non, non, non. 

Grace pour toi, pour moi. 

16 mon bien supreme 

Toi que j'aime, 
18 Tu vois mon effroi, 

Grace pour toi-meme 
20 Et grace pour moi. 


3. Raobaer' ! twaa keo zh-aimeo ! 
Poa-aizee deo Skreeb, muezeek deo Maayerbarr' 


R'aobaer' ! twaa keo zh- aimeo, 

2 Ai kee r'eosue maa fwaa, 

Tue vwaa maon aef r' waa, 

4 Gr'aaseo poor twaa-maem^o 

Ai gr'aaseo poor' mwaa! 

Raobaer' . 
6 Noan', noan', noan', noan'. 

Gr'aaseo poor' mwaa, poor' twaa. 

8 Kwaa ? toan' koer' seo daigaazheo 
Dae saer'mahn' lae plue doo! 

10 Tue meo rahn'deez aomaazheo, 
Zheo siieeez aa tae zheonon ! 

12 Gr'aaseo poor' twaa-maemeo, 
Ai gr'aaseo poor' mwaa. 

Raob'ier . 
14 Noan', noan', noan', noan'. 

Gr'aasw poor' mwaa, poor twaa. 

16 Oa moan' byaen' suepr'aemw 

Twaa keo zh- aimeo, 
18 Tue vwaa maon aef r' waa, 

Gr'aastfo poor' twaa-maemeo 
20 Ai gr'aaseo poor' mwaa. 


3. Rob'ert ! dhou hoom ei Ittv ! 
Poa'em bei Skree'b, meu'zik bei Mei'erbair. 


Rob'ert ' dhou hoom ei luv, 
2 And hoo r isee-vd mei farth, 

Dhou see'est mei dr'ed, 
4 Paa'rden faur dhei-seH, 
And paa'rden faur mee ! 

6 Noa, noa, noa, noa. 

Faa'rden faur mee, faur dhee. 

8 Whot? dhei haart itsel'f disengai'jez 

From-dhi vouz dhi moast soft- luving) 
10 Dhou too-mee didst-ren-der hom-ej, 

Ei am at dhei nee - z. 
12 Paa'rden faur dhei-sel-f, 
And paa'rden faur mee' 


14 Noa, noa. noa, noa. 

Paa'rden faur mee, faur dhee 
16 Oa mei 2 guod ^eupree'm, 

Dhou hoom ei luv, 
18 Dhou see-est mei dr'ed, 

Paa'rden faur dhei-sel'f, 
20 And paa'rden faur mee. 

Sec. XV. 




4. La Manola. 

Musique de Paul Henrion. 

De 1'Aragon, de la Castille, 
2 Toi que Ton dit la plus "-entille, 

Accours vers nous sous ta mantille, 
4 Pourquoi tarder, O Juanetta! 

N'entends-tu pas les farandoles ? 
6 Les vives danses Espagnoles, 

Des Manolas jeunes et folles, 
8 Au loin chantant, dansant deja ? 

Allons, ma belle, allons, ma reine, 
10 Vite au prado, chacun est la, 

Pret a feter la souveraine 
12 De la Jota Aragonesa ! 

Ne sais-tu pas que la Murcie, 
14 Que Grenade et 1'Andalousie, 

Ont envoy e la plus jolie 
16 Des Manolas pour la Jota ? 

Allons, enfant, la nuit nous gagne, 
18 Deja Madrid est en campagne 

Pour voir danser la fleur d'Espagne, 
20 Qui ne vaut pas ma Juanetta ! 

Allons, ma belle, allons, ma reine, 
22 Vite au prado, chacun est la, 

Pret a feter la souveraine 
24 De la Jota Aragonesa ! 


4. Laa Maanaolaa (dhi Spanish werdz aar hecr 
proanou-nst az French werdz.) 

Muezeek deo Poal Ahn'ree-oan'. 
Deo 1- Aar'aagoan', deo laa Kaasteey^o, 
2 Twaa keo 1- oan' dee laa plue zhaan'teeyew, 

Aakoor' vaer' noo soo taa maan'teeyeo, 
4 Poor'kwaa taar'dai, oa Zhueaanaetaa. 

N-ahn'tahn' tue pah lae faar'aan'daoleo ? 
6 Lae veeveo dahn'seoz Aespaany'aoleo, 

Dae Maanaolaa, zhoeneoz ai faoleo, 
8 Oa Iwaen' shahn'tahn', dahn'sahn' daizhaa? 

Aaloan', maa bael; aaloan', maa r'aeneo, 
10 Veet oa pr'aadoa, shahkoen n ae laa, 

Pr'aet oa faitai laa sooveor'aeneo 
12 Deo laa zhoataa Aar'aagoanaezaa ! 

Neo sae-tue pah keo laa Muer'see-00 
14 Keo Gr'eonaad ai 1- Ahn'daaloozee-^o, 

Oan't ahn'vwaayyai laa plue zhaolee-eo 
16 Dae Maanaolaa poor laa Zhoataa ? 

Aaloanz, aan'faan', laa nue-eet noo gaany'eo, 
18 Daizhaa Maadr'ee aet aan' kaan'paany'eo, 

Poor' vwaar' dahn'sai laa floeur' d-Aespaany'* 
20 Kee neo voa pah maa Zhueaanaettaa ! 

Aaloan', maa bael; aaloan', maa r'aen^o, 
22 Veet oa pr'aadoa, shahkoen'n ae laa, 

Pr'aet oa faitai laa sooner aeneo 
24 Deo laa zhoataa Aaar'aagoanaezaa ! 


4. Dhi Maanao-laa (daa-nsing gerl--dhi Span-ish 
werdz aar heer restao-rd too dhair Spanish 
soundz, eksept when naimz ov plarsez, which 
hav dhair' Ing- glish soundz). 

Meu-zik bei Paul Hen'r'ien. 

Fr'om [dhi] Ar'-agen, fr'om [dhi] Kaastee'l, 
2 Dhou hoom [dhi] wun kau-lz dhi moast darnti, 
Run-too toardz us un-der dhei maantee'ly'aa- 

(huod , 

4 Whei dilai , Khwaanaet'taa 
Not-hee'rr'estdhou [at-aul] dhifaar'aan-doolaaz- 

(Span-ish kurn-puniz ov komee'dienz), 
6 Dhi lei-vli daansez Span-ish, 

Dhi Maanao'laaz, yung and mad, 
8 At dis'tens sing-ing, daan-sing aulr'ed'i? 
Kum-on, mei beu-ti ; kum-on, mei kwee-n, 
10 Kwik too-dhi pr'aa - doa-(publik gaar'denz), 
eech-wun iz